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The Speaker's Handbook With Infotrac (Book with CD-ROM)

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780534638801

ISBN10:
0534638805
Format:
Spiral Bound
Pub. Date:
3/26/2004
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing

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Summary

Part 1: FOUNDATION. Introduction 1. Understanding Speaking. 2. Listening. 3. Speaking Ethics. 4. Overcoming Fear of Speaking. Part 2: PREPARATION. Introduction. 5. Planning. 6. Topic Selection and Analysis. 7. Audience Analysis. 8. Research. Part 3: ORGANIZATION. Introduction. 9. Transforming Ideas into Speech Points. 10. Arranging Points. 11. Outlining. 12. Transitions. 13. Introductions. 14. Conclusions. Part 4: DEVELOPMENT. Introduction. 15. Supporting Materials. 16. Reasoning. 17. Language and Style. 18. Attention and Interest. 19. Credibility. 20. Motivational Appeals. 21. Informative Strategies. 22. Persuasive Strategies. 23. Adapting to Speaking Contexts. Part 5: PRESENTATION. Introduction. 24. Modes of Delivery. 25. Practice Sessions. 26. Vocal Delivery. 27. Physical Delivery. 28. Visual Aids. 29. Adapting to the Speech Situation. 30. Answering Questions.

Table of Contents

Preface xxvii
Part 1 Foundation 1(46)
Introduction
3(3)
1 Understanding Speaking
6(14)
a Understand what it means to be a speaker.
6(1)
b Ground your approach to effective public speaking in a meaning-centered view of communication.
7(2)
1 Do not confine your view of communication to information transmission and reception.
7(1)
2 Think of communication as the joint creation of meaning.
8(1)
c Approach public speaking by drawing on three familiar communicative resources.
9(5)
1 Draw on your conversation skills.
9(1)
2 Draw on your writing skills.
10(1)
3 Draw on your performance skills.
11(1)
4 Combine some features of these three communicative resources for an effective speech.
12(1)
5 Avoid relying exclusively or excessively on any one of these resources.
13(1)
d Understand the role of consciousness in skill learning.
14(2)
e Beware of common misconceptions about public speaking that may interfere with efficient mastery of the skill.
16(4)
1 Misconception 1: Good speakers are born, not made.
17(1)
2 Misconception 2: Good speaking should be easy right away.
17(1)
3 Misconception 3: Speaking will always be as difficult as it is when you are first learning it.
17(1)
4 Misconception 4: There are simple formulas for effective speaking.
18(2)
2 Listening
20(10)
a Recognize the relationship between effective speaking and listening.
20(1)
b Prepare to listen.
21(1)
1 Banish distractions and get physically set to listen.
21(1)
2 Stop talking.
21(1)
3 Decide on your purpose as a listener.
21(1)
c When listening as an audience member, be both curious and critical.
22(2)
1 Show respect for the speaker.
22(1)
2 Be open to the speaker's point of view.
22(1)
3 Consciously follow the structure of the speech.
23(1)
4 Critically assess the speaker's claims.
23(1)
5 At the designated time, ask questions.
23(1)
d When listening as a consultant to a speaker, use the principles of constructive feedback.
24(2)
1 Start with the positive.
24(1)
2 Make important comments first.
24(1)
3 Be specific.
24(1)
4 Give suggestions, not orders.
24(1)
5 Be realistic about the amount and kind of feedback a speaker can receive.
25(1)
6 Use the 90/10 principle.
25(1)
e When gathering information for your speech, listen to optimize your learning.
26(1)
1 Paraphrase.
26(1)
2 Ask follow-up questions for clarification.
26(1)
3 Take notes.
26(1)
f When conducting audience analysis, listen holistically.
27(1)
1 Listen at multiple levels.
27(1)
2 Listen between the lines.
27(1)
3 Listen to the silences.
27(1)
g Avoid common listening pitfalls.
28(2)
1 Daydreaming, doodling, and disengaging
28(1)
2 Allowing yourself to be distracted by superficial qualities of the speaker
28(1)
3 Uncritically accepting a message
28(1)
4 Prematurely or totally rejecting a message
28(1)
5 Planning your response or rebuttal to a speech instead of listening to it
28(1)
6 Failing to monitor your nonverbal behaviors as a listener
29(1)
3 Speaking Ethics
30(10)
a Be aware of the ethical implications of all human choices and the way these play out in public speaking.
