Preface 

xi  

Statistics, Data, and Statistical Thinking 


1  (18) 

The Science of Statistics 


2  (1) 

Types of Statistical Applications 


2  (2) 

Fundamental Elements of Statistics 


4  (5) 


9  (1) 


10  (3) 

The Role of Statistics in Critical Thinking 


13  (6) 


14  (1) 

Statistics in Action A ``20/20''View of Survey Results: Fact or Fiction? 


15  (4) 

Methods for Describing Sets of Data 


19  (88) 

Describing Qualitative Data 


20  (9) 

Graphical Methods for Describing Quantitative Data 


29  (13) 


42  (2) 

Numerical Measures of Central Tendency 


44  (11) 

Numerical Measures of Variability 


55  (6) 

Interpreting the Standard Deviation 


61  (9) 

Numerical Measures of Relative Standing 


70  (5) 

Methods for Detecting Outliers (Optional) 


75  (11) 

Graphing Bivariate Relationships (Optional) 


86  (6) 

Distorting the Truth with Descriptive Techniques 


92  (15) 

Statistics in Action the ``Eye Cue'' Test: Does Experience Improve Performance? 


95  (1) 


96  (11) 


107  (66) 

Events, Sample Spaces, and Probability 


108  (12) 


120  (3) 


123  (3) 

The Additive Rule and Mutually Exclusive Events 


126  (5) 


131  (8) 

The Multiplicative Rule and Independent Events 


139  (10) 


149  (5) 

Some Counting Rules (Optional) 


154  (19) 

Statistics in Action Game Show Strategy: To Switch or Not to Switch? 


165  (1) 


166  (7) 

Discrete Random Variables 


173  (44) 

Two Types of Random Variables 


174  (3) 

Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables 


177  (5) 

Expected Values of Discrete Random Variables 


182  (7) 

The Binomial Random Variable 


189  (13) 

The Poisson Random Variable (Optional) 


202  (6) 

The Hypergeometric Random Variable (Optional) 


208  (9) 

Statistics in Action Probability in a Reverse Cocaine Sting 


212  (1) 


212  (5) 

Continuous Random Variables 


217  (44) 

Continuous Probability Distributions 


218  (1) 


219  (4) 


223  (14) 

Descriptive Methods for Assessing Normality 


237  (7) 

Approximating a Binomial Distribution with a Normal Distribution (Optional) 


244  (6) 

The Exponential Distribution (Optional) 


250  (11) 

Statistics in Action IQ, Economic Mobility, and the Bell Curve 


255  (1) 


256  (5) 


261  (26) 

What Is a Sampling Distribution? 


262  (6) 

Properties of Sampling Distributions: Unbiasedness and Minimum Variance (Optional) 


268  (5) 

The Central Limit Theorem 


273  (14) 


281  (1) 

Statistics in Action The Insomnia Pill 


282  (5) 

Inferences Based on a Single Sample: Estimation with Confidence Intervals 


287  (40) 

LargeSample Confidence Interval for a Population Mean 


288  (9) 

SmallSample Confidence Interval for a Population Mean 


297  (11) 

LargeSample Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion 


308  (7) 

Determining the Sample Size 


315  (12) 

Statistics in Action Scallops, Sampling, and the Law 


319  (2) 


321  (6) 

Inferences Based on a Single Sample: Tests of Hypothesis 


327  (52) 

The Elements of a Test of Hypothesis 


328  (6) 

LargeSample Test of Hypothesis About a Population Mean 


334  (6) 

Observed Significance Levels: pValues 


340  (7) 

SmallSample Test of Hypothesis About a Population Mean 


347  (6) 

LargeSample Test of Hypothesis About a Population Proportion 


353  (6) 

Calculating Type II Error Probabilities; More About β (Optional) 


359  (8) 

Test of Hypothesis About a Population Variance (Optional) 


367  (12) 


371  (1) 

Statistics in Action March Madness: Handicapping the NCAA Basketball Tourney 


372  (7) 

Inferences Based on Two Samples: Confidence Intervals and Tests of Hypotheses 


379  (62) 

Comparing Two Population Means: Independent Sampling 


380  (17) 

Comparing Two Population Means: Paired Difference Experiments 


397  (14) 

Comparing Two Population Proportions: Independent Sampling 


411  (7) 

Determining the Sample Size 


418  (3) 

Comparing Two Population Variances; Independent Sampling (Optional) 


