Note: Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.
Purchase Benefits
What is included with this book?
Foreword | p. ix |
Foreword | p. xi |
Preface | p. xiii |
Acknowledgments | p. xv |
Authors | p. xvii |
List of Acronyms | p. xix |
GIS Concepts and Operations | p. 1 |
What Is a GIS? | p. 1 |
What a GIS Is Not | p. 2 |
GIS Components and Functionalities | p. 3 |
Data | p. 5 |
Equipment | p. 6 |
Methods | p. 7 |
People | p. 7 |
Organization | p. 8 |
Basic GIS Operations | p. 9 |
Summary | p. 11 |
References | p. 12 |
GIS and Geographic Data | p. 15 |
Characteristics of Geographic Data | p. 15 |
Topological Relations | p. 17 |
GIS Models: Raster versus Vector | p. 19 |
Raster | p. 21 |
Vector | p. 22 |
Attribute | p. 22 |
Data for Spatial Epidemiological Studies | p. 23 |
Georeferencing Locational Information | p. 25 |
Geocoding Problems | p. 27 |
Choosing the Right Address | p. 29 |
Aggregating Geographic Data | p. 29 |
Units of Aggregation | p. 30 |
Data Aggregation Concerns | p. 30 |
Summary | p. 33 |
References | p. 33 |
Spatial Analysis Software and Methods | p. 35 |
Introduction | p. 35 |
Software | p. 35 |
CrimeStat | p. 36 |
GeoDa | p. 36 |
HealthMapper | p. 37 |
Summary | p. 38 |
Data Sets | p. 40 |
Spatial Analysis | p. 41 |
Age-Sex Standardization | p. 43 |
Disease Mapping | p. 44 |
Spatial Autocorrelation | p. 47 |
Geostatistical Analysis | p. 48 |
Summary | p. 49 |
References | p. 49 |
Point Pattern Methods of Disease Analysis | p. 51 |
Examining Point Patterns | p. 51 |
Elementary Analysis of Disease Data by Visualization | p. 53 |
Examining the SARS Data File | p. 53 |
Reading Point Data into GeoDa | p. 53 |
Adding a Base Map in GeoDa | p. 54 |
Linking Interactively the Map and Its Disease Attribute Table | p. 56 |
Displaying Disease Locations as Proportional Point Symbols | p. 56 |
Cluster Analysis: Nearest Neighbor Distance | p. 58 |
Setting Up a Workspace in CrimeStat | p. 58 |
Specifying Input Data | p. 58 |
Specifying Measurement Parameters and Computing NNI | p. 59 |
Examining Local Patterns | p. 61 |
Contextual Analysis | p. 63 |
Setting Up a Workspace in CrimeStat | p. 63 |
Specifying Input Data | p. 63 |
Specifying Measurement Parameters and Computing SDE | p. 64 |
Displaying SDE Using the HealthMapper | p. 64 |
Constraints and Limitations | p. 66 |
Summary | p. 69 |
References | p. 69 |
Areal Methods of Disease Analysis | p. 71 |
Areal Pattern Analysis | p. 71 |
Areal Mapping | p. 72 |
Disease Rates | p. 72 |
Rate Smoothing Techniques | p. 74 |
The Empirical Bayes Smoothing Method | p. 74 |
The Spatial Empirical Bayes Smoothing Method | p. 74 |
Constraints and Limitations of Choropleth Mapping | p. 79 |
Data Classification in Choropleth Maps | p. 79 |
Modifiable Areal Unit and Area Dependence Problems | p. 83 |
Spatial Dependence | p. 84 |
Measures of Spatial Autocorrelation | p. 85 |
Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis with GeoDa | p. 86 |
Examining the Dengue Data File | p. 86 |
Constructing Spatial Weights | p. 88 |
Examining Characteristics of Spatial Weights | p. 89 |
Constructing Spatially Lagged Variables | p. 89 |
Visualizing the Moran Scatterplot | p. 90 |
Assessing Statistical Significance of Moran's I | p. 91 |
Compiling Univariate LISA | p. 91 |
Summary | p. 92 |
References | p. 93 |
Interpolation and Associative Analysis | p. 95 |
Spatial Sampling and Interpolation | p. 95 |
Kernel Density Estimation | p. 96 |
Kernel Density Estimation of Asthma Occurrences in Hong Kong | p. 98 |
Setting Up a Workspace in CrimeStat | p. 98 |
Specifying Input Data | p. 98 |
Specifying Grid Reference | p. 98 |
Kernel Density Estimation | p. 100 |
Displaying Results of Kernel Density Estimation | p. 100 |
Constraints and Limitations of the Kernel Density Method | p. 102 |
Spatial Interpolation Methods | p. 103 |
IDW and Its Constraints | p. 104 |
Spline and Its Constraints | p. 104 |
Kriging (Ordinary or Universal) and Its Constraints | p. 105 |
Spatial Interpolation of Air Pollution Index (API) of Hong Kong | p. 106 |
Associate Analysis | p. 108 |
Application of Interpolated Surface in Associate Analysis: The Risk of Asthma Relative to API of Hong Kong | p. 109 |
Application of Socioeconomic Data in Associate Analysis: Risk of Asthma Relative to Monthly Household Income of the Population of Hong Kong | p. 112 |
Summary | p. 116 |
References | p. 117 |
Initiating a GIS Project in Spatial Epidemiology | p. 121 |
Introduction | p. 121 |
Setting Up a GIS Infrastructure | p. 122 |
Conceptualizing a GIS Project | p. 124 |
Determining the Focus of a GIS Development | p. 125 |
Conceptualizing a GIS Application | p. 125 |
Signs of an Unfeasible Project | p. 133 |
Summary | p. 136 |
References | p. 136 |
Current GIS Research in Health Care and Disease Analyses | p. 139 |
Geography of Health | p. 139 |
Health Outcomes and Epidemiological Studies | p. 140 |
Health Care Delivery Applications | p. 141 |
Health Care Commissioning and Needs Assessment | p. 142 |
Contagious versus Noncontagious Disease Analyses | p. 143 |
Short-Term versus Long-Term Surveillance and Disease Tracking | p. 145 |
Summary | p. 147 |
References | p. 148 |
List of GIS Software | p. 153 |
Data Description | p. 155 |
Data Preparation in Microsoft Excel | p. 163 |
Useful Web References | p. 167 |
Overviews and Guides to GIS | p. 167 |
Web-Based Tools for Public Health and Data Analysis | p. 167 |
Index | p. 169 |
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved. |