Introduction | |
Why Study Statistics? | |
What Is Statistics? | |
More About Inferential Statistics | |
Three Types of Data | |
Levels of Measurement | |
Types of Variables | |
How to Use This Book | |
Summary | |
Important Terms | |
Review Questions | |
Descriptive Statistics | |
Describing Data with Tables and Graphs | |
Tables Frequency Distributions | |
Frequency Distributions for Quantitative Data | |
Guidelines | |
Outliers | |
Relative Frequency Distributions | |
Cumulative Frequency Distributions | |
Frequency Distributions for Qualitative (Nominal) Data | |
Interpreting Distributions Constructed by Others | |
Graphs | |
Graphs for Quantitative Data | |
Typical Shapes | |
A Graph for Qualitative (Nominal) Data | |
Misleading Graphs | |
Doing It Yourself | |
Summary | |
Important Terms | |
Review Questions | |
Describing Data with Averages | |
Mode | |
Median | |
Mean | |
Which Average? | |
Averages for Qualitative and Ranked Data | |
Summary. Important Terms | |
Key Equation | |
Review Questions | |
Describing Variability | |
Intuitive Approach | |
Range | |
Variance | |
Standard Deviation | |
DETAILS: Standard Deviation | |
Degrees of Freedom (df | |
Interquartile Range (IQR | |
Measures of Variability for Qualitative and Ranked Data | |
Summary | |
Important Terms | |
Key Equations | |
Review Questions | |
Normal Distributions and Standard Scores (z) | |
The Normal Curve | |
z Scores | |
Standard Normal Curve | |
Solving Normal Curve Problems | |
Finding Proportions | |
Finding Scores | |
More about z Scores | |
Summary | |
Important Terms | |
Key Equations | |
Review Questions | |
Describing Relationships: Correlation | |
An Intuitive Approach | |
Scatterplots | |
A Correlation Coefficient for Quantitative Data: r | |
DETAILS: z Score Formula for r | |
DETAILS: Computation Formula for r | |
Outliers Again | |
Other Types of Correlation Coefficients | |
Computer Output | |
Summary | |
Important Terms | |
Key Equations | |
Review Questions | |
Regression | |
Two Rough Predictions | |
A Regression Line | |
Least Squares Regression Line | |
Standard Error of Estimate, S_{y¦x} | |
Assumptions | |
Multiple Regression Equations | |
Regression Toward The Mean | |
Summary | |
Important Terms | |
Key Equations | |
Review Questions | |
Inferential Statistics | |
Populations, Samples, and Probability | |
Populations and Samples | |
Populations | |
Samples | |
Random Sampling | |
Tables of Random Numbers | |
Random Assignment of Subjects | |
Surveys or Experiments? | |
Probability | |
Definition | |
Addition Rule | |
Multiplication Rule | |
Probability and Statistics | |
Summary | |
Important Terms | |
Key Equations | |
Review Questions | |
Sampling Distribution of the Mean | |
What is a Sampling Distribution? | |
Creating a Sampling Distribution from Scratch | |
Some Important Symbols | |
Mean of All Sample Means | |
Standard Error of the Means | |
Shape of the Sampling Distribution | |
Other Sampling Distributions | |
Summary | |
Important Terms | |
Key Equations | |
Review Questions | |
Introduction to Hypothesis Testing: the z Test | |
Testing a Hypothesis about SAT Scores | |
z Test for a Population Mean | |
Step-by-Step Procedure | |
Statement of the Research Problem | |
Null Hypothesis (H_{0} | |
Alternative Hypothesis (H_{1} | |
Decision Rule | |
Calculations | |
Decision | |
Interpretation | |
Summary | |
Important Terms | |
Key Equations | |
Review Questions | |
More about Hypothesis Testing | |
Why Hypothesis Tests? | |
Strong or Weak Decisions | |
One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Tests | |
Choosing a Level of Significance (a) | |
Testing a Hypothesis about Vitamin C | |
Four Possible Outcomes | |
If H_{0} Really Is True | |
If H_{0} Really Is False Because of a Large Effect | |
If H_{0} Really Is False Because of a Small Effect | |
Influence of Sample Size | |
Power and Sample Size | |
Summary | |
Important Terms | |
Review Questions | |
Estimation Confidence Intervals | |
Point Estimate for m | |
Confidence Interval (CI) for m | |
Interpretation of a Confidence Interval | |
Level of Confidence | |
Effect of Sample Size | |
