9781319087715

The St. Martin's Guide to Writing with 2016 MLA Update

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  • ISBN13:

    9781319087715

  • ISBN10:

    131908771X

  • Edition: 11th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 7/1/2016
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

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Summary

THIS TITLE HAS BEEN UPDATED TO REFLECT THE 2016 MLA UPDATES! Our editorial team has updated this text based on content from The MLA Handbook, 8th Edition. Browse our catalog or contact your representative for a full listing of updated titles and packages, or to request a custom ISBN.

Whether you have years of experience as a teacher or are new to the classroom, you and your students can count on The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing to provide the support you need in first-year composition, with a rhetoric, an array of engaging readings, a research manual, and a handbook, all in a single book — and available online. Thousands of instructors and their students rely on the Guide’s proven approach because it works: the Guide’s acclaimed step-by-step writing guides to 9 different genres offer sure-fire invention strategies to get students started, sentence strategies to get students writing, and thoughtful revision strategies to help students make their writing their own, no matter what their major. With its hands-on activities for reading like a writer and working with sources, there is no better text to help students bridge reading analytically to successful writing in first-year composition and beyond.

In keeping with the Guide’s tradition of innovation and based on instructor feedback about what assignments they give their students, the new edition integrates new types of writing that reflect the range of genres being assigned in first-year composition, including a reimagined Chapter 5 that provides a bridge from personal and expository to argumentative writing by following a scaffolded approach. 

The eleventh edition is available with LaunchPad for The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing, an online course space of pre-built units featuring the full e-book, tutorials, and adaptive LearningCurve activities to help students hone their understanding of reading and writing.  To order or purchase the print text with LaunchPad, use ISBN 9781457698484 for the Cloth-bound version, ISBN 9781319016036 for the Paper-bound version, or ISBN 9781319016067 for the Short Edition.

Author Biography

Rise B. Axelrod is McSweeney Professor of Rhetoric and Teaching Excellence, Emeritus, at the University of California, Riverside, where she was also director of English Composition. She has previously been professor of English at California State University, San Bernardino; director of the College Expository Program at the University of Colorado, Boulder; and assistant director of the Third College (now Thurgood Marshall College) Composition Program at the University of California, San Diego. She is the co-author, with Charles R. Cooper, of the best-selling textbook The St. Martin's Guide to Writing as well as The Concise Guide to Writing and Reading Critically, Writing Well.

Charles R. Cooper is an emeritus professor at the University of California, San Diego. He served as coordinator of the Third College (now Thurgood Marshall College) Composition Program at the University of California, San Diego, and co-director of the San Diego Writing Project, one of the National Writing Project Centers. He advised the National Assessment of Educational Progress—Writing (1973-1981) and coordinated the development of California's first statewide writing assessment (1986-1991). He taught at the University of California, Riverside; the State University of New York at Buffalo; and the University of California, San Diego. He is co-editor, with Lee Odell, of Evaluating Writing and Research on Composing: Points of Departure, and he is co-author, with Rise Axelrod, of the best-selling textbook The St. Martin's Guide to Writing as well as The Concise Guide to Writing and Reading Critically, Writing Well.

Table of Contents

Preface

1 Composing Literacy
Understanding the Rhetorical Situation
Applying the Rhetorical Framework
Reflecting on Your Own Literacy
Reading
Annie Dillard, Handed My Own Life
Composing Your Own Literacy Narrative

PART 1 Writing Activities
2 Remembering an Event
     PRACTICING THE GENRE: Telling a Story
GUIDE TO READING
Analyzing Remembered Event Essays
Determine the writer’s purpose and audience. 00
Assess the genre’s basic features.
Readings
Jean Brandt, Calling Home
Annie Dillard, An American Childhood
Jenée Desmond-Harris, Tupac and My Non-thug Life
Peter Orner, Writing about What Haunts Us
     GENRE REMIX: Remixing Your Remembered Event Essay
GUIDE TO WRITING
     The Writing Assignment
          STARTING POINTS:
Remembering an Event
     Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing
     Choose an event to write about.
          TEST YOUR TOPIC: CONSIDERING PURPOSE AND AUDIENCE
     Shape your story.
          WAYS IN: Developing a Dramatic Arc
     Organize your story to enhance the drama.
          TEST YOUR STORY: FACING AN AUDIENCE
     Clarify the sequence of actions. 00
     Describe key people and places vividly, and show their significance. 00
     Use dialogue to portray people and dramatize relationships.
     Clarify your story’s significance.
          WAYS IN: Helping Readers Understand the Significance
     Write the opening sentences. 00
     Draft your story.
     Evaluating the Draft: Using Peer Review
          A PEER REVIEW GUIDE
     Improving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
     Revise your draft.
          A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
     Edit and proofread your draft.
A WRITER AT WORK
     Jean Brandt’s Developing Significance from First to Last Drafts
THINKING CRITICALLY
     Reflecting on What You Have Learned
     Reflecting on the Genre

3 Writing Profiles
          PRACTICING THE GENRE: Conducting an Interview
GUIDE TO READING
     Analyzing Profiles
     Determine the writer’s purpose and audience. 00
     Assess the genre’s basic features.
     Readings
     Brian Cable, The Last Stop
     John Ronson, The Hunger Games
     Amanda Coyne, The Long Good-Bye: Mother’s Day in Federal Prison
     Gabriel Thompson, A Gringo in the Lettuce Fields
          GENRE REMIX: Remixing Your Profile
GUIDE TO WRITING
     The Writing Assignment
     STARTING POINTS:
Writing a Profile
     Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing
     Choose a subject to profile.
          TEST YOUR CHOICE
     Conduct your field research.
          WAYS IN: Managing Your Time
          WAYS IN: Preparing for Interviews and Observations
          WAYS IN: Conducting Interviews 
          WAYS IN: Conducting Observations
          WAYS IN: Presenting Information from Interviews and Observations
     Use quotations that provide information and reveal character. 00
     Consider adding visual or audio elements. 00
     Create an outline that will organize your profile effectively for your readers. 00
     Determine your role in the profile.
          WAYS IN: Determining Your Role
     Develop your perspective on the subject.
          WAYS IN: Developing Your Perspective
     Clarify the dominant impression. 
          WAYS IN: Fine-Tuning Your Dominant Impression
     Write the opening sentences.
     Draft your profile.
     Evaluating the Draft: Using Peer Review
          A PEER REVIEW GUIDE
     Improving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
     Revise your draft.
          A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
     Edit and proofread your draft. 
A WRITER AT WORK
     Brian Cable’s Interview Notes and Write-Up
THINKING CRITICALLY
     Reflecting on What You Have Learned
     Reflecting on the Genre
 
