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The best-selling college rhetoric for over 25 years, The St. Martin's Guide has achieved an unmatched record of success by providing practical innovations for the ever-changing composition course. The acclaimed step-by-step Guides to Writing offer sure-fire invention strategies to get students started, sentence strategies to get and keep students writing, and thoughtful revision strategies to help students make their writing their own. With more hands-on activities for critical reading and working with sources, greater emphasis on the rhetorical situation, a revamped design that helps students see what they need to do at a glance, and a greater variety of formats (cloth, paper, loose-leaf, and e-books), the Guide is better than ever. The print text is now integrated with e-Pages for The St. Martin's Guide, designed to take advantage of what the Web can do.
Rise B. Axelrod is McSweeney Professor of Rhetoric and Teaching Excellence, Emeritus, at the University of California, Riverside, where she was also director of English Composition. She has previously been professor of English at California State University, San Bernardino; director of the College Expository Program at the University of Colorado, Boulder; and assistant director of the Third College (now Thurgood Marshall College) Composition Program at the University of California, San Diego. She is the co-author, with Charles R. Cooper, of the best-selling textbook The St. Martin's Guide to Writing as well as The Concise Guide to Writing and Reading Critically, Writing Well.
Charles R. Cooper is an emeritus professor at the University of California, San Diego. He served as coordinator of the Third College (now Thurgood Marshall College) Composition Program at the University of California, San Diego, and co-director of the San Diego Writing Project, one of the National Writing Project Centers. He advised the National Assessment of Educational Progress—Writing (1973-1981) and coordinated the development of California's first statewide writing assessment (1986-1991). He taught at the University of California, Riverside; the State University of New York at Buffalo; and the University of California, San Diego. He is co-editor, with Lee Odell, of Evaluating Writing and Research on Composing: Points of Departure, and he is co-author, with Rise Axelrod, of the best-selling textbook The St. Martin's Guide to Writing as well as The Concise Guide to Writing and Reading Critically, Writing Well.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction: Thinking about WritingWhy Write?Write to communicate effectively in different rhetorical situations.Write to think.Write to learn.Write to succeed.Write to know yourself and connect to other people.How The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing Helps You Learn to WriteLearn to write by using the Guides to Reading.Learn to write by using the Guides to Writing.Thinking Critically Reflection: A Literacy StoryPART 1 WRITING ACTIVITIESChapter 2 Remembering an Event Practicing the Genre: Telling a StoryGUIDE TO READINGAnalyzing Remembered Event EssaysDetermine the writer’s purpose and audience. Assess the genre’s basic features: A well-told story, vivid description of people and places, autobiographical significance.ReadingsJean Brandt, Calling Home*e-Pages: Shannon Lewis, We Were Here [student essay]Annie Dillard, An American Childhood*Jenée Desmond-Harris, Tupac and My Non-Thug Life*Tom Ruprecht, In Too Deep*e-Pages: Juliane Koepcke, How I Survived a Plane Crash [article and podcast interview]*e-Pages: Andrew Lam, Waterloo, [book excerpt]Playing with Genre: Graphic Memoirs *e-Pages: Kate Beaton, TreasureGUIDE TO WRITINGThe Writing Assignment Starting Points: Remembering an Event Writing a Draft: Invention, Planning, and ComposingChoose an event to write about.Shape your tale. Ways In: Bringing Your Story into FocusOrganize your story to enhance the drama.Choose your tense, and plan time cues.Use dialogue to tell your story.Develop and refine your descriptions. Ways In: Describing People and PlacesIncorporate descriptive details throughout your story. Ways In: Working Descriptions into Action SequencesConsider ways to convey your event’s