Hypothesis Tests or Confidence Intervals? | |
Confidence Interval for Population Percent | |
Summary | |
Important Terms | |
Key Equation | |
Review Questions | |
tTest for One Sample | |
Gas Mileage Investigation | |
Sampling Distribution of t | |
t Test | |
Common Theme of Hypothesis Tests | |
Reminder about Degrees of Freedom | |
Details: Estimating the Standard Error | |
Details: Calculations for t Test | |
Confidence Intervals for m Based on t | |
Assumptions | |
Summary | |
Important Terms | |
Key Equations | |
Review Questions | |
t Test for Two Independent Samples | |
EPO Experiment | |
Statistical Hypotheses | |
Sampling Distribution | |
t Test | |
DETAILS: Calculations for t Test | |
p-Values | |
Statistically Significant Results | |
Estimating Effect Size: Point Estimates and Confidence Intervals | |
Estimating Effect Size: Cohen's d | |
Reports in the Literature | |
Assumptions | |
Computer Output | |
Summary | |
Important Terms | |
Key Equations | |
Review Questions | |
t Test for Two Related Samples Repeated Measures | |
EPO Experiment with Repeated Measures | |
Statistical Hypotheses | |
Sampling Distribution | |
t Test | |
DETAILS: Calculations for t Test | |
Estimating Effect Size | |
Assumptions | |
Overview: Three t Tests for Population Means | |
t Test for the Population Correlation Coefficient, | |
Summary | |
Important Terms | |
Key Equations | |
Review Questions | |
Analysis of Variance One Factor | |
Testing a Hypothesis about Aggression and Sleep Deprivation | |
Two Sources of Variability | |
F Test | |
Details: Variance Estimates | |
Details: Mean Squares (MS) and the F Ratio | |
Table for F Distribution | |
ANOVA Summary Tables | |
F Test Is Nondirectional | |
Estimating Effect Size | |
Multiple Comparisons | |
Overview: Flow Chart for ANOVA | |
Reports in the Literature | |
Assumptions | |
Computer Output | |
Summary | |
Important Terms | |
Key Equations | |
Review Questions | |
Analysis of Variance Repeated Measures | |
Sleep Deprivation Experiment with Repeated Measures | |
F Test | |
Two Complications | |
Details: Variance Estimates | |
Details: Mean Square (MS) and the F Ratio | |
Table for F Distribution | |
ANOVA Summary Tables | |
Estimating Effect Size | |
Multiple Comparisons | |
Reports in the Literature | |
Assumptions | |
Summary | |
Important Terms | |
Key Equations | |
Review Questions | |
Analysis of Variance Two Factors | |
A Two-Factor Experiment: Responsibility in Crowds | |
Three F Tests | |
Interaction | |
DETAILS: Variance Estimates | |
DETAILS: Mean Squares (MS) and F Ratios | |
Table for F Distribution | |
Estimating Effect Size | |
Multiple Comparisons | |
Simple Effects | |
Overview: Flow Chart for Two-Factor ANOVA | |
Reports in the Literature | |
Assumptions | |
Other Types of ANOVA | |
Summary | |
Important Terms | |
Key Equations | |
Review Questions | |
Chi-Square (c²) Test for Qualitative (Nominal) Data | |
One-variable c² Test | |
Survey of Blood Types | |
Statistical Hypotheses | |
DETAILS: Calculation of c² | |
Table for c² Distribution | |
c² Test | |
Two-variable c² Test | |
Lost Letter Study | |
Statistical Hypotheses | |
Details: Calculation ofc² | |
Table for c² Distribution | |
c² Test | |
Estimating Effect Size | |
Odds Ratios | |
Reports in the Literature | |
Some Precautions | |
Computer Output | |
Summary | |
Important Terms | |
Key Equations | |
Review Questions | |
Tests for Ranked (Ordinal) Data | |
Use Only When Appropriate | |
A Note on Terminology | |
Mann-Whitney U Test | |
Wilcoxon T Test Two Related Samples | |
Kruskal-Wallis H Test Three or More Independent Samples | |
General Comment: Ties | |
Summary | |
Important Terms | |
Review Questions | |
Postscript: Which Test? | |
Descriptive or Inferential Statistics? | |
Hypothesis Tests or Confidence Intervals? | |
Quantitative or Qualitative Data? | |
Distinguishing between the Two Types of Data | |
One, Two, or More Groups? | |
Concluding Comments | |
Review Questions | |
Appendices | |
Math Review | |
Answers to Selected Questions | |
Tables | |
Glossary | |
Index | |
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