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Speech Science : An Integrated Approach to Theory and Clinical Practice,9780205285082
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Speech Science : An Integrated Approach to Theory and Clinical Practice

by
ISBN13:

9780205285082

ISBN10:
0205285082
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2001
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $85.60

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Summary

Speech Science provides an integration of scientific material on the acoustics and physiology of speech production and perception with state-of-the art instrumental techniques used in clinical practice. This book enables the user to easily make the connections between scientific theory and clinical management of communication disorders. This explicit linkage means that students find the theoretical information meaningful, less intimidating, and more easily accessible. Each chapter demonstrates this connection by first presenting the theoretical information and then applying the principles to assessment and management issues. This comprehensive text, which incorporates principles of speech sound production and perception, relevant anatomy and physiology, and current technology, is both student- and instructor- friendly. The material is broken into small units that are easy for students to grasp, with subsequent integration of units into larger domains. The Instructor's Manual provides made-to-order exercises that can be used in a laboratory or classroom setting, essay and multiple-choice examination questions, outlines for lectures that can be made into overheads, additional readings, and individual and group projects.

Table of Contents

Foreword xiii
Acknowledgments xv
Introduction
1(6)
Overview of Chapters
3(4)
The Nature of Sound
7(42)
Air Pressure
8(22)
Measurement of Air Pressure
8(2)
Movement of Air
10(1)
Air Pressure, Volume, and Density
11(1)
Sound: Changes in Air Pressure
12(2)
Elasticity and Inertia
14(1)
Wave Motion of Sound
15(2)
Characteristics of Sound Waves
17(1)
Frequency and Period
17(3)
Velocity and Wavelength
20(1)
Sound Absorption and Reflection
21(1)
Constructive and Destructive Interference
22(2)
Pure Tones and Complex Waves
24(2)
Speech as a Stream of Complex Periodic and Aperiodic Waves
26(1)
Visually Depicting Sound Waves: Waveforms and Spectra
26(4)
Attributes of Sounds
30(10)
Frequency and Pitch
32(2)
Human Range of Hearing
34(1)
Amplitude and Intensity
34(1)
Amplitude
34(1)
Intensity
34(2)
Decibel Scale
36(3)
Advantages of the Decibel Scale
39(1)
Auditory Area
39(1)
Resonance
40(7)
Free and Forced Vibration
40(2)
Types of Resonators
42(1)
Acoustic Resonators
42(1)
Acoustic Resonators as Filters
43(1)
Bandwidth
43(2)
Cutoff Frequencies
45(1)
Resonance Curves
45(1)
Parameters of a Filter
46(1)
Types of Filters
47(1)
Summary
47(1)
Review Exercises
48(1)
Clinical Application of Frequency and Intensity Variables
49(17)
Vocal Frequency and Amplitude
50(10)
Frequency Variables
51(1)
Average Fundamental Frequency
51(3)
Frequency Variability
54(2)
Maximum Phonational Frequency Range
56(1)
Amplitude and Intensity Variables
56(1)
Average Amplitude Level
56(1)
Amplitude Variability
57(1)
Dynamic Range
58(1)
Voice Range Profile
58(2)
Breakdowns in Control of Vocal Frequency and Amplitude
60(4)
Voice Disorders
60(3)
Neurological Disorders
63(1)
Summary
64(1)
Review Exercises
65(1)
The Respiratory System
66(33)
The Stucture and Mechanics of the Respiratory System
67(31)
Structures of the Lower Respiratory System
67(1)
Bronchial Tree
67(5)
Muscles of Respiration
72(3)
Accessory Muscles of Respiration
75(1)
Muscles of the Abdomen
75(1)
Pleural Linkage
76(1)
Moving Air Into and Out of the Lungs
77(1)
Inhalation
78(1)
Exhalation
78(1)
Rate of Breathing
78(1)
Lung Volumes and Capacities
79(1)
Resting Expiratory Level
