Introduction | |

Why Study Statistics? | |

What Is Statistics? | |

More About Inferential Statistics | |

Three Types of Data | |

Levels of Measurement | |

Types of Variables | |

How to Use This Book | |

Summary | |

Important Terms | |

Review Questions | |

Descriptive Statistics | |

Describing Data with Tables and Graphs | |

Tables Frequency Distributions | |

Frequency Distributions for Quantitative Data | |

Guidelines | |

Outliers | |

Relative Frequency Distributions | |

Cumulative Frequency Distributions | |

Frequency Distributions for Qualitative (Nominal) Data | |

Interpreting Distributions Constructed by Others | |

Graphs | |

Graphs for Quantitative Data | |

Typical Shapes | |

A Graph for Qualitative (Nominal) Data | |

Misleading Graphs | |

Doing It Yourself | |

Summary | |

Important Terms | |

Review Questions | |

Describing Data with Averages | |

Mode | |

Median | |

Mean | |

Which Average? | |

Averages for Qualitative and Ranked Data | |

Summary. Important Terms | |

Key Equation | |

Review Questions | |

Describing Variability | |

Intuitive Approach | |

Range | |

Variance | |

Standard Deviation | |

DETAILS: Standard Deviation | |

Degrees of Freedom (df | |

Interquartile Range (IQR | |

Measures of Variability for Qualitative and Ranked Data | |

Summary | |

Important Terms | |

Key Equations | |

Review Questions | |

Normal Distributions and Standard Scores (z) | |

The Normal Curve | |

z Scores | |

Standard Normal Curve | |

Solving Normal Curve Problems | |

Finding Proportions | |

Finding Scores | |

More about z Scores | |

Summary | |

Important Terms | |

Key Equations | |

Review Questions | |

Describing Relationships: Correlation | |

An Intuitive Approach | |

Scatterplots | |

A Correlation Coefficient for Quantitative Data: r | |

DETAILS: z Score Formula for r | |

DETAILS: Computation Formula for r | |

Outliers Again | |

Other Types of Correlation Coefficients | |

Computer Output | |

Summary | |

Important Terms | |

Key Equations | |

Review Questions | |

Regression | |

Two Rough Predictions | |

A Regression Line | |

Least Squares Regression Line | |

Standard Error of Estimate, S_{y¦x} | |

Assumptions | |

Multiple Regression Equations | |

Regression Toward The Mean | |

Summary | |

Important Terms | |

Key Equations | |

Review Questions | |

Inferential Statistics | |

Populations, Samples, and Probability | |

Populations and Samples | |

Populations | |

Samples | |

Random Sampling | |

Tables of Random Numbers | |

Random Assignment of Subjects | |

Surveys or Experiments? | |

Probability | |

Definition | |

Addition Rule | |

Multiplication Rule | |

Probability and Statistics | |

Summary | |

Important Terms | |

Key Equations | |

Review Questions | |

Sampling Distribution of the Mean | |

What is a Sampling Distribution? | |

Creating a Sampling Distribution from Scratch | |

Some Important Symbols | |

Mean of All Sample Means | |

Standard Error of the Means | |

Shape of the Sampling Distribution | |

Other Sampling Distributions | |

Summary | |

Important Terms | |

Key Equations | |

Review Questions | |

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing: the z Test | |

Testing a Hypothesis about SAT Scores | |

z Test for a Population Mean | |

Step-by-Step Procedure | |

Statement of the Research Problem | |

Null Hypothesis (H_{0} | |

Alternative Hypothesis (H_{1} | |

Decision Rule | |

Calculations | |

Decision | |

Interpretation | |

Summary | |

Important Terms | |

Key Equations | |

Review Questions | |

More about Hypothesis Testing | |

Why Hypothesis Tests? | |

Strong or Weak Decisions | |

One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Tests | |

Choosing a Level of Significance (a) | |

Testing a Hypothesis about Vitamin C | |

Four Possible Outcomes | |

If H_{0} Really Is True | |

If H_{0} Really Is False Because of a Large Effect | |

If H_{0} Really Is False Because of a Small Effect | |

Influence of Sample Size | |

Power and Sample Size | |

Summary | |

Important Terms | |

Review Questions | |

Estimation Confidence Intervals | |

Point Estimate for m | |

Confidence Interval (CI) for m | |

Interpretation of a Confidence Interval | |

Level of Confidence | |