31(1)
1 Recognize that every action has an ethical dimension.
31(1)
2 Recognize that ethical decisions are rarely clear-cut.
31(1)
3 Recognize that ethical decisions vary with context.
32(1)
b Respect the integrity of your own core values.
32(1)
c Respect the integrity of your audience.
32(1)
d Respect the integrity of ideas.
33(2)
1 Don't plagiarize.
33(1)
2 Don't lie.
34(1)
3 Don't oversimplify.
35(1)
e Understand that ethical decisions often involve weighing complex factors and competing goals.
35(5)
1 Balance the value of using language in a lively and forceful manner against the risk of causing pain and offense.
35(1)
2 Balance the importance of appealing to your audience at an emotional level against the risk of abusing emotional appeals.
35(1)
3 Balance the right to use compelling persuasive appeals against the obligation to avoid simplistic persuasive techniques.
36(4)
4 Overcoming Fear of Speaking
40(7)
a Put your fear of speaking into perspective.
40(3)
1 Accept some fear as normal.
40(1)
2 Analyze your fear as specifically as possible.
41(2)
b Build your confidence through thorough preparation and practice.
43(1)
c Cope with the physical effects of fear by using techniques of relaxation and tension release.
43(1)
d Use positive self-suggestion to combat your anxiety.
44(2)
1 Visualize success.
44(1)
2 Replace negative internal statements with positive ones.
45(1)
e If none of the preceding suggestions work, seek assistance beyond this book.
46(1)
Part 2 Preparation 47(64)
Introduction
49(1)
5 Planning
50(7)
a To design a unique message, allow time for the four phases of creativity.
50(1)
b Make a realistic timetable for your speech preparation.
51(3)
1 List the tasks you will need to complete to prepare the speech and estimate the time needed for each.
51(1)
2 Determine which tasks depend on the prior completion of other tasks.
52(1)
3 Set intermediate deadlines for the major stages of preparation and practice.
52(2)
c Make your speech preparation an oral and collaborative process.
54(1)
d To present a speech that achieves the flavor of enhanced conversation, focus on different resources at different phases of preparation.
55(1)
e Avoid these common planning pitfalls.
56(1)
1 No time for incubation
56(1)
2 No margin for error
56(1)
3 "Writer's" block
56(1)
4 "Speaker's" block
56(1)
6 Topic Selection and Analysis
57(18)
a Select a speech topic.
57(5)
1 Draw the topic from your own experience, expertise, and interests.
58(2)
2 Select a topic appropriate to the audience and occasion.
60(1)
3 Select a topic that is both timely and timeless.
60(2)
b Narrow your topic.
62(2)
1 Determine the number of ideas you can cover in the time allotted.
62(1)
2 Select a few main ideas based on thorough analysis of the audience, the occasion, and your own strengths as a speaker.
63(1)
c Clarify the purpose of your speech.
64(5)
1 Identify the general purpose of your speech.
64(1)
2 Determine the specific purpose of your speech.
65(1)
3 Specify the desired outcomes you seek from your listeners.
66(3)
d Develop a clear thesis statement to guide your analysis of the topic.
69(3)
1 Frame a thesis statement as a single declarative sentence that states the essence of your speech content.
69(1)
2 Analyze your topic by breaking your thesis statement into a list of questions to be answered.
70(2)
e If necessary, select a speech title.
72(3)
7 Audience Analysis
75(13)
a Develop an understanding of your audience by seeking information through as many channels as possible.
76(2)
1 Use direct observation.
76(1)
2 Do systematic data collection.
76(1)
3 Conduct selected interviews/focus groups.
77(1)
4 Talk with the contact person.
77(1)
5 Use intelligent inference and empathy.
77(1)
b Analyze the demographic characteristics of your audience as an aid to predicting their orientation.
78(5)
1 Age/generation
79(1)
2 Sex/gender
80(1)
3 Race/ethnicity
81(2)
c Try to understand what is meaningful to your audience.
83(1)
d Determine the audience's attitudes toward your topic.
84(1)
e Anticipate your audience's expectations by gathering details about the specific speech situation.