autobiographical significance. Ways In: Conveying Autobiographical SignificanceWrite the opening sentences.Draft your story.Evaluating the Draft: Getting a Critical Reading A Critical Reading GuideImproving the Draft: Revising, Editing, and ProofreadingRevise your draft. A Troubleshooting GuideThink about design.Edit and proofread your draft. Using the Right Word or Expression. Dialogue Issues Using the Past PerfectA WRITER AT WORKJean Brandt’s Essay from Invention to RevisionInventionThe First DraftCritical Reading and RevisionTHINKING CRITICALLYReflecting on What You Have LearnedReflecting on the GenreChapter 3 Writing Profiles Practicing the Genre: Conducting an InterviewGUIDE TO READINGAnalyzing ProfilesDetermine the writer’s purpose and audience. Assess the genre’s basic features: Detailed information about the subject; a clear, logical organization; the writer’s role; a perspective on the subject.ReadingsBrian Cable, The Last Stop*e-Pages: Brianne O’Leary, Fatty’s Custom Tattooz and Body Piercing [student essay]John T. Edge, I’m Not Leaving Until I Eat This ThingAmanda Coyne, The Long Good-Bye: Mother’s Day in Federal Prison*Gabriel Thompson, A Gringo in the Lettuce Fields *e-Pages: Sam Dillon, 4,100 Students Prove "Small Is Better" Rule [article and slide show]*e-Pages: Veronica Chambers, The Secret Latina [article with images]Playing with Genre: TV and Film Documentaries *e-Pages: Dirty Jobs with Mike Rowe, Skill Cleaner [linked video]GUIDE TO WRITINGThe Writing Assignment Starting Points: Writing a Profile Writing a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and ComposingChoose a subject to profile. Test Your ChoiceConduct your field research. Ways In: Managing Your Time Ways In: Setting Up and Conducting Interviews and ObservationsIntegrate quotations from your interviews.Create an outline that will organize your profile effectively for your readers.Consider document design.Determine your role in the profile. Ways In: Advantages and Drawbacks of Participant-Observer, Spectator, and Alternating RolesDevelop your perspective on the subject. Ways In: Developing and Clarifying Your PerspectiveWrite the opening sentences.Draft your profile.Evaluating the Draft: Getting a Critical Reading A Critical Reading GuideImproving the Draft: Revising, Formatting, Editing, and ProofreadingRevise your draft. A Troubleshooting GuideThink about design.Edit and proofread your draft. Checking the Punctuation of Quotations Integrating Participial Phrases A Common Problem for Multilingual Writers: Adjective OrderA WRITER AT WORKBrian Cable’s Interview Notes and Write-UpThe Interview NotesThe Interview Write-UpTHINKING CRITICALLYReflecting on What You Have LearnedReflecting on the GenreChapter 4 Explaining a Concept Practicing the Genre: Explaining an Academic ConceptGUIDE TO READINGAnalyzing Concept ExplanationsDetermine the writer’s purpose and audience. Assess the genre’s basic features: A focused explanation; a clear, logical organization; appropriate explanatory strategies; smooth integration of sources Readings*Patricia Lyu, Attachment: Someone to Watch over You*e-Pages: Ammar Rana, Jihad: The Struggle in the Way of God [student essay]Anastasia Toufexis, Love: The Right Chemistry*Dan Hurley, Can You Make Yourself Smarter?*Susan Cain, Shyness: Evolutionary Tactic?*e-Pages: Slate, What Extremely Walkable and Unwalkable Neighborhoods Look Like [interactive maps and chart]*e-Pages: Melinda Beck, What Cocktail Parties Teach UsPlaying with Genre: Infographics and Other Concept Explanations Online *e-Pages: National Geogrpahic Online, Mapping Memory [Annotated Web pages]GUIDE TO WRITINGThe Writing Assignment Starting Points: Explaining a ConceptWriting a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and ComposingChoose a concept to write about. Test Your ChoiceConduct initial research on the concept. Ways In: Determining What You Know and What You Need to LearnFocus your explanation of the concept. Ways In: Making the Concept Interesting to You and Your Readers Test Your ChoiceConduct further research on your focused concept.Draft your working thesis, and organize your explanation.Organize your concept explanation effectively for your readers.Design your writing project.Consider the explanatory