4 Explaining a Concept
          PRACTICING THE GENRE:
Explaining an Academic Concept
GUIDE TO READING
     Analyzing Concept Explanations
     Determine the writer’s purpose and audience.
     Assess the genre’s basic features.
     Readings
     Jonathan Potthast, Supervolcanoes: A Catastrophe of Ice and Fire
     Anastasia Toufexis, Love: The Right Chemistry
     John Tierney, Do You Suffer from Decision Fatique?
     Susan Cain, Shyness: Evolutionary Tactic?
          REMIX: Remixing Your  Concept Explanation
GUIDE TO WRITING
     The Writing Assignment
          STARTING POINTS:
Explaining a Concept
     Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing
     Choose a broad concept to write about.
          TEST YOUR CHOICE: CHOOSING A TOPIC
     Conduct initial research on the concept.
          WAYS IN: Determining What You Already Know about the Concept
     Find an engaging focus and angle on the concept.
          WAYS IN: Making the Concept Interesting to You and Your Readers
          TEST YOUR CHOICE: EVALUATING YOUR ANGLE
     Conduct further research on your focused concept. 
     Draft your working thesis. 
     Create an outline that will organize your concept explanation effectively for your readers. 
     Design your writing project. 
     Consider the explanatory strategies you should use.
          WAYS IN: Choosing Writing Strategies to Explain the Focused Concept
     Use summaries, paraphrases, and quotations from sources to support your points. 
          WAYS IN: Deciding Whether to Summarize, Paraphrase, or Quote
     Use visuals or multimedia illustrations to enhance your explanation. 
     Use appositives to integrate sources. 
     Use descriptive verbs in signal phrases to introduce information from sources.
     Write the opening sentences. 
     Draft your explanation.
     Evaluating the Draft: Using Peer Review
          A PEER REVIEW GUIDE
     Improving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
     Revise your draft.
          A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
     Edit and proofread your draft.
A WRITER AT WORK
     Jonathan Potthast’s Use of Sources
THINKING CRITICALLY
     Reflecting on What You Have Learned
     Reflecting on the Genre
 
5 Analyzing and Synthesizing Opposing Arguments 
           PRACTICING THE GENRE:
Analyzing Opposing Arguments 
 GUIDE TO READING 
      Analyzing Four Genres 
      Determine the writer’s purpose and audience.  
      Assess the genres’ basic features.  
      Readings 
           *Maya Gomez, Summary: A Moral Market, Richard Posner 
           *Maya Gomez, Annotated Bibliography: Compensating Kidney Donors 
           *Maya Gomez, Report: Possible Solutions to the Kidney Shortage 
           *Maya Gomez, Analysis: Satel vs. the National Kidney Foundation: Should Kidney Donors
           Be Compensated? 
               REMIX: Remixing Your Report 
 GUIDE TO WRITING 
      The Writing Assignment 
           STARTING POINTS: Composing a Summary, Annotated Bibliography, Report, or Analysis 
      Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing 
      Choose a controversial topic to write about.  
           TEST YOUR CHOICE: Choosing a Topic 
      Conduct research to find sources. 
      Summarize sources and annotate your working bibliography. 
           WAYS IN: Writing a Summary 
      Add a commentary to your annotated bibliography. 
           WAYS IN: Drafting a Commentary for an Annotated Bibliography 
      Analyze your audience. 
           WAYS IN: Interesting Readers in Your Report or Analysis 
      Choose opposing argument essays to analyze. 
      Brainstorm subtopics for a report. 
      Synthesize sources for a report or analysis. 
      Analyze and compare the opposing argument essays. 
           WAYS IN: Analyzing and Comparing Opposing Arguments 
           TEST YOUR CHOICE: Evaluating Your Analysis 
      Draft a working thesis statement for your report or analysis. 
      Create an outline to organize your report or analysis effectively for your readers. 
      Develop your report or analysis. 
           WAYS IN: Presenting Your Analysis of the Opposing Argument 
           WAYS IN: Choosing appropriate explanatory strategies 
       Use visuals or multimedia illustrations to enhance your explanation. 
      Write the opening sentences. 
      Draft your report or analysis. 
      Evaluating the Draft: Using Peer Review 
           A PEER REVIEW GUIDE 
      Improving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading 
           Revise your draft. 
                A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE 
           Edit and proofread your draft. 
      A WRITER AT WORK 
      Analyzing Opposing Argument Text 
           Gomez’s Annotations on Satel’s Op-Ed 
           Gomez’s Comparative Analysis Chart 
      THINKING CRITICALLY 
          Reflecting on What You Have Learned 
      CASEBOOK
           National Kidney Foundation, Financial Incentives for Organ Donation
           *Gary S. Becker & Julio J. Elías, Cash for Kidneys: The Case for a Market for Organs
           *Sally Satel, When Altruism Isn’t Moral
           Reflecting on the Genres  

6 Arguing a Position
          PRACTICING THE GENRE:
Debating a Position
GUIDE TO READING
     Analyzing Position Arguments
     Determine the writer’s purpose and audience. 
     Assess the genre’s basic features.
     Readings
     Jessica Statsky, Children Need to Play, Not Compete
     *Noam Bramson, Child, Home, Neighbohood, Community, Conscience
     Amitai Etzioni, Working at McDonald’s
     Daniel J. Solove, Why Privacy Matters Even If You Have “Nothing to Hide”
          REMIX: Remixing Your Position Argument 
GUIDE TO WRITING
     The Writing Assignment
          STARTING POINTS:
Arguing a Position
     Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing
     Choose a controversial issue on which to take a position.
          TEST YOUR CHOICE: CHOOSING AN ISSUE
     Frame the issue for your readers.
          WAYS IN: Exploring and Framing the Issue and What Your Readers Think
          TEST YOUR CHOICE: FRAMING YOUR ISSUE
     Formulate a working thesis stating your position.
          WAYS IN: Devising an Arguable Thesis
     Develop the reasons supporting your position.
          WAYS IN: Devise Reasons to Support Your Position
     Research your position.
     Use sources to reinforce your credibility.
     Identify and respond to your readers’ likely reasons and objections.
          WAYS IN: Identifying and Responding to Readers’ Concerns
     Create an outline that will organize your argument effectively for your readers.
     Consider document design. 
     Write the opening sentences.
     Draft your position argument.
     Evaluating the Draft: Using Peer Review
          A PEER REVIEW GUIDE
     Improving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
     Revise your draft.
          A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
     Think about design.
     Edit and proofread your draft.
A WRITER AT WORK
     Jessica Statsky’s Response to Opposing Positions
     Listing Reasons for the Opposing Position
     Conceding a Plausible Reason 
     Refuting an Implausible Reason
THINKING CRITICALLY
     Reflecting on What You Have Learned
     Reflecting on the Genre