85(3)
1 What do they know about your topic?
85(1)
2 What do they think about you?
86(1)
3 What is the history of your audience as a group?
86(1)
4 What is the program surrounding your speech?
86(2)
8 Research
88(23)
a Have a research strategy.
88(3)
1 Fit your research to the time allotted.
89(1)
2 Approach your topic so that you progress from the general to the specific.
89(1)
3 Develop a lexicon of the terminology peculiar to your topic.
90(1)
4 Use your analysis questions to direct your research.
91(1)
b Use the library.
91(2)
1 Talk to a librarian.
92(1)
2 Use library resources to locate books and articles on your topic.
92(1)
c Use electronic information retrieval.
93(4)
1 Search effectively and efficiently.
95(2)
2 Carefully evaluate Internet sources.
97(1)
d Seek information directly from other people.
97(4)
1 Locate human resources.
98(2)
2 Conduct interviews.
100(1)
e Maintain a complete record of your sources, and know how to cite them.
101(5)
1 Citing sources for a List of References
101(1)
2 Citing sources in the speech itself
102(4)
f Capture the information and ideas in discrete units to facilitate retrieval and organization.
106(10)
1 Notecards from print and electronic sources
107(1)
2 Notecards from interviews and surveys
108(1)
3 Grouping your cards
109(2)
Part 3 Organization 111(66)
Introduction
113(3)
9 Transforming Ideas Into Speech Points
116(12)
a Assemble all the possible ideas and information that could go into your speech.
116(1)
b Use a variety of organizational tools to identify potential points and examine their relationships.
117(2)
1 Create a rudimentary, working outline.
117(1)
2 Use concept mapping.
118(1)
3 Manipulate movable components.
118(1)
c Choose main points that, taken together, correspond exactly to your thesis statement.
119(2)
d Select points that are mutually exclusive.
121(3)
e Have at least two, but not more than five, main points in the average speech.
124(1)
f Express main points and subpoints to reflect coordinate and subordinate relationships.
124(4)
1 Subordinate points and subpoints should fit inside, or support, a larger idea.
125(1)
2 Coordinate points and subpoints should be of equal importance.
126(1)
3 Each subpoint should directly relate to the point it supports.
126(2)
10 Arranging Points
128(9)
a Arrange main points in a pattern that arises inherently from the subject matter or from the requirements of the thesis statement.
129(4)
1 Use the chronological pattern to order ideas in a time sequence.
129(1)
2 Use the spatial pattern to arrange points by location.
129(1)
3 Use the cause-effect pattern to move from a discussion of the origins of a condition to the ways it manifests itself.
130(1)
4 Use the problem-solution pattern to examine the symptoms of a problem and then suggest a remedy.
131(1)
5 Use the topical pattern to divide a speech into elements that have no pattern exclusive of their relationship to the topic itself.
131(2)
b Group subpoints according to a pattern, but do not feel compelled to echo the pattern of the main points.
133(4)
11 Outlining
137(14)
a Use the conventional outline format.
138(3)
1 Follow a consistent set of symbols.
138(1)
2 Show the logical relationship of ideas through proper indentation.
139(1)
3 As a general rule, develop each level of subordination with two or more parts.
140(1)
4 Have each symbol designate one point only, and be sure every point has a symbol.
140(1)
b Use a full-sentence outline to ensure coherent development of your speech.
141(5)
c Phrase the main points of the outline in a way that directly forecasts the subpoints to be developed.
146(1)
d Phrase main points and subpoints in clear, effective, and parallel language.
147(4)
12 Transitions
151(4)
a Select transitions that reflect the logical relationships among ideas.
151(2)
b Make use of internal previews and summaries.
153(2)
13 Introductions
155(14)
a Project confidence and preparedness when the attention shifts to you.
155(1)
b Frame your opening sentences carefully to engage your audience's attention.
156(1)
c Provide a psychological orientation.
157(5)
1 Establish a good relationship with your audience.
158(2)
2 Motivate your audience toward your topic.
160(2)
d Provide a logical orientation.
162(4)
1 Establish a context for your speech.
162(3)
2 Orient the audience to your approach to the topic.
165(1)
e Make your introduction as compact as possible by combining or omitting steps when appropriate.