strategies you should use. Ways In: Using Writing Strategies to Explain Your Focused ConceptUse summaries, paraphrases, and quotations from sources to support your points.Use visuals or multimedia illustrations to enhance your explanation.Use appositives to integrate sources.Use descriptive verbs in signal phrases to introduce information from sources.Write the opening sentences.Draft your explanation.Evaluating the Draft: Getting a Critical Reading A Critical Reading GuideImproving the Draft: Revising, Formatting, Editing, and ProofreadingRevise your draft. A Troubleshooting GuideThink about design.Edit and proofread your draft. Avoiding Mixed Constructions Using Punctuation with Adjective Clauses Using Commas with Interrupting PhrasesA WRITER AT WORK Patricia Lyu’s Use of SourcesTHINKING CRITICALLYReflecting on What You Have LearnedReflecting on the GenreChapter 5 Finding Common Ground Practicing the Genre: Finding Common GroundGUIDE TO READINGAnalyzing Opposing Positions to Find Common GroundDetermine the writer’s purpose and audience. Assess the genre’s basic features: An informative introduction to the issue and opposing positions; a probing analysis; a fair and impartial presentation; a clear, logical organizationReadingsJeremy Bernard, Lost Innocence*Betsy Samson, Does Mother Know Best?Melissa Mae, Laying Claim to a Higher Morality*e-pages: Chris Sexton: Virtual Reality? [student essay]Playing with Genre: Talk Shows and Blogs *e-Pages: Bloggingheads.tv [podcast interview]GUIDE TO WRITINGThe Writing Assignment Starting Points: Finding Common GroundWriting a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and ComposingChoose opposing argument essays to write about.Analyze the opposing argument essays. Ways In: Analyzing the Argument Essays Test Your ChoiceThink about your readers.Research the issue.Present the issue to your readers.Develop your analysis. Ways In: Presenting Your Analysis Test Your AnalysisFormulate a working thesis statement.Define your purpose for your readers.Consider your tone.Weave quoted material into your own sentences.Create an outline that will organize your analysis effectively for your readers.Write the opening sentences.Draft your essay finding common ground.Evaluating the Draft: Getting a Critical Reading A Critical Reading GuideImproving the Draft: Revising, Formatting, Editing, and ProofreadingRevise your draft. A Troubleshooting GuideThink about design.Edit and proofread your draft. Using Commas around Interrupting Phrases Correcting Vague Pronoun ReferenceA WRITER AT WORKBetsy Samson’s Analysis of Opposing Argument Essays Annotations Charting the AnnotationsTHINKING CRITICALLYReflecting on What You Have LearnedReflecting on the GenreAPPENDIXIssue 1: Understanding the Issue of Parenting Style*Amy Chua, Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior*Hanna Rosin, Mother Inferior?*Don Aucoin, For Some Helicopter Parenting Delivers BenefitsIssue 2: Understanding the Issue of Helmet Use*Nate Jackson, The NFL’s Head Cases*David Weisman, Disposable Heroes*Lane Wallace, Do Sports Helmets Help or HurtIssue 3: Compensating Organ Donors*Sally Satel, Yuan a Kidney?*National Kidney Foundation, Financial Incentives for Organ Donation*Scott Carney, Inside the Business of Selling Human Body Parts*e-Pages: Issue 4: Unpaid InternshipsRaphael Pope-Sussman, Let’s Abolish This Modern-Day Coal Mine [op-ed]David Lat, Why Mess with a Win-Win Situation? [op-ed]Camille Olsen, AValuable Idea, if We Follow the Law [op-ed]*e-Pages: Issue 5: Global WarmingDavid McCandless, The Global Warming Skeptics vs. the Scientific Consensus [infographic]Chapter 6 Arguing a Position Practicing the Genre: Debating a PositionGUIDE TO READINGAnalyzing Position ArgumentsDetermine the writer’s purpose and audience. Assess the genre’s basic features: A focused, well-presented issue; a well-supported position; an effective response to opposing views; a clear logical organizationReadingsJessica Statsky, Children Need to Play, Not Compete*e-Pages: Michael Niechayev, It’s Time to Ban Head First Tackles and Blocks [student essay]Richard Estrada, Sticks and Stones and Sports Teams NamesAmitai Etzioni, Working at McDonald’s*Daniel J. Solove, Why Privacy Matters Even If You Have "Nothing to Hide"*e-Pages: Farhad Manjoo, Troll Reveal Thyself [annotated Web page and linked podcast interview]*e-Pages: Laurie Fendrich, Sex for Tuition [op-ed]*e-Pages: Ad Council / U.S. Department of Transportation, The "It's Only Another Beer" Black and Tan [annotated advertisement]Playing with Genre: Public Service AnnouncementsGUIDE TO WRITINGThe Writing Assignment Starting Points: Arguing a PositionWriting a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and ComposingChoose a controversial issue on which to take a position. Test Your ChoiceFrame the issue for your readers. Ways In: Exploring the Issue, Considering What Your Readers Think, and Framing the Issue Effectively Test Your ChoiceFormulate a working thesis stating your position. Ways In: Devising an Arguable ThesisDevelop the reasons supporting your position. Ways In: Devising Reasons That Support Your PositionResearch your position.Use sources to reinforce your credibility.Identify your readers’ likely reasons and objections. Ways In: Figuring Out Readers’ ConcernsRespond to your readers’ likely reasons and objections. Ways In: Responding to Readers’ Reasons and ObjectionsCreate an outline that will organize your argument effectively for your readers.Consider document design.Write the opening sentences.Draft your position argument.Evaluating the Draft: Getting a Critical Reading A Critical Reading GuideImproving the Draft: Revising, Formatting, Editing, and ProofreadingRevise your draft. A Troubleshooting GuideThink about design.Edit and proofread your draft. Editing for tone Using Commas before Coordinating Conjunctions Avoiding Comma Splices When Using Conjunctive Adverbs to Link Independent Clauses A Common Problem for Multilingual Writers: Subtle Differences in MeaningA WRITER AT WORKJessica Statsky’s Response to Opposing Positions Listing Reasons for the Opposing Position Conceding a Plausible Reason Refuting an Implausible ReasonTHINKING CRITICALLYReflecting on What You Have LearnedReflecting on the GenreChapter 7 Proposing a Solution Practicing the Genre: Arguing That a Solution Is FeasibleGUIDE TO READINGAnalyzing ProposalsDetermine the writer’s purpose and audience. Assess the genre’s basic features: A focused, well-defined problem; a well-argued solution; an effective response to objections and alternative solutions; a clear, logical organizationReadingsPatrick O’Malley, More Testing, More Learning*e-Pages: Molly Coleman, Missing the Fun [student essay]*David Bornstein, Fighting Bullying with Babies*Kelly D. Brownell and Thomas R. Frieden, Ounces of Prevention: The Public Policy Case for Taxes on Sugared BeveragesKaren Kornbluh, Win-Win Flexibility*e-Pages: TempoHousing, Keetwonen (Amsterdam Student Housing) [interactive Web page]*e-Pages: Zach Youngerman, Did Bad Neighborhood Design Doom Trayvon Martin? [op-ed]Playing with Genre: Proposals in Public Service Announcements *e-Pages: Ad Council, The $9 Lunch [annotated advertisement] GUIDE TO WRITINGThe Writing Assignment Starting Points: Proposing a SolutionWriting a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and ComposingChoose a problem for which you can propose a solution. Test Your ChoiceFrame the problem for your readers Ways In: Identifying the Problem and Figuring Out Why Readers Will Care Test Your ChoiceUse statistics to establish the problem’s existence and seriousness.Assess how the problem has been framed, and reframe it for your readers. Ways In: Framing and Reframing the ProblemDevelop a possible solution. Ways In: Solving the ProblemExplain your solution. Ways In: Explaining the Solution and Showing Its FeasibilityResearch your proposal.Develop a response to objections and alternative solutions. Ways In: Drafting a Refutation or ConcessionCreate an outline that will organize your proposal effectively for your readers.Write the opening sentences.Draft your proposal.Evaluating the Draft: Getting a Critical Reading A Critical Reading GuideImproving the Draft: Revising, Formatting, Editing, and ProofreadingRevise your draft. A Troubleshooting GuideThink about design.Edit and proofread your draft. Avoiding Ambiguous Use of This and That Revising Sentences That Lack an AgentA WRITER AT WORKPatrick O’Malley’s Revision ProcessTHINKING CRITICALLYReflecting on What You