7 Proposing a Solution
          PRACTICING THE GENRE:
Arguing That a Solution Is Feasible
GUIDE TO READING
     Analyzing Proposals
     Determine the writer’s purpose and audience. 
     Assess the genre’s basic features.
     Readings
     Patrick O’Malley, More Testing, More Learning
     *Naomi Rose, Captivity Kills Orcas
     *Eric Posner, A Moral Market
     Kelly D. Brownell and Thomas R. Frieden, Ounces of Prevention—The Public Policy Case for
     Taxes on Sugared Beverages
          REMIX:  Remixing Your Proposal
GUIDE TO WRITING
     The Writing Assignment
          STARTING POINTS:
Proposing a Solution
     Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing
     Choose a problem for which you can propose a solution.
          TEST YOUR CHOICE: CHOOSING A PROBLEM
     Frame the problem for your readers.
          WAYS IN: Identifying the Problem and Figuring Out Why Readers Will Care
          TEST YOUR CHOICE: DEFINING THE PROBLEM
     Use statistics to establish the problem’s existence and seriousness. 
     Assess how the problem has been framed, and reframe it for your readers.
          WAYS IN: Framing and Reframing the Problem
     Develop a possible solution.
          WAYS IN: Solving the Problem
     Explain your solution.
          WAYS IN: Explaining the Solution and Showing Its Feasibility
     Research your proposal. 
     Develop a response to objections and alternative solutions.
          WAYS IN: Drafting a Refutation or Concession
     Create an outline that will organize your proposal effectively for your readers. 
     Write the opening sentences. 
     Draft your proposal.
     Evaluating the Draft: Using Peer Review
          A PEER REVIEW GUIDE
     Improving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
     Revise your draft.
          A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
     Think about design. 
     Edit and proofread your draft.
A WRITER AT WORK
     Patrick O’Malley’s Revision Process
THINKING CRITICALLY
     Reflecting on What You Have Learned
     Reflecting on the Genre

8 Justifying an Evaluation
          PRACTICING THE GENRE
: Choosing Appropriate Criteria
GUIDE TO READING
     Analyzing Evaluations
     Determine the writer’s purpose and audience. 
     Assess the genre’s basic features.
     Readings
     William Akana, Scott Pilgrim vs. the World: A Hell of a Ride
     *Emily Nussbaum, The Aristocrats: The Graphic Arts of Game of Thrones
      Malcolm Gladwell, What College Rankings Really Tell Us
     *Sherry Turkle, The Flight from Conversation
          REMIX: Remixing Your Evaluation
GUIDE TO WRITING
     The Writing Assignment
          STARTING POINTS:
Justifying an Evaluation
     Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing
     Choose a subject to evaluate.
          TEST YOUR CHOICE: CHOOSING A SUBJECT
     Assess your subject and consider how to present it to your readers.
          WAYS IN: Determining What You and Your Readers Think
     Formulate a working thesis stating your overall judgment.
          WAYS IN: Asserting a Tentative Overall Judgment
     Develop the reasons and evidence supporting your judgment.
          WAYS IN: Devising Reasons and Evidence to Support Your Judgment
     Research your evaluation.
     Respond to a likely objection or alternative judgment.
          WAYS IN: Responding Effectively to Readers
     Organize your draft to appeal to your readers.
     Consider document design.
     Write the opening sentences.
     Draft your evaluation.
     Evaluating the Draft: Using Peer Review
          A PEER REVIEW GUIDE
     Improving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
     Revise your draft.
          A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
     Think about design.
     Edit and proofread your draft.
A WRITER AT WORK
     William Akana’s Thesis and Response to Objections
THINKING CRITICALLY
     Reflecting on What You Have Learned
     Reflecting on the Genre

9 Arguing for Causes or Effects
          PRACTICING THE GENRE:
Arguing That a Cause Is Plausible
GUIDE TO READING
     Analyzing Causal Arguments
     Determine the writer’s purpose and audience.
     Assess the genre’s basic features.
     Readings
     *Clayton Pangelinan, #socialnetworking: Why It’s Really So Popular
     Stephen King, Why We Crave Horror Movies
     *Claudia Wallis, The Multitasking Generation
     Shankar Vedantam, The Telescope Effect
          REMIX: Remixing Your Causal Argument
GUIDE TO WRITING
     The Writing Assignment
          STARTING POINTS:
Speculating about Causes
     Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing
     Choose a subject to analyze.
          TEST YOUR CHOICE: CHOOSING A TOPIC
     Present the subject to your readers.
          WAYS IN: Figuring Out What You and Your Readers Think
     Analyze possible causes and effects.
          WAYS IN: Analyzing Possible Causes and Effects
     Conduct research.
     Cite a variety of sources to support your causal analysis.
     Formulate a working thesis stating your preferred cause(s) or effect(s).
          WAYS IN: Asserting a Thesis
     Draft a response to objections readers are likely to raise.
          WAYS IN: Responding Effectively to Readers’ Objections
     Draft a response to the causes or effects your readers are likely to favor.
         WAYS IN: Responding to Readers’ Preferred Causes
     Create an outline that will organize your causal argument effectively for your readers.
     Write the opening sentences.
     Draft your causal argument.
     Evaluating the Draft: Using Peer Review
          A PEER REVIEW GUIDE
     Improving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
     Revise your draft.
          A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
     Think about design.
     Edit and proofread your draft.
A WRITER AT WORK
     Clayton Pangelinan’s Analysis of Possible Causes
THINKING CRITICALLY
     Reflecting on What You Have Learned
     Reflecting on the Genre

10 Analyzing Stories
          PRACTICING THE GENRE:
Analyzing a Story Collaboratively
GUIDE TO READING
     Analyzing Essays That Analyze Stories
     Determine the writer’s purpose and audience.
     Assess the genre’s basic features.
     Readings
     Iris Lee, Performing a Doctor’s Duty
     Isabella Wright, “For Heaven’s Sake!”
          REMIX: Remixing Your Literary Analysis  
GUIDE TO WRITING
     The Writing Assignment
          STARTING POINTS:
Analyzing Stories
     Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing
     Find a story to write about.
     Analyze the story.
          WAYS IN: Generating Ideas by Selecting an Element to Analyze and an Approach to Take
          WAYS IN: Generating Ideas by Moving from Specific Details to General Ideas and Vice Versa
          TEST YOUR CHOICE: CHOOSING A TOPIC
     Formulate a working thesis.
          WAYS IN: Formulating an Arguable Thesis
     Provide support for your argument.
          WAYS IN: Integrating Evidence from the Story
     To build on your support, consider doing outside research.
     Create an outline that will organize your argument effectively.
     Write the opening sentences.
     Draft your analysis.
     Evaluating the Draft: Using Peer Review
          A PEER REVIEW GUIDE
     Improving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
     Revise your draft.
          A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
     Think about design.
     Edit and proofread your draft.
A WRITER AT WORK
    Isabella Wright’s Invention Work
THINKING CRITICALLY
     Reflecting on What You Have Learned
     Reflecting on the Genre
AN ANTHOLOGY OF SHORT STORIES
     Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour
     James Joyce, Araby
     William Carlos Williams, The Use of Force
     Jamaica Kincaid, Girl

PART 2 Critical Thinking Strategies
11 A Catalog of Invention Strategies
     Mapping
     Create a cluster diagram.
     Make a list.
     Create an outline.
     Writing
     Use cubing.
     Construct a dialogue.
     Use the five elements of dramatizing.
     Freewrite for a set amount of time.
     Keep a journal.
     Use looping.
     Ask questions.