166(1)
f Avoid common introduction pitfalls.
167(2)
14 Conclusions
169(8)
a Provide logical closure.
169(2)
1 Summarize the main ideas of the speech.
169(1)
2 Reestablish the connection of your topic to a larger context.
170(1)
b Provide psychological closure.
171(2)
1 Remind the audience how the topic affects their lives.
171(1)
2 Make an appeal.
172(1)
c End your speech with a clincher.
173(2)
d Avoid common conclusion pitfalls.
175(2)
Part 4 Development 177(152)
Introduction
179(2)
15 Supporting Materials
181(19)
a Define unfamiliar words and concepts.
182(4)
1 Logical definition
182(1)
2 Etymological and historical definitions
183(1)
3 Operational definition
183(1)
4 Definition by negation or opposition
184(1)
5 Definition by authority
184(1)
6 Definition by example
185(1)
b Make frequent use of examples.
186(4)
1 Use factual examples to illustrate and document your points.
186(1)
2 Use hypothetical examples for clarification, speculation, and adaptation to the immediate situation.
187(1)
3 Determine the appropriate amount of detail to include in your examples.
188(2)
c Use statistical evidence to quantify, clarify, and prove your points.
190(4)
1 Check the accuracy of statistical evidence by applying the tests of who, why, when, and how.
190(1)
2 Avoid misleading statistics.
191(2)
3 Make your numbers and statistics clear and meaningful to your listeners.
193(1)
d Draw on testimony from authorities.
194(3)
1 Evaluate the credibility of the authorities you cite when you use testimony as proof.
195(1)
2 Take care, when editing quotations, to retain key points without distorting their meaning.
196(1)
e Weave supporting materials smoothly into the speech, and cite your sources.
197(3)
1 Cite the sources of your supporting materials.
198(1)
2 Use a variety of lead-ins for stylistic effectiveness.
198(2)
16 Reasoning
200(36)
a Identify each point in your preliminary speech outline where reasoning is needed to provide an essential link.
201(3)
1 Recognize that evidence does not necessarily lead to a certain claim.
202(1)
2 Recognize that, in linking evidence to claims, people look for patterns of regularity that fit with what they have observed in the world.
202(2)
b Use an inductive pattern of reasoning when your argument consists of combining a series of observations that lead to a probable conclusion.
204(4)
1 Look before you "leap": Be sure the instances on which you base your inferences are sufficient and representative.
205(1)
2 Recognize the degree of probability of your claim.
206(1)
3 Demonstrate the cost/reward analysis that led you to accept or reject the probable claim.
207(1)
c Use a deductive pattern of reasoning when your argument demonstrates how the relationships among established premises lead to a necessary conclusion.
208(7)
1 In a formal deductive syllogism,there are only two terms,and the major premise sets up an absolute relationship.
210(1)
2 When using a modified deductive form of reasoning, make it clear that probable premises can lead only to probable conclusions.
211(1)
3 As a general rule, explicitly lay out all the premises of a deductive argument.
212(3)
d Use causal reasoning to demonstrate that one event results from another.
215(5)
1 Test the validity of the causal relationships you claim.
215(2)
2 Do not oversimplify causal relationships.
217(1)
3 Explain your causal claims fully and fairly.
218(2)
e Use reasoning by analogy to draw conclusions about unknown events, based on what you know about similar events.
220(3)
1 Be sure that when you reason by analogy the two cases are similar in all relevant and important respects.
221(1)
2 Do not confuse a literal analogy, which is a form of reasoning, with a figurative analogy, which is used only in a descriptive function.
222(1)
f Avoid common reasoning fallacies.
223(5)
1 Attacking the person rather than the argument (ad hominem)
223(1)
2 Setting up a straw figure
223(1)
3 Extending an argument to absurd lengths (reductio ad absurdum)
224(1)
4 The slippery slope
224(1)
5 Circular reasoning
224(1)
6 The semantic fallacy
225(1)
7 False dichotomy
226(1)
8 Faulty reversal of an if-then statement (affirming the consequent or denying the antecedent)
226(1)
9 Hasty generalization
227(1)
10 Confusing sequence with cause (post hoc, ergo propter hoc)
227(1)
g Through organization and word choice, make it clear to your listeners exactly how your reasoning links your evidence to your claim.