80(1)
Lung Volumes
81(1)
Tidal Volume
81(1)
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
82(1)
Expiratory Reserve Volume
83(1)
Residual Volume
83(1)
Dead Air
84(1)
Lung Capacities
84(1)
Vital Capacity
84(1)
Functional Residual Capacity
84(1)
Total Lung Capacity
84(1)
Development of Lung Volumes and Capacities
85(1)
Differences Between Breathing for Life and Breathing for Speech
85(2)
Location of Air Intake
87(1)
Ratio of Time for Inhalation versus Exhalation
87(1)
Volume of Air Inhaled per Cycle
88(1)
Muscle Activity for Exhalation
88(3)
Air Pressures and Flows in Respiration
91(1)
Air Pressures
91(2)
Airflow
93(1)
Lung Volume and Chest Wall Shape
94(1)
Breathing Patterns for Speech
95(1)
Changes in Speech Breathing over the Life-span
96(2)
Summary
98(1)
Review Exercises
98(1)
Clinical Application: Respiratory Breakdowns That Affect Speech Production
99(12)
Conditions That Affect Speech Breathing
101(8)
Parkinson's Disease
101(1)
Cerebellar Disease
102(1)
Cervical Spinal Cord Injury
103(1)
Cerebral Palsy
104(2)
Mechanical Ventilation
106(1)
Voice Disorders
107(1)
Hearing Impairment
108(1)
Summary
109(1)
Review Exercises
109(2)
The Phonatory System
111(41)
The Vocal Mechanism
112(23)
Laryngeal Skeleton
112(1)
Bones and Cartilages
112(4)
Joints of the Larynx
116(2)
Valves within the Larynx
118(1)
Aryepiglottic Folds
118(1)
False Vocal Folds
118(1)
Trude Vocal Folds
118(2)
Cover-body Model
120(1)
Glottis
121(1)
Muscles of the Larynx
121(1)
Extrinsic Muscles
121(1)
Intrinsic Muscles
121(4)
Myoelastic--Aerodynamic Theory of Phonation
125(2)
Vertical and Longitudinal Phase Differences during Vibration
127(1)
Voice Fundamental Frequency
128(1)
Voice Intensity
128(1)
Pressures Involved in Phonation
129(1)
The Complex Sound Wave of the Human Voice
129(1)
Glottal Spectrum
130(1)
Harmonic Spacing
131(1)
Nearly Periodic Nature of the Human Voice
131(2)
Sources of Jitter and Shimmer
133(1)
Measurement of Jitter and Shimmer
133(2)
Vocal Registers and Vocal Quality
135(3)
Vocal Registers
135(1)
Physiologic and Acoustic Bases of Pulse and Falsetto Registers
136(1)
Pulse
136(1)
Falsetto
137(1)
Spectral Characteristics of Pulse and Falsetto
137(1)
Use of Different Registers in Singing and Speaking
138(1)
Voice Quality
138(12)
Normal Voice Quality
140(2)
Abnormal Voice Qualities
142(1)
Acoustic Characteristics of Breathy and Rough or Hoarse Voice
142(1)
Breathy Voice
143(1)
Rough or Hoarse Voice
143(1)
Ways of Measuring Registers and Quality
144(1)
Electroglottography
144(3)
EGG and Register
147(2)
EGG Slope Quotients
149(1)
Summary
150(1)
Review Exercises
151(1)
Clinical Application: Measures of Jitter, Shimmer, and Quality
152(10)
Jitter and Shimmer Measures
152(8)
Jitter and Shimmer Measures in Communication Disorders
153(1)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
154(1)
Parkinson's Disease
154(1)
Endotracheal Intubation
155(1)
Laryngeal Cancer
155(1)
Functional Voice Problems
156(1)
Stuttering
156(1)
Measures of Voice Quality
157(1)
Need for Objective Measures of Voice Quality
157(1)
Aging
158(1)
EGG and Vocal Disorders
159(1)
EGG and Spasmodic Dysphonia
159(1)
EGG and Parkinson's Disease
160(1)
Summary
160(1)
Review Exercises
161(1)
The Articulatory System
162(63)
Articulators of the Vocal Tract
163(20)
Oral Cavity
163(1)
Lips
164(2)
Teeth
166(1)
Dental Occlusion
167(1)
Hard Palate
168(1)
Soft Palate
169(2)
Muscles of the Velum
171(2)
Velopharyngeal Closure
173(1)
Tongue
173(2)
Muscles of the Tongue
175(1)
Tongue Movements for Speech
176(2)
Pharynx
178(1)
Muscles of the Pharynx
179(1)
Nasal Cavities
179(1)
Valves of the Vocal Tract
180(3)
Traditional Classification System of Consonants and Vowels
183(7)
Place of Articulation of English Consonants
183(1)
Manner of Articulation of English Consonants
183(1)
Stops
183(1)
Fricatives
184(2)
Affricates
186(1)
Nasals
186(1)
Glides
186(1)
Liquids
187(1)