421  (20) 

Statistics in Action Detection of Rigged Milk Prices 


430  (1) 


431  (10) 

Analysis of Variance: Comparing More Than Two Means 


441  (68) 

Elements of a Designed Experiment 


442  (5) 

The Completely Randomized Design 


447  (16) 

Multiple Comparisons of Means 


463  (6) 

The Randomized Block Design 


469  (15) 


484  (25) 

Statistics in Action on the Trail of the Cockroach 


500  (1) 


501  (8) 


509  (66) 


510  (4) 

Fitting the Model: The Least Squares Approach 


514  (15) 


529  (1) 


530  (3) 

Assessing the Utility of the Model: Making Inferences About the Slope β1 


533  (8) 

The Coefficient of Correlation 


541  (3) 

The Coefficient of Determination 


544  (7) 

Using the Model for Estimation and Prediction 


551  (9) 


560  (15) 

Statistics in Action Can ``Dowsers'' Really Detect Water? 


564  (3) 


567  (8) 

Multiple Regression and Model Building 


575  (130) 

Multiple Regression Models 


576  (1) 

The FirstOrder Model: Estimating and Interpreting the β Parameters 


577  (6) 


583  (2) 

Inferences About the β Parameters 


585  (10) 

Checking the Overall Utility of a Model 


595  (10) 

Using the Model for Estimation and Prediction 


605  (6) 

Model Building: Interaction Models 


611  (7) 

Model Building: Quadratic and Other Higher Order Models 


618  (12) 

Model Building: Qualitative (Dummy) Variable Models 


630  (7) 

Model Building: Models with Both Quantitative and Qualitative Variables 


637  (10) 

Model Building: Comparing Nested Models 


647  (9) 

Model Building: Stepwise Regression 


656  (9) 

Residual Analysis: Checking the Regression Assumptions 


665  (15) 

Some Pitfalls: Estimability, Multicollinearity, and Extrapolation 


680  (25) 

Statistics in Action 12.1 ``Wringing'' the Bell Curve 


691  (1) 

Statistics in Action 12.2 Building a Model for Condo Sale Prices 


692  (2) 


694  (11) 

Categorical Data Analysis 


705  (34) 

Categorical Data and the Multinomial Experiment 


706  (1) 

Testing Categorical Probabilities: OneWay Table 


707  (7) 

Testing Categorical Probabilities: TwoWay (Contingency) Table 


714  (16) 

A Word of Caution About ChiSquare Tests 


730  (9) 

Statistics in Action The Level of Agreement Among Movie Reviewers: Thumbs Up or Thumbs Down? 


730  (1) 


731  (8) 


739  (54) 

Introduction: DistributionFree Tests 


740  (1) 

Single Population Inferences: The Sign Test 


741  (6) 

Comparing Two Populations: The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test for Independent Samples 


747  (8) 

Comparing Two Populations: The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test for the Paired Difference Experiment 


755  (8) 

The KruskalWallis HTest for a Completely Randomized Design 


763  (6) 

The Friedman FrTest for a Randomized Block Design 


769  (7) 

Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient 


776  (17) 

Statistics in Action Deadly Exposure: Agent Orange and Vietnam Vets 


784  (1) 


785  (8) 
Appendix A: Tables 

793  (30) 


795  (3) 

Table II Binomial Probabilities 


798  (4) 

Table III Poisson Probabilities 


802  (5) 

Table IV Normal Curve Areas 


807  (1) 


808  (1) 

Table VI Critical Values of t 


809  (1) 

Table VII Critical Values of X2 


810  (2) 

Table VIII Percentage Points of the FDistribution, α = .10 


812  (2) 

Table IX Percentage Points of the FDistribution, α = .05 


814  (2) 

Table X Percentage Points of the FDistribution, α = .025 


816  (2) 

Table XI Percentage Points of the FDistribution, α = .01 


818  (2) 

Table XII Critical Values of TL and TU for the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test: Independent Samples 


820  (1) 

Table XIII Critical Values of T0 in the Wilcoxon Paired Difference Signed Rank Test 


821  (1) 

Table XIV Critical Values of Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient 


822  (1) 
Appendix B: Data Sets on CDROM That Accompanies Text 

823  (6) 
Appendix C: Calculation Formulas for Analysis of Variance 

829  (6) 
Answers to Selected Exercises 

835  (12) 
Index 

847  