228(8)
1 Organize points to show the logical relationships.
228(3)
2 Use words, phrases, and transitional sentences that spell out what your evidence means and how the parts of your argument are linked.
231(5)
17 Language and Style
236(17)
a Understand how oral style is different from written style.
237(2)
b Strive for clarity in your language.
239(3)
1 Be precise.
239(1)
2 Use specific and concrete language.
240(1)
3 Be economical in your language.
241(1)
c Use appropriate language.
242(4)
1 Adapt the formality of your language to the occasion.
243(1)
2 Be judicious in your use of jargon or slang.
243(1)
3 Avoid substandard usage.
244(1)
4 Use language that is respectful and inclusive.
245(1)
d Use vivid, varied language.
246(5)
1 Employ imagery.
246(1)
2 Use stylistic devices.
247(2)
3 Use fresh language.
249(1)
4 Vary the rhythm of your sentences.
250(1)
e Synchronize your language with that of your listeners.
251(2)
18 Attention and Interest
253(10)
a Engage your audience's attention by making extensive use of techniques that enliven your speech.
254(5)
1 Use materials that are concrete and close to home.
255(1)
2 Keep your audience involved.
256(2)
3 Keep the energy level of your speech up through variety and movement.
258(1)
4 Use humor in appropriate situations.
258(1)
b Convert attention to interest.
259(2)
1 Emphasize the link between your topic and the listeners' self-interest.
260(1)
2 Incorporate some of the techniques of effective storytelling.
260(1)
c Avoid common attention pitfalls.
261(2)
1 Avoid inappropriate stories, humor, and other attention "grabbers."
261(1)
2 Don't let a story or joke consume your entire speech.
262(1)
3 Do not tell jokes unless you have mastered the techniques of joke telling.
262(1)
4 Be careful that audience participation does not cause you to lose control.
262(1)
19 Credibility
263(7)
a Conduct an honest assessment of your speaking image.
264(1)
1 Are you perceived as competent?
264(1)
2 Are you perceived as concerned about your audience's welfare?
264(1)
3 Are you perceived as trustworthy?
264(1)
4 Are you perceived as dynamic?
265(1)
b Build your credibility prior to your speech.
265(1)
1 Provide the contact person with adequate information about your qualifications.
265(1)
2 Help the person introducing you to set a favorable tone.
266(1)
3 Be aware of your image in all dealings with the group prior to the speech.
266(1)
c Bolster your credibility through your speech content.
266(3)
1 Present your credentials.
266(1)
2 Demonstrate a thorough understanding of your topic.
267(1)
3 Be sure your material is clearly organized.
267(1)
4 Make a special effort to present a balanced and objective analysis.
268(1)
5 Explicitly express your concern and goodwill toward the audience.
268(1)
d Use your speech delivery to increase your credibility.
269(1)
20 Motivational Appeals
270(11)
a When developing the content of your speech, be conscious of the emotional impact you want to create or avoid.
270(1)
b Relate your speech to the needs of your listeners.
271(2)
c Relate your speech to the values of your listeners.
273(6)
1 Incorporate appeals to the general values of the culture.
274(1)
2 Identify and relate to the core values of your audience.
275(2)
3 Forge strong, logical links between the issues of your speech and the values of the audience.
277(1)
4 Use motivational appeals to broaden your listeners' sense of history and community.
278(1)
d Avoid excessive and inappropriate use of motivational appeals.
279(2)
21 Informative Strategies
281(6)
a Base your speech on an understanding of how people acquire, process, and retain information.
282(1)
1 Avoid information overload.
282(1)
2 Give listeners a framework for organizing the information.
282(1)
3 Move from the simple to the complex.
282(1)
4 Move from the familiar to the unfamiliar.
282(1)
b Adhere to common principles of clear explanation.
283(4)
1 Use organizers.
283(1)
2 Use emphasis cues.
284(1)
3 Use examples liberally.
284(1)
4 Use analogies.
285(1)
5 Use multiple channels and modes.
286(1)
6 Use repetition and redundancy.
286(1)
22 Persuasive Strategies
287(19)
a Clarify the goals of your persuasion.
288(1)
b Base your persuasive efforts on sound analysis.
