Preface 

xi  
Applications Index 

xviii  

Statistics, Data, and Statistical Thinking 


2  (26) 

The Science of Statistics 


4  (1) 

Types of Statistical Applications 


4  (2) 

Fundamental Elements of Statistics 


6  (6) 


12  (2) 


14  (3) 

The Role of Statistics in Critical Thinking 


17  (11) 

USA Weekend Teen SurveysAre Boys Really from Mars and Girls from Venus? 


3  (21) 

Using Technology: Creating and Listing Data Using MINITAB 


24  (4) 

Methods for Describing Sets of Data 


28  (90) 

Describing Qualitative Data 


30  (11) 

Graphical Methods for Describing Quantitative Data 


41  (13) 


54  (1) 

Numerical Measures of Central Tendency 


55  (12) 

Numerical Measures of Variability 


67  (5) 

Interpreting the Standard Deviation 


72  (9) 

Numerical Measures of Relative Standing 


81  (4) 

Methods for Detecting Outliers (Optional) 


85  (10) 

Graphing Bivariate Relationships (Optional) 


95  (6) 

Distorting the Truth with Descriptive Techniques 


101  (17) 

The ``Eye Cue'' Test: Does Experience Improve Performance? 


29  (85) 

Using Technology: Describing Data Using MINITAB 


114  (4) 


118  (70) 

Events, Sample Spaces, and Probability 


120  (13) 


133  (4) 


137  (2) 

The Additive Rule and Mutually Exclusive Events 


139  (6) 


145  (3) 

The Multiplicative Rule and Independent Events 


148  (13) 


161  (4) 

Some Additional Counting Rules (Optional) 


165  (9) 


174  (14) 


119  (67) 

Using Technology: Generating a Random Sample Using MINITAB 


186  (2) 

Discrete Random Variables 


188  (48) 

Two Types of Random Variables 


190  (3) 

Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables 


193  (5) 

Expected Values of Discrete Random Variables 


198  (6) 

The Binomial Random Variable 


204  (14) 

The Poisson Random Variable (Optional) 


218  (6) 

The Hypergeometric Random Variable (Optional) 


224  (12) 

Probability in a Reverse Cocaine Sting 


189  (45) 

Using Technology: Binomial, Poisson, and Hypergeometric Probabilities Using MINITAB 


234  (2) 

Continuous Random Variables 


236  (54) 

Continuous Probability Distributions 


238  (1) 


238  (5) 


243  (18) 

Descriptive Methods for Assessing Normality 


261  (8) 

Approximating a Binomial Distribution with a Normal Distribution (Optional) 


269  (7) 

The Exponential Distribution (Optional) 


276  (14) 

Super Weapons DevelopmentOptimizing the Hit Ratio 


237  (49) 

Using Technology: Cumulative Probabilities for Continuous Random Variables and Normal Probability Plots Using MINITAB 


286  (4) 


290  (30) 

The Concept of a Sampling Distribution? 


292  (6) 

Properties of Sampling Distributions: Unbiasedness and Minimum Variance 


298  (5) 

The Sampling Distribution of x and the Central Limit Theorem 


303  (17) 

Statistics in Action: The Insomnia Pill 


291  (26) 

Using Technology: Simulating a Sampling Distribution Using MINITAB 


317  (3) 

Inferences Based on a Single Sample: Estimation with Confidence Intervals 


320  (48) 

Identifying the Target Parameter 


321  (1) 

LargeSample Confidence Interval for a Population Mean 


322  (10) 

SmallSample Confidence Interval for a Population Mean 


332  (11) 

LargeSample Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion 


343  (7) 

Determining the Sample Size 


350  (18) 

Statistics in Action: SpeedImproving the Sprint Times of High School Football Players 


321  (43) 

Using Technology: Confidence Intervals Using MINITAB 


364  (4) 

Inferences Based on a Single Sample: Tests of Hypothesis 


368  (60) 

The Elements of a Test of Hypothesis 


369  (7) 

LargeSample Test of Hypothesis About a Population Mean 


376  (7) 

Observed Significance Levels: pValues 


383  (7) 

SmallSample Test of Hypothesis About a Population Mean 


390  (7) 

LargeSample Test of Hypothesis About a Population Proportion 


397  (7) 

Calculating Type II Error Probabilities: More About β (Optional) 


404  (8) 

Test of Hypothesis About a Population Variance (Optional) 


412  (16) 

Statistics in Action: Diary of a Kleenex® User 


369  (55) 

Using Technology: Tests of Hypothesis Using MINITAB 


424  (4) 

Inferences Based on a Two Samples: Confidence Intervals and Tests of Hypotheses 


428  (84) 

Identifying the Target Parameter 


430  (1) 

Comparing Two Population Means: Independent Sampling 


430  (23) 