12 A Catalog of Reading Strategies
     Annotating
     Martin Luther King Jr., An Annotated Sample from “Letter from Birmingham Jail”
     Taking Inventory
     Outlining
     Paraphrasing
     Summarizing
     Synthesizing
     Contextualizing
     Exploring the Significance of Figurative Language
     Looking for Patterns of Opposition
     Reflecting on Challenges to Your Beliefs and Values
     Evaluating the Logic of an Argument
     Test for appropriateness. 
     Test for believability. 
     Test for consistency and completeness.
     Recognizing Emotional Manipulation
     Judging the Writer’s Credibility
     Test for knowledge. 
     Test for common ground. 
     Test for fairness.

PART 3 Writing Strategies
13 Cueing the Reader
     Orienting Statements
     Use thesis statements to announce the main idea.
     Use forecasting statements to preview topics.
     Paragraphing
     Paragraph indents signal related ideas.
     Topic sentences announce the paragraph’s focus.
     Cohesive Devices
     Pronouns connect phrases or sentences. 
     Word repetition aids cohesion.
     Synonyms connect ideas.
     Repetition of sentence structure emphasizes connections.
     Collocation creates networks of meaning.
     Transitions
     Transitions emphasize logical relationships.
     Transitions can indicate a sequence in time.
     Transitions can indicate relationships in space.
     Headings and Subheadings
     Headings indicate sections and levels.
     Headings are not common in all genres.
     At least two headings are needed at each level.

14 Narrating
     Narrating Strategies
     Use calendar and clock time to create a sequence of events.
     Use temporal transitions to establish an action sequence. 
     Use verb tense to place actions in time.  
     Use action sequences for vivid narration.
     Use dialogue to dramatize events.
     Narrating a Process
     Use process narratives to explain. 
     Use process narratives to instruct.
     Sentence Strategies for Narration
 
15 Describing
     Naming
     Detailing
     Comparing
     Using Sensory Description
     Describe what you saw.
     Describe what you heard.
     Describe what you smelled.
     Describe tactile sensations.
     Describe flavors.
     Creating a Dominant Impression
     Sentence Strategies for Description

16 Defining
     Sentence Definitions
     Extended Definitions
     Historical Definitions
     Stipulative Definitions
     Sentence Strategies for Definition

17 Classifying
     Organizing Classification
     Illustrating Classification
     Maintaining Clarity and Coherence
     Sentence Strategies for Classification

18 Comparing and Contrasting
     Organizing Comparisons and Contrasts
     Using Analogy to Compare
     Sentence Strategies for Comparison and Contrast

19 Arguing
     Asserting a Thesis
     Make arguable assertions.
     Use clear and precise wording.
     Qualify the thesis appropriately.
     Giving Reasons and Support
     Use representative examples for support.
     Use up-to-date, relevant, and accurate statistics.
     Cite reputable authorities on relevant topics.
     Use vivid, relevant anecdotes.
     Use relevant textual evidence.
     Responding to Objections and Alternatives
     Acknowledge readers’ concerns.
     Concede readers’ concerns.
     Refute readers’ objections.
     Logical Fallacies
     Sentence Strategies for Argument

PART 4 Research Strategies
20 Planning a Research Project
     Analyzing Your Rhetorical Situation and Setting a Schedule
     Choosing a Topic and Getting an Overview
     Narrowing Your Topic and Drafting Research Questions
     Establishing a Research Log
     Creating a Working Bibliography
     Annotating Your Working Bibliography
     Taking Notes on Your Sources

21 Finding Sources and Conducting Field Research
     Searching Library Catalogs and Databases
     Use appropriate search terms.
     Narrow (or expand) your results. 
     Find books (and other sources).
     Find articles in periodicals.
     Find government documents and statistical information. 
     Find Web sites and interactive sources.
     Conducting Field Research
     Conduct observational studies.
          PRACTICING THE GENRE: Collaborating on an Observational Study
     Conduct interviews.
          PRACTICING THE GENRE: Interviewing a Classmate
     Conduct surveys.

22 Evaluating Sources
     Choosing Relevant Sources
     Choosing Reliable Sources
     Who wrote it? 
     When was it published? 
      Is the source scholarly, popular, or for a trade group? 
     Who published it? 
     How is the source written? 
     What does the source say?

23 Using Sources to Support Your Ideas
     Synthesizing Sources
     Acknowledging Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism
     What does and does not need to be acknowledged. 
     Avoid plagiarism by acknowledging sources and quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing carefully.
     Using Information from Sources to Support Your Claims
     Decide whether to quote, paraphrase, or summarize. 
     Copy quotations exactly, or use italics, ellipses, and brackets to indicate changes.  
     Use in-text or block quotations. 
     Use punctuation to integrate quotations into your writing.  
     Paraphrase sources carefully. 
     Summaries should present the source’s main ideas in a balanced and readable way.

24 Citing and Documenting Sources in MLA Style
     Citing Sources in the Text
          DIRECTORY TO IN-TEXT CITATION MODELS
     Creating a List of Works Cited
          DIRECTORY TO WORKS-CITED LIST MODELS
Format your list of works cited. 
Cite all sources, regardless of medium. 
Student Research Project in MLA Style

25 Citing and Documenting Sources in APA Style
     Citing Sources in the Text
          DIRECTORY TO IN-TEXT CITATION MODELS
     Creating a List of References
          DIRECTORY TO REFERENCE LIST MODELS
     A Sample Reference List

PART 5  Composing Strategies for College and Beyond
26 Taking Essay Examinations
     Preparing for an Exam
     Taking the Exam
     Read the exam carefully.
     Write your answer.

27 Creating a Portfolio
     Purposes of a Writing Portfolio
     Assembling a Portfolio for Your Composition Course
     Select your work.
     Reflect on your work and what you have learned.
     Organize your portfolio.

28 Analyzing Visuals
     Criteria for Analyzing Visuals
     A Sample Analysis

29 Writing in Business and Scientific Genres
     Business Letters
     E-mail
     Résumés
     Job-Application Letters
     Web Pages
     Lab Reports

30 Writing for—and about—Your Community
     Writing about Your Service Experience
     Find a topic.
     Gather sources.
     Writing for Your Service Organization

31 Writing Collaboratively
     Working with Others on Your Individual Writing Projects
     Collaborating on Joint Writing Projects

32 Designing for Page and Screen
     The Impact of Document Design
     Considering Purpose, Audience, Context, and Medium
     Elements of Document Design
     Choose readable fonts.
     Use headings to organize your writing.
     Use lists to highlight steps or key points.
     Use colors with care.
     Use white space to make text readable.
     Adding Visuals
     Number, title, and label visuals.
     Cite visual sources.
     Integrate the visual into the text.
     Use common sense when creating visuals on a computer.