Have LearnedReflecting on the GenreChapter 8 Justifying an Evaluation Practicing the Genre: Choosing Appropriate Criteria and ExamplesGUIDE TO READINGAnalyzing EvaluationsDetermine the writer’s purpose and audience. Assess the genre’s basic features: A well-presented subject; a well-supported judgment; an effective response to objections or alternative judgments; a clear, logical organizationReadings*William Akana, Scott Pilgrim vs. the World: A Hell of a Ride*e-Pages: Brittany Lemus, Requiem for a Dream: Fantasy versus Reality [student essay]*Steve Boxer, LA Noire Review (Online Game)*Malcolm Gladwell, What College Rankings Really Tell UsChristine Rosen, The Myth of Multitasking*e-Pages: Marlon Bishop, Gig Alert: Bright Eyes [interactive Web page with sound file]*e-Pages: Jean M. Twenge and W. Keith Campbell, Isn’t Narcissism Beneficial, Especially in a Competitive World? [book excerpt]Playing with Genre: Crowd-Sourced Evaluations *e-Pages: Yelp, Kuma's Korner [annotated Web page]GUIDE TO WRITINGThe Writing Assignment Starting Points: Justifying an EvaluationWriting a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and ComposingChoose a subject to evaluate. Test Your ChoiceAssess your subject and consider how to present it to your readers.Ways In: Determining What You and Your Readers ThinkFormulate a working thesis stating your overall judgment. Ways In: Asserting a Tentative Overall JudgmentDevelop the reasons and evidence supporting your judgment. Ways In: Devising Reasons and Evidence to Support Your JudgmentResearch your evaluation.Respond to a likely objection or alternative judgment.Ways In: Responding Effectively to ReadersOrganize your draft to appeal to your readers.Write the opening sentences.Draft your evaluation.Evaluating the Draft: Getting a Critical Reading A Critical Reading GuideImproving the Draft: Revising, Formatting, Editing, and ProofreadingRevise your draft. A Troubleshooting GuideThink about design.Edit and proofread your draft. Making Complete, Logical, and Grammatically Correct ComparisonsCombining SentencesA WRITER AT WORKWilliam Akana’s Thesis and Response to ObjectionsTHINKING CRITICALLYReflecting on What You Have LearnedReflecting on the GenreChapter 9 Speculating about Causes Practicing the Genre: Arguing that a Cause Is PlausibleGUIDE TO READINGAnalyzing Texts Speculating about CausesDetermine the writer’s purpose and audience. Assess the genre’s basic features: A well-presented subject; a well-supported causal analysis; an effective response to objections and alternative causes; a clear, logical organizationReadingsSheila McClain, The Fitness Culture*e-Pages: Michele Cox, The Truth about Lying [student essay]*Shankar Vedantam, The Telescope EffectStephen King, Why We Crave Horror MoviesErica Goode, The Gorge-Yourself Environment*e-Pages: On the Media, The Reel Sounds of Violence [podcast interview]*e-Pages: Shirley S. Wang, A Field Guide to the Middle-Class U.S. Family [newspaper article]Playing with Genre: Graphics and Other Visuals *e-Pages: Jonathan Jarvis, The Crisis of Credit Visualized [animated infographic]GUIDE TO WRITINGThe Writing Assignment Starting Points: Speculating about CausesWriting a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and ComposingChoose a subject to analyze. Test Your ChoicePresent the subject to your readers. Ways In: Figuring Out What You and Your Readers ThinkAnalyze possible causes. Ways In: Analyzing Possible CausesConduct research.Cite a variety of sources to support your causal analysis.Formulate a Working Thesis stating your preferred cause(s). Ways In: Asserting a ThesisDraft a response to objections readers are likely to raise. Ways In: Responding Effectively to Readers ObjectionsDraft a response to the causes your readers are likely to favor. Ways In: Responding to Readers’ Preferred CausesCreate an outline that will organize your causal analysis effectively for your readers.Write the opening sentences.Draft your causal analysis.Evaluating the Draft: Getting a Critical Reading A Critical Reading GuideImproving the Draft: Revising, Designing, Editing, and ProofreadingRevise your draft. A Troubleshooting GuideThink about design.Edit and proofread your draft. Checking Your Use of Numbers Checking for Reason Is