289(4)
1 Identify whether your persuasive goal requires you to establish a proposition of fact, of value, or of policy.
290(2)
2 Use stock issues, when possible, to help you analyze your topic.
292(1)
c Adjust your speech content in light of your audience's attitude toward your topic and you.
293(7)
1 Favorable audience
294(3)
2 Neutral audience
297(1)
3 Unfavorable audience
298(2)
d Organize your points for optimal persuasive impact.
300(3)
1 Use the motivated sequence to engage your audience.
301(2)
2 Compare the advantages of two alternative proposals as a way of organizing your speech.
303(1)
e As a general rule, place your strongest points first or last.
303(1)
f In addition to presenting your own viewpoints, consider dealing with opposing arguments.
303(3)
1 Address the opposing arguments directly, using refutation techniques.
304(1)
2 In most cases, answer counterarguments after developing your own position.
305(1)
23 Adapting to Speaking Contexts
306(23)
a Learn all you can about the contexts in which you will speak: general expectations, specific formats, and unspoken norms for speakers and listeners.
306(4)
b Become familiar with the workplace context.
310(7)
1 Follow common guidelines for an employment interview and similar workplace interactions.
310(4)
2 Follow common guidelines for designing and delivering a team presentation.
314(3)
c Become familiar with the civic and political context.
317(4)
1 When participating in a symposium, panel, forum, or debate, tailor your individual presentation to the group format.
318(2)
2 Follow common guidelines for a public debate.
320(1)
d Become familiar with the social and ceremonial context.
321(3)
1 Identify the needs of the people involved.
322(1)
2 Follow common guidelines for various contexts.
322(2)
e Be prepared to assume leadership roles in a variety of contexts.
324(11)
1 Prepare carefully when you chair a program or meeting: Clarify the format, coordinate the participants, and anticipate contingencies.
324(3)
2 Take responsibility for establishing a positive and helpful environment.
327(2)
Part 5 Presentation 329(76)
Introduction
331(4)
24 Modes of Delivery
335(9)
a For most speaking situations, use the extemporaneous mode.
335(2)
b When formal preparation is impossible, remember four simple steps for successful impromptu speaking.
337(2)
1 Keep your composure.
338(1)
2 Select a theme.
338(1)
3 Select an organizational framework.
338(1)
4 Whenever possible, plan your first and last sentences.
339(1)
c Speak from a manuscript when precise wording and exact timing are essential, but maintain oral style and conversational delivery.
339(3)
1 Prepare an easily readable manuscript in the oral style.
340(2)
2 Be familiar enough with your manuscript to look and sound as though you are speaking extemporaneously.
342(1)
d Memorize a short, important speech only on those occasions when holding a manuscript would be out of place.
342(2)
1 Memorize the structure of the speech before memorizing the speech word for word.
342(1)
2 Read the speech aloud several times and then work on learning it paragraph by paragraph.
343(1)
3 As you practice, visualize giving the speech.
343(1)
4 Do not go into a trance when delivering the speech.
343(1)
5 If you go blank, switch to the extemporaneous mode and recall the structure of the speech rather than groping for the next word.
343(1)
25 Practice Sessions
344(12)
a Optimize your sources of effective feedback.
344(1)
1 Whenever possible, form a support group of other learners or a network of colleagues and friends.
344(1)
2 Set guidelines for effective feedback and speech criticism.
344(1)
b Use three stages of practice sessions to convert your speech from outline to finished product.
345(4)
1 Use early practice sessions to flesh out your outline.
345(1)
2 Use one or more middle practice sessions for receiving feedback.
346(3)
3 Use the final few practice sessions for refinements of style and delivery.
349(1)
c Prepare speech notes to act as a guide and a safety net.
349(3)
1 Include in your speech notes keywords, key phrases, and material that is to be cited directly.
350(1)
2 Prepare your speech notes in a format that aids your delivery.
351(1)
d Fit your speech into the time limit.
352(2)
e Save the hours just before the speech for one final run-through and for getting into the proper, relaxed frame of mind.
354(1)
f Avoid common practice pitfalls.
355(1)
1 "Mental" rather than oral practice
355(1)
2 Too many critics
355(1)
3 Overpreparation
355(1)
4 Self-consciousness rather than audience consciousness
355(1)
26 Vocal Delivery
356(13)
a Speak so that you can be heard and understood.