33 Composing Multimodal Presentations
     Preparing
     Understand the kind of presentation you have been asked to give.  
     Assess your audience and purpose.
     Determine how much information you can present in the allotted time.
     Use cues to orient listeners.
     Prepare effective and appropriate multimedia aides.
     Verify that you will have the correct equipment and supplies.
     Rehearse your presentation
     Delivering Your Presentation

HANDBOOK
     How to Use This Handbook
     Keeping a Record of Your Own Errors
S Sentence Boundaries
     S1 Comma Splices 
     S2 Fused Sentences
     S3 Sentence Fragments
G Grammatical Sentences
     G1 Pronoun Reference
     G2 Pronoun Agreement
     G3 Relative Pronouns
     G4 Pronoun Case
     G5 Verbs
     G6 Subject-Verb Agreement
     G7 Adjectives and Adverbs
E Effective Sentences
     E1 Missing Words
     E2 Shifts
     E3 Noun Agreement
     E4 Modifiers
     E5 Mixed Constructions
     E6 Integrated Quotations, Questions, and Thoughts
     E7 Parallelism
     E8 Coordination and Subordination
W Word Choice
     W1 Concise Sentences
     W2 Exact Words
     W3 Appropriate Words
P Punctuation
     P1 Commas
     P2 Unnecessary Commas
     P3 Semicolons
     P4 Colons
     P5 Dashes
     P6 Quotation Marks
     P7 Apostrophes
     P8 Parentheses
     P9 Brackets
     P10 Ellipsis Marks
     P11 Slashes
     P12 Periods
     P13 Question Marks
     P14 Exclamation Points
M Mechanics
     M1 Hyphens
     M2 Capitalization
     M3 Spacing
     M4 Numbers
     M5 Italics
     M6 Abbreviations
     M7 Spelling
T Troublespots for Multilingual Writers 
     T1 Articles
     T2 Verbs
     T3 Prepositions
     T4 Omitted or Repeated Words
     T5 Adjective Order
     T6 Participles
R Review of Sentence Structure
     R1 Basic Sentence Structure
     R2 Basic Sentence Elements
GL Glossary of Frequently Misused Words

Index
Index for Multilingual Writers

Preface

1 Composing Literacy
Understanding the Rhetorical Situation
Applying the Rhetorical Framework
Reflecting on Your Own Literacy
Reading
Annie Dillard, Handed My Own Life
Composing Your Own Literacy Narrative

PART 1 Writing Activities
2 Remembering an Event
     PRACTICING THE GENRE: Telling a Story
GUIDE TO READING
Analyzing Remembered Event Essays
Determine the writer’s purpose and audience. 00
Assess the genre’s basic features.
Readings
Jean Brandt, Calling Home
Annie Dillard, An American Childhood
Jenée Desmond-Harris, Tupac and My Non-thug Life
Peter Orner, Writing about What Haunts Us
     GENRE REMIX: Remixing Your Remembered Event Essay
GUIDE TO WRITING
     The Writing Assignment
          STARTING POINTS:
Remembering an Event
     Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing
     Choose an event to write about.
          TEST YOUR TOPIC: CONSIDERING PURPOSE AND AUDIENCE
     Shape your story.
          WAYS IN: Developing a Dramatic Arc
     Organize your story to enhance the drama.
          TEST YOUR STORY: FACING AN AUDIENCE
     Clarify the sequence of actions. 00
     Describe key people and places vividly, and show their significance. 00
     Use dialogue to portray people and dramatize relationships.
     Clarify your story’s significance.
          WAYS IN: Helping Readers Understand the Significance
     Write the opening sentences. 00
     Draft your story.
     Evaluating the Draft: Using Peer Review
          A PEER REVIEW GUIDE
     Improving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
     Revise your draft.
          A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
     Edit and proofread your draft.
A WRITER AT WORK
     Jean Brandt’s Developing Significance from First to Last Drafts
THINKING CRITICALLY
     Reflecting on What You Have Learned
     Reflecting on the Genre

3 Writing Profiles
          PRACTICING THE GENRE: Conducting an Interview
GUIDE TO READING
     Analyzing Profiles
     Determine the writer’s purpose and audience. 00
     Assess the genre’s basic features.
     Readings
     Brian Cable, The Last Stop
     John Ronson, The Hunger Games
     Amanda Coyne, The Long Good-Bye: Mother’s Day in Federal Prison
     Gabriel Thompson, A Gringo in the Lettuce Fields
          GENRE REMIX: Remixing Your Profile
GUIDE TO WRITING
     The Writing Assignment
     STARTING POINTS:
Writing a Profile
     Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing
     Choose a subject to profile.
          TEST YOUR CHOICE
     Conduct your field research.
          WAYS IN: Managing Your Time
          WAYS IN: Preparing for Interviews and Observations
          WAYS IN: Conducting Interviews 
          WAYS IN: Conducting Observations
          WAYS IN: Presenting Information from Interviews and Observations
     Use quotations that provide information and reveal character. 00
     Consider adding visual or audio elements. 00
     Create an outline that will organize your profile effectively for your readers. 00
     Determine your role in the profile.
          WAYS IN: Determining Your Role
     Develop your perspective on the subject.
          WAYS IN: Developing Your Perspective
     Clarify the dominant impression. 
          WAYS IN: Fine-Tuning Your Dominant Impression
     Write the opening sentences.
     Draft your profile.
     Evaluating the Draft: Using Peer Review
          A PEER REVIEW GUIDE
     Improving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
     Revise your draft.
          A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
     Edit and proofread your draft. 
A WRITER AT WORK
     Brian Cable’s Interview Notes and Write-Up
THINKING CRITICALLY
     Reflecting on What You Have Learned
     Reflecting on the Genre
 
4 Explaining a Concept
          PRACTICING THE GENRE:
Explaining an Academic Concept
GUIDE TO READING
     Analyzing Concept Explanations
     Determine the writer’s purpose and audience.
     Assess the genre’s basic features.
     Readings
     Jonathan Potthast, Supervolcanoes: A Catastrophe of Ice and Fire
     Anastasia Toufexis, Love: The Right Chemistry
     John Tierney, Do You Suffer from Decision Fatique?
     Susan Cain, Shyness: Evolutionary Tactic?
          REMIX: Remixing Your  Concept Explanation
GUIDE TO WRITING
     The Writing Assignment
          STARTING POINTS:
Explaining a Concept
     Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing
     Choose a broad concept to write about.
          TEST YOUR CHOICE: CHOOSING A TOPIC
     Conduct initial research on the concept.
          WAYS IN: Determining What You Already Know about the Concept
     Find an engaging focus and angle on the concept.
          WAYS IN: Making the Concept Interesting to You and Your Readers
          TEST YOUR CHOICE: EVALUATING YOUR ANGLE
     Conduct further research on your focused concept. 
     Draft your working thesis. 
     Create an outline that will organize your concept explanation effectively for your readers. 
     Design your writing project. 
     Consider the explanatory strategies you should use.
          WAYS IN: Choosing Writing Strategies to Explain the Focused Concept
     Use summaries, paraphrases, and quotations from sources to support your points. 
          WAYS IN: Deciding Whether to Summarize, Paraphrase, or Quote
     Use visuals or multimedia illustrations to enhance your explanation. 
     Use appositives to integrate sources. 
     Use descriptive verbs in signal phrases to introduce information from sources.
     Write the opening sentences. 
     Draft your explanation.
     Evaluating the Draft: Using Peer Review
          A PEER REVIEW GUIDE
     Improving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
     Revise your draft.
          A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
     Edit and proofread your draft.
A WRITER AT WORK
     Jonathan Potthast’s Use of Sources
THINKING CRITICALLY
     Reflecting on What You Have Learned
     Reflecting on the Genre
 