Because ConstructionsA WRITER AT WORKSheila McClain’s Analysis of Possible CausesTHINKING CRITICALLYReflecting on What You Have LearnedReflecting on the GenreChapter 10 Analyzing Stories Practicing the Genre: Analyzing a Story CollaborativelyGUIDE TO READINGAnalyzing Selections that Analyze StoriesDetermine the writer’s purpose and audience. Assess the genre’s basic features: A clear, arguable thesis; a well-supported argument; a clear, logical organizationReadings*Iris Lee, Performing a Doctor’s Duty*Isabella Wright, "For Heaven’s Sake!"e-Pages: Sally Crane, Gazing into the Darkness [student essay]e-Pages: David Ratinov, From Innocence to Insight: "Araby" as an Initiation Story [student essay]Playing with Genre: Adaptations, Sequels, and Parodies *e-Pages: Natalie George, Lacey Patzer, and Sam Williams, "The Story of an Hour" by Kate Chopin [student video]GUIDE TO WRITINGThe Writing Assignment Starting Points: Analyzing StoriesWriting a Draft: Invention, Research, Planning, and ComposingFind a story to write about.Analyze the story. Ways In: Generating Ideas by Selecting an Element to Analyze and an Approach to Take Ways In: Generating Ideas by moving from Specific Details to General Ideas and Vice Versa Test Your Choice Formulate a working thesis. Ways In: Asserting an Arguable ThesisProvide support for your argument. Ways In: Integrating Evidence from the StoryTo build on your support, consider doing outside research.Create an outline that will organize your argument effectively.Write the opening sentences.Draft your analysis.Evaluating the Draft: Getting a Critical Reading A Critical Reading GuideImproving the Draft: Revising, Designing, Editing, and ProofreadingRevise your draft. A Troubleshooting GuideThink about design.Edit and proofread your draft. Using Parallel Structure Using Ellipsis Marks CorrectlyA WRITER AT WORKIsabella Wright’s Invention Work Annotating Examining Patterns in the Story Listing IdeasTHINKING CRITICALLYReflecting on Your WritingThinking Critically about the GenreAN ANTHOLOGY OF SHORT STORIES Kate Chopin, The Story of an HourJames Joyce, ArabyWilliam Carlos Williams, The Use of Force*e-Pages: Adrian Tomine, Mandarin Accent [graphic story excerpt]*e-Pages: Sandra Tsing Loh, My Father’s Chinese Wives [story]*e-Pages: Jamaica Kincaid, Girl [audio]PART 2 CRITICAL THINKING STRATEGIES11 A Catalog of Invention StrategiesMapping Clustering ListingOutlining Writing FreewritingCubing Dialoguing Dramatizing Keeping a Journal Looping Questioning Quick Drafting 12 A Catalog of Reading Strategies Annotating Martin Luther King Jr., An Annotated Sample from "Letter from Birmingham Jail" Taking Inventory Outlining Paraphrasing Summarizing Synthesizing Contextualizing Exploring the Significance of Figurative Language Looking for Patterns of Opposition Reflecting on Challenges to Your Beliefs and Values Evaluating the Logic of an Argument Recognizing Emotional Manipulation Judging the Writer’s Credibility PART 3 WRITING STRATEGIES13 Cueing the ReaderOrienting Statements Thesis Statements Forecasting Statements Paragraphing Paragraph Cues Topic Sentence Strategies Cohesive Devices Pronoun Reference Word Repetition Synonyms Sentence Structure Repetition Collocation Transitions Logical Relationships Temporal Relationships Spatial Relationships Headings and Subheadings Heading Systems and Levels Headings and Genres Frequency and Placement of Headings 14 NarratingNarrating Strategies Calendar and Clock Time Temporal Transitions Verb Tense Narrative Action Dialogue Narrating a Process Explanatory Process Narratives Instructional Process Narratives Sentence Strategies for Narration15 DescribingNaming Detailing Comparing Using Sensory Description The Sense of Sight The Sense of Hearing The Sense of Smell The Sense of Touch The Sense of Taste Creating a Dominant Impression Sentence Strategies for Description16 DefiningSentence Definitions Extended Definitions Historical Definitions Stipulative Definitions Sentence Strategies for Definition17 ClassifyingOrganizing Classification Illustrating Classification Maintaining Clarity and Coherence Sentence Strategies for Classification18 Comparing and ContrastingTwo Ways of Comparing and Contrasting Analogy Sentence Strategies for Comparison and Contrast19 