Effect of Sample Size | |

Hypothesis Tests or Confidence Intervals? | |

Confidence Interval for Population Percent | |

Summary | |

Important Terms | |

Key Equation | |

Review Questions | |

tTest for One Sample | |

Gas Mileage Investigation | |

Sampling Distribution of t | |

t Test | |

Common Theme of Hypothesis Tests | |

Reminder about Degrees of Freedom | |

Details: Estimating the Standard Error | |

Details: Calculations for t Test | |

Confidence Intervals for m Based on t | |

Assumptions | |

Summary | |

Important Terms | |

Key Equations | |

Review Questions | |

t Test for Two Independent Samples | |

EPO Experiment | |

Statistical Hypotheses | |

Sampling Distribution | |

t Test | |

DETAILS: Calculations for t Test | |

p-Values | |

Statistically Significant Results | |

Estimating Effect Size: Point Estimates and Confidence Intervals | |

Estimating Effect Size: Cohen's d | |

Reports in the Literature | |

Assumptions | |

Computer Output | |

Summary | |

Important Terms | |

Key Equations | |

Review Questions | |

t Test for Two Related Samples Repeated Measures | |

EPO Experiment with Repeated Measures | |

Statistical Hypotheses | |

Sampling Distribution | |

t Test | |

DETAILS: Calculations for t Test | |

Estimating Effect Size | |

Assumptions | |

Overview: Three t Tests for Population Means | |

t Test for the Population Correlation Coefficient, | |

Summary | |

Important Terms | |

Key Equations | |

Review Questions | |

Analysis of Variance One Factor | |

Testing a Hypothesis about Aggression and Sleep Deprivation | |

Two Sources of Variability | |

F Test | |

Details: Variance Estimates | |

Details: Mean Squares (MS) and the F Ratio | |

Table for F Distribution | |

ANOVA Summary Tables | |

F Test Is Nondirectional | |

Estimating Effect Size | |

Multiple Comparisons | |

Overview: Flow Chart for ANOVA | |

Reports in the Literature | |

Assumptions | |

Computer Output | |

Summary | |

Important Terms | |

Key Equations | |

Review Questions | |

Analysis of Variance Repeated Measures | |

Sleep Deprivation Experiment with Repeated Measures | |

F Test | |

Two Complications | |

Details: Variance Estimates | |

Details: Mean Square (MS) and the F Ratio | |

Table for F Distribution | |

ANOVA Summary Tables | |

Estimating Effect Size | |

Multiple Comparisons | |

Reports in the Literature | |

Assumptions | |

Summary | |

Important Terms | |

Key Equations | |

Review Questions | |

Analysis of Variance Two Factors | |

A Two-Factor Experiment: Responsibility in Crowds | |

Three F Tests | |

Interaction | |

DETAILS: Variance Estimates | |

DETAILS: Mean Squares (MS) and F Ratios | |

Table for F Distribution | |

Estimating Effect Size | |

Multiple Comparisons | |

Simple Effects | |

Overview: Flow Chart for Two-Factor ANOVA | |

Reports in the Literature | |

Assumptions | |

Other Types of ANOVA | |

Summary | |

Important Terms | |

Key Equations | |

Review Questions | |

Chi-Square (c²) Test for Qualitative (Nominal) Data | |

One-variable c² Test | |

Survey of Blood Types | |

Statistical Hypotheses | |

DETAILS: Calculation of c² | |

Table for c² Distribution | |

c² Test | |

Two-variable c² Test | |

Lost Letter Study | |

Statistical Hypotheses | |

Details: Calculation ofc² | |

Table for c² Distribution | |

c² Test | |

Estimating Effect Size | |

Odds Ratios | |

Reports in the Literature | |

Some Precautions | |

Computer Output | |

Summary | |

Important Terms | |

Key Equations | |

Review Questions | |

Tests for Ranked (Ordinal) Data | |

Use Only When Appropriate | |

A Note on Terminology | |

Mann-Whitney U Test | |

Wilcoxon T Test Two Related Samples | |

Kruskal-Wallis H Test Three or More Independent Samples | |

General Comment: Ties | |

Summary | |

Important Terms | |

Review Questions | |

Postscript: Which Test? | |

Descriptive or Inferential Statistics? | |

Hypothesis Tests or Confidence Intervals? | |

Quantitative or Qualitative Data? | |

Distinguishing between the Two Types of Data | |

One, Two, or More Groups? | |

Concluding Comments | |

Review Questions | |

Appendices | |

Math Review | |

Answers to Selected Questions | |

Tables | |

Glossary | |

Index | |

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