

1  (15) 


2  (3) 

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics 


5  (1) 


6  (3) 


9  (1) 


10  (5) 

Describing and Exploring Data 


15  (58) 


17  (2) 


19  (2) 


21  (3) 

Alternative Methods of Plotting Data 


24  (4) 


28  (3) 

Using Computer Programs to Display Data 


31  (2) 


33  (2) 

Measures of Central Tendency 


35  (6) 


41  (16) 

Boxplots: Graphical Representations of Dispersions and Extreme Scores 


57  (3) 

Obtaining Measures of Dispersion Using Minitab 


60  (2) 

Percentiles, Quartiles, and Deciles 


62  (1) 

The Effect of Linear Transformations on Data 


62  (11) 


73  (18) 


76  (3) 

The Standard Normal Distribution 


79  (3) 

Using the Tables of the Standard Normal Distribution 


82  (3) 

Setting Probable Limits on an Observation 


85  (1) 


86  (5) 

Sampling Distributions and Hypothesis Testing 


91  (24) 

Two Simple Examples Involving Course Evaluations and Rude Motorists 


92  (3) 


95  (1) 


96  (2) 


98  (2) 

Test Statistics and Their Sampling Distributions 


100  (1) 

Using the Normal Distribution to Test Hypotheses 


101  (3) 

Type I and Type II Errors 


104  (3) 

One and TwoTailed Tests 


107  (3) 

What Does It Mean to Reject the Null Hypothesis? 


110  (1) 


110  (1) 


111  (1) 

Back to Course Evaluations and Rude Motorists 


112  (3) 

Basic Concepts of Probability 


115  (26) 


116  (2) 

Basic Terminology and Rules 


118  (4) 

Discrete versus Continuous Variables 


122  (1) 

Probability Distributions for Discrete Variables 


123  (1) 

Probability Distributions for Continuous Variables 


124  (2) 

Permutations and Combinations 


126  (3) 

The Binomial Distribution 


129  (5) 

Using the Binomial Distribution to Test Hypotheses 


134  (2) 

The Multinomial Distribution 


136  (5) 

Categorical Data and ChiSquare 


141  (36) 

The ChiSquare Distribution 


143  (1) 

Statistical Importance of the ChiSquare Distribution 


144  (2) 

The ChiSquare GoodnessofFit TestOneWay Classification 


146  (3) 

Two Classification Variables: Contingency Table Analysis 


149  (3) 

ChiSquare for Larger Contingency Tables 


152  (7) 

ChiSquare for Ordinal Data 


159  (1) 

Summary of the Assumptions of ChiSquare 


159  (2) 


161  (1) 


162  (1) 


163  (14) 

Hypothesis Tests Applied to Means 


177  (46) 

Sampling Distribution of the Mean 


178  (3) 

Testing Hypotheses about Meansσ Known 


181  (2) 

Testing a Sample Mean When σ Is UnknownThe OneSample t Test 


183  (8) 

Hypothesis Tests Applied to MeansTwo Matched Samples 


191  (7) 

Hypothesis Tests Applied to MeansTwo Independent Samples 


198  (8) 


206  (5) 


211  (2) 

Heterogeneity of Variance: The BehrensFisher Problem 


213  (10) 


223  (20) 

Factors Affecting the Power of a Test 


225  (2) 


227  (2) 

Power Calculations for the OneSample t 


229  (3) 

Power Calculations for Differences Between Two Independent Means 


232  (3) 

Power Calculations for MatchedSample t 


235  (2) 

Power Considerations in Terms of Sample Size 


237  (1) 


238  (5) 

Correlation and Regression 


243  (52) 


245  (5) 

The Relationship Between Stress and Health 


250  (2) 


252  (1) 

The Pearson ProductMoment Correlation Coefficient (r) 


253  (2) 


255  (5) 

The Accuracy of Prediction 


260  (7) 

Assumptions Underlying Regression and Correlation 


267  (1) 


268  (2) 

A Computer Example Showing the Role of TestTaking Skills 


270  (3) 


273  (9) 

The Role of Assumptions in Correlation and Regression 


282  (1) 

Factors That Affect the Correlation 


282  (3) 

Power Calculation for Pearson's r 


285  (10) 

Alternative Correlational Techniques 


295  (24) 

PointBiserial Correlation and Phi: NonPearson Correlations by Another Name 


297  (8) 

Biserial and Tetrachoric Correlation: NonPearson Correlation Coefficients 


305  (1) 

Correlation Coefficients for Ranked Data 


306  (3) 

Analysis of Contingency Tables with Ordered Variables 


309  (3) 

Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance (W) 


312  (7) 

Simple Analysis of Variance 


319  (50) 


320  (1) 


321  (3) 

The Logic of the Analysis of Variance 


324  (2) 

Calculations in the Analysis of Variance 


326  (7) 


333  (3) 

Derivation of the Analysis of Variance 


336  (2) 


338  (2) 

Violations of Assumptions 


340  (2) 


342  (8) 

Fixed versus Random Models 


350  (1) 

Magnitude of Experimental Effect 


350  (4) 


354  (6) 


360  (9) 

Multiple Comparisons Among Treatment Means 


369  (52) 


370  (3) 

Multiple Comparisons in a Simple Experiment on Morphine Tolerance 


373  (2) 


375  (16) 


391  (7) 


398  (1) 

The Ryan Procedure (REGWQ) 


399  (1) 


400  (1) 

Dunnett's Test for Comparing All Treatments with a Control 


401  (1) 

Comparison of Dunnett's Test and the Bonferroni t 


402  (1) 

Comparison of the Alternative Procedures 


402  (2) 


404  (1) 


404  (4) 


408  (13) 

Factorial Analysis of Variance 


421  (50) 

An Extension of the Eysenck Study 


424  (5) 

Structural Models and Expected Mean Squares 


429  (1) 


430  (2) 


432  (4) 

Analysis of Variance Applied to the Effects of Smoking 


436  (2) 


438  (2) 

Power Analysis for Factorial Experiments 


440  (2) 


442  (4) 

Magnitude of Experimental Effects 


446  (3) 


449  (6) 

Analysis for Unequal Sample Sizes Using SAS 


455  (1) 

HigherOrder Factorial Designs 


456  (8) 


464  (7) 

RepeatedMeasures Designs 


471  (62) 


474  (1) 


475  (1) 


476  (1) 

Analysis of Variance Applied to Relaxation Therapy 


477  (3) 

One BetweenSubjects Variable and One WithinSubjects Variable 


480  (14) 

Two WithinSubjects Variables 


494  (1) 

Two BetweenSubjects Variables and One WithinSubjects Variable 


494  (6) 

Two WithinSubjects Variables and One BetweenSubjects Variable 


500  (8) 

Three WithinSubjects Variables 


508  (4) 


512  (3) 


515  (1) 

A Computer Analysis Using a Traditional Approach 


516  (3) 

Multivariate Analysis of Variance for RepeatedMeasures Designs 


519  (14) 


533  (70) 

Multiple Linear Regression 


534  (9) 

Standard Errors and Tests of Regression Coefficients 


543  (1) 


544  (1) 


545  (1) 

The Multiple Correlation Coefficient 


546  (2) 

Geometric Representation of Multiple Regression 


548  (4) 

Partial and Semipartial Correlation 


552  (5) 


557  (1) 


558  (5) 

Constructing a Regression Equation 


563  (8) 

The ``Importance'' of Individual Variables 


571  (2) 

Using Approximate Regression Coefficients 


573  (1) 

Mediating and Moderating Relationships 


574  (9) 


583  (20) 

Analysis of Variance and Covariance as General Linear Models 


603  (52) 


604  (3) 

OneWay Analysis of Variance 


607  (3) 


610  (8) 

Analysis of Variance with Unequal Sample Sizes 


618  (7) 

The OneWay Analysis of Covariance 


625  (11) 

Interpreting an Analysis of Covariance 


636  (2) 

The Factorial Analysis of Covariance 


638  (9) 

Using Multiple Covariates 


647  (1) 

Alternative Experimental Designs 


648  (7) 


655  (36) 

TwoWay Contingency Tables 


658  (4) 


662  (3) 


665  (4) 


669  (1) 

Treatment Effects (Lambda) 


669  (2) 


671  (7) 


678  (4) 


682  (9) 

Resampling and Nonparametric Approaches to Data 


691  (36) 

Bootstrapping as a General Approach 


694  (2) 

Bootstrapping with One Sample 


696  (3) 

Resampling with Two Paired Samples 


699  (3) 

Resampling with Two Independent Samples 


702  (2) 

Bootstrapping Confidence Limits on a Correlation Coefficient 


704  (3) 


707  (6) 

Wilcoxon's MatchedPairs SignedRanks Test 


713  (4) 


717  (2) 

KruskalWallis OneWay Analysis of Variance 


719  (1) 

Friedman's Rank Test for k Correlated Samples 


720  (7) 
Appendices 

727  (36) 
References 

763  (10) 
Answers to Selected Exercises 

773  (18) 
Index 

791  