5 Analyzing and Synthesizing Opposing Arguments 
           PRACTICING THE GENRE:
Analyzing Opposing Arguments 
 GUIDE TO READING 
      Analyzing Four Genres 
      Determine the writer’s purpose and audience.  
      Assess the genres’ basic features.  
      Readings 
           *Maya Gomez, Summary: A Moral Market, Richard Posner 
           *Maya Gomez, Annotated Bibliography: Compensating Kidney Donors 
           *Maya Gomez, Report: Possible Solutions to the Kidney Shortage 
           *Maya Gomez, Analysis: Satel vs. the National Kidney Foundation: Should Kidney Donors
           Be Compensated? 
               REMIX: Remixing Your Report 
 GUIDE TO WRITING 
      The Writing Assignment 
           STARTING POINTS: Composing a Summary, Annotated Bibliography, Report, or Analysis 
      Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing 
      Choose a controversial topic to write about.  
           TEST YOUR CHOICE: Choosing a Topic 
      Conduct research to find sources. 
      Summarize sources and annotate your working bibliography. 
           WAYS IN: Writing a Summary 
      Add a commentary to your annotated bibliography. 
           WAYS IN: Drafting a Commentary for an Annotated Bibliography 
      Analyze your audience. 
           WAYS IN: Interesting Readers in Your Report or Analysis 
      Choose opposing argument essays to analyze. 
      Brainstorm subtopics for a report. 
      Synthesize sources for a report or analysis. 
      Analyze and compare the opposing argument essays. 
           WAYS IN: Analyzing and Comparing Opposing Arguments 
           TEST YOUR CHOICE: Evaluating Your Analysis 
      Draft a working thesis statement for your report or analysis. 
      Create an outline to organize your report or analysis effectively for your readers. 
      Develop your report or analysis. 
           WAYS IN: Presenting Your Analysis of the Opposing Argument 
           WAYS IN: Choosing appropriate explanatory strategies 
       Use visuals or multimedia illustrations to enhance your explanation. 
      Write the opening sentences. 
      Draft your report or analysis. 
      Evaluating the Draft: Using Peer Review 
           A PEER REVIEW GUIDE 
      Improving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading 
           Revise your draft. 
                A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE 
           Edit and proofread your draft. 
      A WRITER AT WORK 
      Analyzing Opposing Argument Text 
           Gomez’s Annotations on Satel’s Op-Ed 
           Gomez’s Comparative Analysis Chart 
      THINKING CRITICALLY 
          Reflecting on What You Have Learned 
      CASEBOOK
           National Kidney Foundation, Financial Incentives for Organ Donation
           *Gary S. Becker & Julio J. Elías, Cash for Kidneys: The Case for a Market for Organs
           *Sally Satel, When Altruism Isn’t Moral
           Reflecting on the Genres  

6 Arguing a Position
          PRACTICING THE GENRE:
Debating a Position
GUIDE TO READING
     Analyzing Position Arguments
     Determine the writer’s purpose and audience. 
     Assess the genre’s basic features.
     Readings
     Jessica Statsky, Children Need to Play, Not Compete
     *Noam Bramson, Child, Home, Neighbohood, Community, Conscience
     Amitai Etzioni, Working at McDonald’s
     Daniel J. Solove, Why Privacy Matters Even If You Have “Nothing to Hide”
          REMIX: Remixing Your Position Argument 
GUIDE TO WRITING
     The Writing Assignment
          STARTING POINTS:
Arguing a Position
     Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing
     Choose a controversial issue on which to take a position.
          TEST YOUR CHOICE: CHOOSING AN ISSUE
     Frame the issue for your readers.
          WAYS IN: Exploring and Framing the Issue and What Your Readers Think
          TEST YOUR CHOICE: FRAMING YOUR ISSUE
     Formulate a working thesis stating your position.
          WAYS IN: Devising an Arguable Thesis
     Develop the reasons supporting your position.
          WAYS IN: Devise Reasons to Support Your Position
     Research your position.
     Use sources to reinforce your credibility.
     Identify and respond to your readers’ likely reasons and objections.
          WAYS IN: Identifying and Responding to Readers’ Concerns
     Create an outline that will organize your argument effectively for your readers.
     Consider document design. 
     Write the opening sentences.
     Draft your position argument.
     Evaluating the Draft: Using Peer Review
          A PEER REVIEW GUIDE
     Improving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
     Revise your draft.
          A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
     Think about design.
     Edit and proofread your draft.
A WRITER AT WORK
     Jessica Statsky’s Response to Opposing Positions
     Listing Reasons for the Opposing Position
     Conceding a Plausible Reason 
     Refuting an Implausible Reason
THINKING CRITICALLY
     Reflecting on What You Have Learned
     Reflecting on the Genre

7 Proposing a Solution
          PRACTICING THE GENRE:
Arguing That a Solution Is Feasible
GUIDE TO READING
     Analyzing Proposals
     Determine the writer’s purpose and audience. 
     Assess the genre’s basic features.
     Readings
     Patrick O’Malley, More Testing, More Learning
     *Naomi Rose, Captivity Kills Orcas
     *Eric Posner, A Moral Market
     Kelly D. Brownell and Thomas R. Frieden, Ounces of Prevention—The Public Policy Case for
     Taxes on Sugared Beverages
          REMIX:  Remixing Your Proposal
GUIDE TO WRITING
     The Writing Assignment
          STARTING POINTS:
Proposing a Solution
     Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing
     Choose a problem for which you can propose a solution.
          TEST YOUR CHOICE: CHOOSING A PROBLEM
     Frame the problem for your readers.
          WAYS IN: Identifying the Problem and Figuring Out Why Readers Will Care
          TEST YOUR CHOICE: DEFINING THE PROBLEM
     Use statistics to establish the problem’s existence and seriousness. 
     Assess how the problem has been framed, and reframe it for your readers.
          WAYS IN: Framing and Reframing the Problem
     Develop a possible solution.
          WAYS IN: Solving the Problem
     Explain your solution.
          WAYS IN: Explaining the Solution and Showing Its Feasibility
     Research your proposal. 
     Develop a response to objections and alternative solutions.
          WAYS IN: Drafting a Refutation or Concession
     Create an outline that will organize your proposal effectively for your readers. 
     Write the opening sentences. 
     Draft your proposal.
     Evaluating the Draft: Using Peer Review
          A PEER REVIEW GUIDE
     Improving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
     Revise your draft.
          A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
     Think about design. 
     Edit and proofread your draft.
A WRITER AT WORK
     Patrick O’Malley’s Revision Process
THINKING CRITICALLY
     Reflecting on What You Have Learned
     Reflecting on the Genre