357(2)
1 Speak loud enough to be heard by the entire audience.
357(1)
2 Speak at a rate your audience can follow.
357(1)
3 Enunciate words distinctly and naturally.
358(1)
4 Make special adjustments, if necessary, to compensate for having an accent that your audience may have difficulty understanding.
358(1)
b Reinforce meaning and make your speech more interesting through vocal variety.
359(3)
1 Vary your pitch.
360(1)
2 Vary your rate of speaking.
360(1)
3 Vary your volume.
361(1)
c Use standard, acceptable pronunciation.
362(2)
1 Identify words that you habitually mispronounce.
362(1)
2 Check the preferred pronunciation of unfamiliar words.
362(2)
d Identify and eliminate distracting characteristics of your vocal delivery.
364(5)
1 Identify problems of voice quality.
364(1)
2 Identify problems of articulation.
365(1)
3 Identify vocalized pauses and other irrelevant sounds and phrases.
366(1)
4 Identify repetitious patterns of inflection.
367(1)
5 Eliminate your distracting habits through a systematic self-improvement program or with professional help.
367(2)
27 Physical Delivery
369(6)
a Be conscious of your appearance.
369(1)
b Eliminate distracting mannerisms.
370(1)
c Stand or sit with a relaxed but alert posture.
370(1)
d If you move about during the speech, make the action purposeful and relevant.
371(1)
e Keep your hands free so that you can gesture if it feels natural.
371(2)
f Maintain eye contact.
373(1)
g Use facial expression to reflect or forecast mood and tone.
373(2)
28 Presentation Aids
375(17)
a Determine what course of action with presentation aids is appropriate to the points you wish to illustrate and clarify, and to the context in which your speech is being given.
376(6)
1 Ascertain if a presentation aid is appropriate.
377(1)
2 Determine the form and technology that best suit your purpose.
377(1)
3 For visual presentation aids, decide on the form an object or concept's representation takes.
378(4)
b Prepare your aids to be clear and manageable.
382(4)
1 Prepare presentation aids large enough to be seen, or clear enough to be heard, by the entire audience.
382(2)
2 Keep your visual presentation aids simple and clear.
384(1)
3 Design visual aids for maximum audience impact.
385(1)
c Introduce your presentation aids so that they blend smoothly into the speech.
386(2)
1 Practice with your aids.
387(1)
2 Have your aid ready to go.
387(1)
3 Maintain eye contact.
387(1)
4 Keep talking while using discrete visual aids.
387(1)
5 Do not let your aids become a distraction.
387(1)
d Understand the benefits, constraints, and perils of using presentation software.
388(4)
1 Keep your text slides simple.
388(1)
2 Maintain consistency.
389(1)
3 Be judicious in your use of clip art.
389(1)
4 Do not become secondary to your slides.
389(3)
29 Adapting to the Speech Situation
392(7)
a Adapt to the audience response as you give your speech, and plan alternative strategies for reactions you may receive.
392(2)
1 Follow some common guidelines for making adjustments.
393(1)
b Take several steps to prevent distractions, and if they do occur, be familiar with the strategies to deal with them.
394(2)
1 Check your presentation's setting and equipment to detect possible sources of distraction.
394(1)
2 Deal with fleeting or low-level distractions during your speech by not acknowledging them.
395(1)
3 Turn distractions to your purpose by incorporating them into your speech.
395(1)
4 When it is actually necessary to interrupt the continuity of your speech, do so as quickly as possible and then draw your listeners back in.
395(1)
c Do not hand control of the situation over to the verbal heckler or nonverbal heckler, but rather respond to such interruptions calmly and firmly.
396(3)
1 The verbal heckler
396(1)
2 The nonverbal heckler
397(2)
30 Answering Questions
399(6)
a Come prepared for a question-and-answer period.
399(1)
b Invite and answer audience questions in a straightforward manner.
400(1)
c Do not allow self-indulgent questioners to distort the function of the question-and-answer period.
401(4)
1 The person who wants to give a speech
401(1)
2 The person who wants to have an extended dialogue
402(1)
3 The person who wants to pick a fight
402(3)
Index 405


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