Comparing Two Population Means: Paired Difference Experiments 


453  (15) 

Comparing Two Population Proportions: Independent Sampling 


468  (11) 

Determining the Sample Size 


479  (4) 

Comparing Two Population Variances: Independent Sampling (Optional) 


483  (29) 

Statistics in Action: Detection of Rigged Milk Prices 


429  (79) 

Using Technology: Two Sample Inferences Using MINITAB 


508  (4) 

Analysis of Variance: Comparing More Than Two Means 


512  (78) 

Elements of a Designed Experiment 


514  (6) 

The Completely Randomized Design 


520  (17) 

Multiple Comparisons of Means 


537  (8) 

The Randomized Block Design 


545  (15) 


560  (30) 

Statistics in Action: On the Trail of the Cockroach 


513  (73) 

Using Technology: Analysis of Variance Using MINITAB 


586  (4) 


590  (70) 


592  (3) 

Fitting the Model: The Least Squares Approach 


595  (16) 


611  (2) 


613  (3) 

Assessing the Utility of the Model: Making Inferences About the Slope β1 


616  (8) 

The Coefficient of Correlation 


624  (1) 

The Coefficient of Determination 


624  (11) 

Using the Model for Estimation and Prediction 


635  (9) 


644  (16) 

Statistics in Action: Can Dowsers Really Detect Water? 


591  (66) 

Using Technology: Simple Linear Regression Using MINITAB 


657  (3) 

Multiple Regression and Model Building 


660  (122) 

Multiple Regression Models 


662  (2) 

The FirstOrder Model: Estimating and Interpreting the βParameters 


664  (6) 

Inferences About the βParameters and the Overall Model Utility 


670  (14) 

Using the Model for Estimation and Prediction 


684  (6) 

Model Building: Interaction Models 


690  (8) 

Model Building: Quadratic and other HigherOrder Models 


698  (11) 

Model Building: Qualitative (Dummy) Variable Models 


709  (7) 

Model Building: Models with both Quantitative and Qualitative Variables (Optional) 


716  (9) 

Model Building: Comparing Nested Models (Optional) 


725  (10) 

Model Building: Stepwise Regression (Optional) 


735  (5) 

Residual Analysis: Checking the Regression Assumptions 


740  (18) 

Some Pitfalls: Estimability, Multicollinearity, and Extrapolation 


758  (24) 

Statistics in Action: Moleling Condominium Sale Prices 


661  (118) 

Using Technology: Multiple Regression Using MINITAB 


779  (3) 

Categorical Data Analysis 


782  (38) 

Categorical Data and the Multinomial Experiment 


783  (2) 

Testing Categorical Probabilities: OneWay Table 


785  (9) 

Testing Categorical Probabilities: TwoWay (Contingency) Table 


794  (17) 

A Word of Caution About ChiSquare Tests 


811  (9) 

Statistics in Action: A Study of Coupon UsersMall versus the Internet 


783  (36) 

Using Technology: ChiSquare Analyses Using MINITAB 


819  (1) 


820  (98) 

Introduction: DistributionFree Tests 


821  (2) 

Single Population Inferences 


823  (7) 

Comparing Two Populations: Independent Samples 


830  (8) 

Comparing Two Populations: Paired Difference Experiment 


838  (9) 

Comparing Three or More Populations: Completely Randomized Design 


847  (6) 

Comparing Three or More Populations: Randomized Block Design 


853  (6) 


859  (22) 

Deadly Exposure: Agent Orange and Vietnam Vets 


821  (55) 

Using Technology: Nonparametric Tests Using MINITAB 


876  (5) 




881  (33) 


882  (3) 

Table II Binomial Probabilities 


885  (4) 

Table III Poisson Probabilities 


889  (5) 

Table IV Normal Curve Areas 


894  (1) 


895  (1) 

Table VI Critical Values of t 


896  (1) 

Table VII Critical Values of X2 


897  (2) 

Table VIII Percentage Points of the FDistribution, α = .10 


899  (2) 

Table IX Percentage Points of the FDistribution, α = .05 


901  (2) 

Table X Percentage Points of the FDistribution, α = .025 


903  (2) 

Table XI Percentage Points of the FDistribution, α = .01 


905  (2) 

Table XII Critical Values of TL and TU for the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test: Independent Samples 


907  (1) 

Table XIII Critical Values of T0 in the Wilcoxon Paired Difference Signed Rank Test 


908  (1) 

Table XIV Critical Values of Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient 


909  (1) 

Table XV Critical Values of the Studentized Range, α = .05 


910  (2) 

Table XVI Critical Values of the Studentized Range, α = .01 


912  (2) 

Appendix B Calculation Formulas for Analysis of Variance 


914  (4) 
Short Answers to Selected OddNumbered Exercises 

918  (9) 
Index 

927  