8 Justifying an Evaluation
          PRACTICING THE GENRE
: Choosing Appropriate Criteria
GUIDE TO READING
     Analyzing Evaluations
     Determine the writer’s purpose and audience. 
     Assess the genre’s basic features.
     Readings
     William Akana, Scott Pilgrim vs. the World: A Hell of a Ride
     *Emily Nussbaum, The Aristocrats: The Graphic Arts of Game of Thrones
      Malcolm Gladwell, What College Rankings Really Tell Us
     *Sherry Turkle, The Flight from Conversation
          REMIX: Remixing Your Evaluation
GUIDE TO WRITING
     The Writing Assignment
          STARTING POINTS:
Justifying an Evaluation
     Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing
     Choose a subject to evaluate.
          TEST YOUR CHOICE: CHOOSING A SUBJECT
     Assess your subject and consider how to present it to your readers.
          WAYS IN: Determining What You and Your Readers Think
     Formulate a working thesis stating your overall judgment.
          WAYS IN: Asserting a Tentative Overall Judgment
     Develop the reasons and evidence supporting your judgment.
          WAYS IN: Devising Reasons and Evidence to Support Your Judgment
     Research your evaluation.
     Respond to a likely objection or alternative judgment.
          WAYS IN: Responding Effectively to Readers
     Organize your draft to appeal to your readers.
     Consider document design.
     Write the opening sentences.
     Draft your evaluation.
     Evaluating the Draft: Using Peer Review
          A PEER REVIEW GUIDE
     Improving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
     Revise your draft.
          A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
     Think about design.
     Edit and proofread your draft.
A WRITER AT WORK
     William Akana’s Thesis and Response to Objections
THINKING CRITICALLY
     Reflecting on What You Have Learned
     Reflecting on the Genre

9 Arguing for Causes or Effects
          PRACTICING THE GENRE:
Arguing That a Cause Is Plausible
GUIDE TO READING
     Analyzing Causal Arguments
     Determine the writer’s purpose and audience.
     Assess the genre’s basic features.
     Readings
     *Clayton Pangelinan, #socialnetworking: Why It’s Really So Popular
     Stephen King, Why We Crave Horror Movies
     *Claudia Wallis, The Multitasking Generation
     Shankar Vedantam, The Telescope Effect
          REMIX: Remixing Your Causal Argument
GUIDE TO WRITING
     The Writing Assignment
          STARTING POINTS:
Speculating about Causes
     Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing
     Choose a subject to analyze.
          TEST YOUR CHOICE: CHOOSING A TOPIC
     Present the subject to your readers.
          WAYS IN: Figuring Out What You and Your Readers Think
     Analyze possible causes and effects.
          WAYS IN: Analyzing Possible Causes and Effects
     Conduct research.
     Cite a variety of sources to support your causal analysis.
     Formulate a working thesis stating your preferred cause(s) or effect(s).
          WAYS IN: Asserting a Thesis
     Draft a response to objections readers are likely to raise.
          WAYS IN: Responding Effectively to Readers’ Objections
     Draft a response to the causes or effects your readers are likely to favor.
         WAYS IN: Responding to Readers’ Preferred Causes
     Create an outline that will organize your causal argument effectively for your readers.
     Write the opening sentences.
     Draft your causal argument.
     Evaluating the Draft: Using Peer Review
          A PEER REVIEW GUIDE
     Improving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
     Revise your draft.
          A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
     Think about design.
     Edit and proofread your draft.
A WRITER AT WORK
     Clayton Pangelinan’s Analysis of Possible Causes
THINKING CRITICALLY
     Reflecting on What You Have Learned
     Reflecting on the Genre

10 Analyzing Stories
          PRACTICING THE GENRE:
Analyzing a Story Collaboratively
GUIDE TO READING
     Analyzing Essays That Analyze Stories
     Determine the writer’s purpose and audience.
     Assess the genre’s basic features.
     Readings
     Iris Lee, Performing a Doctor’s Duty
     Isabella Wright, “For Heaven’s Sake!”
          REMIX: Remixing Your Literary Analysis  
GUIDE TO WRITING
     The Writing Assignment
          STARTING POINTS:
Analyzing Stories
     Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and Composing
     Find a story to write about.
     Analyze the story.
          WAYS IN: Generating Ideas by Selecting an Element to Analyze and an Approach to Take
          WAYS IN: Generating Ideas by Moving from Specific Details to General Ideas and Vice Versa
          TEST YOUR CHOICE: CHOOSING A TOPIC
     Formulate a working thesis.
          WAYS IN: Formulating an Arguable Thesis
     Provide support for your argument.
          WAYS IN: Integrating Evidence from the Story
     To build on your support, consider doing outside research.
     Create an outline that will organize your argument effectively.
     Write the opening sentences.
     Draft your analysis.
     Evaluating the Draft: Using Peer Review
          A PEER REVIEW GUIDE
     Improving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
     Revise your draft.
          A TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE
     Think about design.
     Edit and proofread your draft.
A WRITER AT WORK
    Isabella Wright’s Invention Work
THINKING CRITICALLY
     Reflecting on What You Have Learned
     Reflecting on the Genre
AN ANTHOLOGY OF SHORT STORIES
     Kate Chopin, The Story of an Hour
     James Joyce, Araby
     William Carlos Williams, The Use of Force
     Jamaica Kincaid, Girl

PART 2 Critical Thinking Strategies
11 A Catalog of Invention Strategies
     Mapping
     Create a cluster diagram.
     Make a list.
     Create an outline.
     Writing
     Use cubing.
     Construct a dialogue.
     Use the five elements of dramatizing.
     Freewrite for a set amount of time.
     Keep a journal.
     Use looping.
     Ask questions.

12 A Catalog of Reading Strategies
     Annotating
     Martin Luther King Jr., An Annotated Sample from “Letter from Birmingham Jail”
     Taking Inventory
     Outlining
     Paraphrasing
     Summarizing
     Synthesizing
     Contextualizing
     Exploring the Significance of Figurative Language
     Looking for Patterns of Opposition
     Reflecting on Challenges to Your Beliefs and Values
     Evaluating the Logic of an Argument
     Test for appropriateness. 
     Test for believability. 
     Test for consistency and completeness.
     Recognizing Emotional Manipulation
     Judging the Writer’s Credibility
     Test for knowledge. 
     Test for common ground. 
     Test for fairness.

PART 3 Writing Strategies
13 Cueing the Reader
     Orienting Statements
     Use thesis statements to announce the main idea.
     Use forecasting statements to preview topics.
     Paragraphing
     Paragraph indents signal related ideas.
     Topic sentences announce the paragraph’s focus.
     Cohesive Devices
     Pronouns connect phrases or sentences. 
     Word repetition aids cohesion.
     Synonyms connect ideas.
     Repetition of sentence structure emphasizes connections.
     Collocation creates networks of meaning.
     Transitions
     Transitions emphasize logical relationships.
     Transitions can indicate a sequence in time.
     Transitions can indicate relationships in space.
     Headings and Subheadings
     Headings indicate sections and levels.
     Headings are not common in all genres.
     At least two headings are needed at each level.