ArguingAsserting a Thesis Arguable Assertions Clear and Precise Wording Appropriate Qualification Giving Reasons and Support Examples Statistics Authorities Anecdotes Textual Evidence Responding to Alternative ViewpointsAcknowledging Readers’ Concerns Conceding Readers’ Concerns Refuting Readers’ Objections Logical Fallacies Sentence Strategies for Argument20 Analyzing VisualsCriteria for Analyzing Visuals A Sample Analysis 21 Designing DocumentsThe Impact of Document Design Considering Context, Audience, and Purpose Elements of Document Design Font Style and Size Headings and Body Text Numbered and Bulleted Lists Colors White Space Adding Visuals Choose and design visuals with their final use in mind. Number, titles, and label visuals.Cite visual sources.Integrate the visual into the text.Use Common Sense When Creating Visuals on a Computer 22 Writing in Business and Scientific GenresMemos Letters E-mail Résumés Job-Application Letters Lab Reports Web Pages PART 4 RESEARCH STRATEGIES23 Planning a Research ProjectAnalyzing Your Rhetorical Situation and Setting a ScheduleChoosing a Topic and Getting an Overview.Narrow Your Topic, and Draft Research QuestionsEstablish a Research LogCreate a Working Bibliography.Annotate Your Working BibliographyTake Notes on Your Sources24 Finding Sources and Conducting Field ResearchSearching Library Catalogs and DatabasesUse appropriate search terms.Narrow (or expand) your results.Find books (and other sources) through your library’s catalog.Find articles in periodicals using your library’s databases.Find government documents and statistical information.Find Websites and interactive sources.Conducting Field ResearchConduct observational studies. Practicing the Genre: Collaborating on an Observational StudyConduct interviews. Practicing the Genre: Interviewing a ClassmateConduct surveys.25 Evaluating SourcesChoosing Relevant SourcesChoosing Reliable SourcesWho wrote it?When was it published?Is the source scholarly, popular or for a trade group?Who published it?How is the source written?What does the source say?26 Using Sources to Support Your Ideas Synthesizing SourcesAcknowledging Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism What does and does not need to be acknowledged?Avoid plagiarism by acknowledging sources and quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing carefully.Using Information from Sources to Support Your ClaimsDecide whether to quote, paraphrase, or summarize.Copy quotations exactly or use italics, ellipses, and brackets to indicate changes.Use in-text or block quotations.Use punctuation to integrate quotations into your writing.Paraphrase sources carefully.Summaries should present the source’s main ideas in a balanced and readable way.27 Citing and Documenting Sources in MLA StyleCiting Sources in the Text Directory to In-Text Citation ModelsCreating a List of Works CitedStudent Research Project in MLA Style28 Citing and Documenting Sources in APA StyleCiting Sources in the Text Directly to In-Text Citation ModelsCreating a List of References Directory to Reference List ModelsA Sample References ListPART 5 WRITING FOR ASSESSMENT29 Essay ExaminationsPreparing for an Exam Taking the ExamRead the exam carefully. Typical Essay Exam QuestionsPlan your answer.Write your answer. Model Answers30 Writing Portfolios The Purposes of a Writing Portfolio Assembling a Portfolio for Your Composition Course Select your work.Reflect on your work and what you have learned.Organize your portfolio.PART 6 WRITING AND SPEAKING TO WIDER AUDIENCES31 Multimedia PresentationsPreparing Your PresentationUnderstand the kind of presentation you have been asked to give.Assess your audience and purpose.Determine how much information you can present in the allotted time.Use cues to orient listeners.Prepare effective and appropriate media.Verify that you will have the correct equipment and supplies.Rehearse your presentation.Delivering Your Presentation 32 Working with OthersWorking with Others on Your Individual Writing Projects Working with Others on Joint Writing Projects 33 Writing in Your CommunityUsing Your Service Experience as Source Material Find a topic. Gather sources. Writing about Your Service Experience Writing for Your Service Organization