Voicing
187(1)
Vowel Classification
188(2)
Vocal Tract Resonance
190(29)
Characteristics of the Vocal Tract Resonator
191(1)
Vocal Tract Filtering of the Glottal Sound Wave
192(1)
Source-filter Theory of Vowel Production
193(2)
Formant Frequencies Related to Oral and Pharyngeal Volumes
195(2)
Vowel Formant Frequencies
197(2)
F1/F2 Plots
199(1)
Spectrographic Analysis of Sounds
200(1)
Vowels
200(2)
Diphthongs
202(1)
Glides
202(3)
Liquids
205(1)
Stops
206(7)
Fricatives
213(1)
Affricates
214(3)
Nasals
217(2)
The Production of Speech Sounds in Context
219(5)
Coarticulation
219(2)
Suprasegmentals
221(1)
Intonation
221(1)
Stress
222(1)
Duration
223(1)
Summary
224(1)
Review Exercises
224(1)
Clinical Application: Breakdowns in Production of Vowels and Consonants
225(17)
Source-filter Theory and Problems in Speech Production
226(15)
Dysarthria
227(1)
Vowel Duration Measurements
227(1)
Vowel Formant Measurements
228(3)
Consonant Measures
231(2)
Hearing Impairment
233(1)
Segmental Problems
233(1)
Suprasegmental Problems
234(1)
Instrumentation in Treatment Programs for Deaf Speakers
235(1)
Palatometry and Glossometry
236(1)
Phonological Disorders
237(2)
Tracheotomy
239(1)
Cleft Palate
240(1)
Summary
241(1)
Review Exercises
241(1)
The Auditory System
242(34)
Parts of the Ear
243(9)
Outer Ear
243(1)
Tympanic Membrane
244(1)
Middle Ear
245(1)
Ossicles
245(1)
Muscles
245(1)
Auditory Tube
246(1)
Functions of the Middle Ear
246(1)
Inner Ear
247(2)
Cochlea
249(2)
Basilar Membrane
251(1)
Cochlear Function
251(1)
Perception of Speech
252(13)
Segmentation Problem
253(1)
Instrumental Analysis of Vowel and Consonant Perception
254(1)
Perception of Vowels and Diphthongs
254(1)
Vowels
254(3)
Diphthongs
257(1)
Perception of Consonants
257(1)
Categorical Perception
257(2)
Multiple Acoustic Cues in Consonant Perception
259(1)
Influence of Coarticulation
259(1)
Liquids
260(1)
Glides
260(1)
Nasals
260(1)
Stops
261(1)
Fricatives
262(1)
Affricates
263(1)
The Role of Context in Speech Perception
264(1)
Immittance Audiometry, Otoacoustic Emissions, and Cochlear Implants
265(10)
Immitance Audiometry
265(1)
Tympanograms
266(1)
Tympanometric Procedure
266(1)
Tympanogram Shapes
267(3)
Advantages of Tympanometry
270(1)
Otoacoustic Emissions
271(1)
Spontaneous and Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions
271(1)
Cochlear Implants
272(3)
Summary
275(1)
Review Exercises
275(1)
Clinical Application: Perceptual Problems in Hearing Impairment, Language and Reading Disability, and Articulation Deficits
276(15)
Hearing Loss
277(1)
Vowel Perception
278(1)
Consonant Perception
279(2)
Cochlear Implants
281(1)
Otitis Media
282(1)
Language and Reading Disability
283(4)
Articulatory Problems
287(2)
Summary
289(1)
Review Exercises
289(2)
Models and Theories of Speech Production and Perception
291(22)
Theories
292(1)
Models
293(2)
Speech Production
295(1)
The Serial-order Issue
295(1)
Degrees of Freedom
295(1)
Context-sensitivity Problem
296(1)
Theories of Speech Production
296(1)
Target Models
296(2)
Feedback and Feedforward Models
298(1)
Dynamic Systems Models
299(1)
Connectionist Models
299(1)
Speech Perception
300(1)
Linearity and Segmentation
300(1)
Speaker Normalization
301(1)
Basic Unit of Perception
301(1)
Specialization of Speech Perception
302(1)
Categories of Speech Perception Theories
303(1)
Active versus Passive
303(1)
Bottom-up versus Top-down
303(1)
Autonomous versus Interactive
304(1)
Theories of Speech Perception
304(1)
Motor Theory
304(1)
Acoustic Invariance Theory
305(2)
Direct Realism
307(1)
TRACE Model
307(1)
Logogen Theory
308(1)
Cohort Theory
308(1)
Fuzzy Logical Model of Perception
308(1)
Native Language Magnet Theory
309(1)
Summary
310(1)
Review Exercises
310(3)
Glossary 313(16)
Appendix 329(2)
IPA Symbols for Consonants and Vowels
329(2)
References 331(18)
Index 349


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