14 Narrating
     Narrating Strategies
     Use calendar and clock time to create a sequence of events.
     Use temporal transitions to establish an action sequence. 
     Use verb tense to place actions in time.  
     Use action sequences for vivid narration.
     Use dialogue to dramatize events.
     Narrating a Process
     Use process narratives to explain. 
     Use process narratives to instruct.
     Sentence Strategies for Narration
 
15 Describing
     Naming
     Detailing
     Comparing
     Using Sensory Description
     Describe what you saw.
     Describe what you heard.
     Describe what you smelled.
     Describe tactile sensations.
     Describe flavors.
     Creating a Dominant Impression
     Sentence Strategies for Description

16 Defining
     Sentence Definitions
     Extended Definitions
     Historical Definitions
     Stipulative Definitions
     Sentence Strategies for Definition

17 Classifying
     Organizing Classification
     Illustrating Classification
     Maintaining Clarity and Coherence
     Sentence Strategies for Classification

18 Comparing and Contrasting
     Organizing Comparisons and Contrasts
     Using Analogy to Compare
     Sentence Strategies for Comparison and Contrast

19 Arguing
     Asserting a Thesis
     Make arguable assertions.
     Use clear and precise wording.
     Qualify the thesis appropriately.
     Giving Reasons and Support
     Use representative examples for support.
     Use up-to-date, relevant, and accurate statistics.
     Cite reputable authorities on relevant topics.
     Use vivid, relevant anecdotes.
     Use relevant textual evidence.
     Responding to Objections and Alternatives
     Acknowledge readers’ concerns.
     Concede readers’ concerns.
     Refute readers’ objections.
     Logical Fallacies
     Sentence Strategies for Argument

PART 4 Research Strategies
20 Planning a Research Project
     Analyzing Your Rhetorical Situation and Setting a Schedule
     Choosing a Topic and Getting an Overview
     Narrowing Your Topic and Drafting Research Questions
     Establishing a Research Log
     Creating a Working Bibliography
     Annotating Your Working Bibliography
     Taking Notes on Your Sources

21 Finding Sources and Conducting Field Research
     Searching Library Catalogs and Databases
     Use appropriate search terms.
     Narrow (or expand) your results. 
     Find books (and other sources).
     Find articles in periodicals.
     Find government documents and statistical information. 
     Find Web sites and interactive sources.
     Conducting Field Research
     Conduct observational studies.
          PRACTICING THE GENRE: Collaborating on an Observational Study
     Conduct interviews.
          PRACTICING THE GENRE: Interviewing a Classmate
     Conduct surveys.

22 Evaluating Sources
     Choosing Relevant Sources
     Choosing Reliable Sources
     Who wrote it? 
     When was it published? 
      Is the source scholarly, popular, or for a trade group? 
     Who published it? 
     How is the source written? 
     What does the source say?

23 Using Sources to Support Your Ideas
     Synthesizing Sources
     Acknowledging Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism
     What does and does not need to be acknowledged. 
     Avoid plagiarism by acknowledging sources and quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing carefully.
     Using Information from Sources to Support Your Claims
     Decide whether to quote, paraphrase, or summarize. 
     Copy quotations exactly, or use italics, ellipses, and brackets to indicate changes.  
     Use in-text or block quotations. 
     Use punctuation to integrate quotations into your writing.  
     Paraphrase sources carefully. 
     Summaries should present the source’s main ideas in a balanced and readable way.

24 Citing and Documenting Sources in MLA Style
     Citing Sources in the Text
          DIRECTORY TO IN-TEXT CITATION MODELS
     Creating a List of Works Cited
          DIRECTORY TO WORKS-CITED LIST MODELS
Format your list of works cited. 
Cite all sources, regardless of medium. 
Student Research Project in MLA Style

25 Citing and Documenting Sources in APA Style
     Citing Sources in the Text
          DIRECTORY TO IN-TEXT CITATION MODELS
     Creating a List of References
          DIRECTORY TO REFERENCE LIST MODELS
     A Sample Reference List

PART 5  Composing Strategies for College and Beyond
26 Taking Essay Examinations
     Preparing for an Exam
     Taking the Exam
     Read the exam carefully.
     Write your answer.

27 Creating a Portfolio
     Purposes of a Writing Portfolio
     Assembling a Portfolio for Your Composition Course
     Select your work.
     Reflect on your work and what you have learned.
     Organize your portfolio.

28 Analyzing Visuals
     Criteria for Analyzing Visuals
     A Sample Analysis

29 Writing in Business and Scientific Genres
     Business Letters
     E-mail
     Résumés
     Job-Application Letters
     Web Pages
     Lab Reports

30 Writing for—and about—Your Community
     Writing about Your Service Experience
     Find a topic.
     Gather sources.
     Writing for Your Service Organization

31 Writing Collaboratively
     Working with Others on Your Individual Writing Projects
     Collaborating on Joint Writing Projects

32 Designing for Page and Screen
     The Impact of Document Design
     Considering Purpose, Audience, Context, and Medium
     Elements of Document Design
     Choose readable fonts.
     Use headings to organize your writing.
     Use lists to highlight steps or key points.
     Use colors with care.
     Use white space to make text readable.
     Adding Visuals
     Number, title, and label visuals.
     Cite visual sources.
     Integrate the visual into the text.
     Use common sense when creating visuals on a computer.

33 Composing Multimodal Presentations
     Preparing
     Understand the kind of presentation you have been asked to give.  
     Assess your audience and purpose.
     Determine how much information you can present in the allotted time.
     Use cues to orient listeners.
     Prepare effective and appropriate multimedia aides.
     Verify that you will have the correct equipment and supplies.
     Rehearse your presentation
     Delivering Your Presentation

HANDBOOK
     How to Use This Handbook
     Keeping a Record of Your Own Errors
S Sentence Boundaries
     S1 Comma Splices 
     S2 Fused Sentences
     S3 Sentence Fragments
G Grammatical Sentences
     G1 Pronoun Reference
     G2 Pronoun Agreement
     G3 Relative Pronouns
     G4 Pronoun Case
     G5 Verbs
     G6 Subject-Verb Agreement
     G7 Adjectives and Adverbs
E Effective Sentences
     E1 Missing Words
     E2 Shifts
     E3 Noun Agreement
     E4 Modifiers
     E5 Mixed Constructions
     E6 Integrated Quotations, Questions, and Thoughts
     E7 Parallelism
     E8 Coordination and Subordination
W Word Choice
     W1 Concise Sentences
     W2 Exact Words
     W3 Appropriate Words
P Punctuation
     P1 Commas
     P2 Unnecessary Commas
     P3 Semicolons
     P4 Colons
     P5 Dashes
     P6 Quotation Marks
     P7 Apostrophes
     P8 Parentheses
     P9 Brackets
     P10 Ellipsis Marks
     P11 Slashes
     P12 Periods
     P13 Question Marks
     P14 Exclamation Points
M Mechanics
     M1 Hyphens
     M2 Capitalization
     M3 Spacing
     M4 Numbers
     M5 Italics
     M6 Abbreviations
     M7 Spelling
T Troublespots for Multilingual Writers 
     T1 Articles
     T2 Verbs
     T3 Prepositions
     T4 Omitted or Repeated Words
     T5 Adjective Order
     T6 Participles
R Review of Sentence Structure
     R1 Basic Sentence Structure
     R2 Basic Sentence Elements
GL Glossary of Frequently Misused Words

Index
Index for Multilingual Writers

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