Preface 

x  

Statistics: The Art and Science of Learning from Data 


02  (22) 

How Can You Investigate Using Data? 


04  (5) 

We Learn about Populations Using Samples 


09  (7) 

What Role do Computers Play in Statistics? 


16  (8) 


21  (1) 


21  (3) 

Exploring Data with Graphs and Numerical Summaries 


24  (64) 

What Are the Types of Data? 


26  (4) 

How Can We Describe Data Using Graphical Summaries? 


30  (18) 

How Can We Describe the Center of Quantitative Data? 


48  (8) 

How Can We Describe the Spread of Quantitative Data? 


56  (8) 

How Can Measures of Position Describe Spread? 


64  (10) 

How Are Descriptive Summaries Misused? 


74  (14) 

Answers to Chapter Figure Questions 


79  (1) 


80  (1) 


81  (7) 

Association: Contingency, Correlation, and Regression 


88  (58) 

How Can We Explore the Association between Two Categorical Variables? 


90  (7) 

How Can We Explore the Association between Two Quantitative Variables? 


97  (12) 

How Can We Predict the Outcome of a Variable? 


109  (13) 

What Are Some Cautions in Analyzing Associations? 


122  (24) 

Answers to Chapter Figure Questions 


138  (1) 


139  (1) 


139  (7) 


146  (46) 

Should We Experiment or Should We Merely Observe? 


148  (7) 

What Are Good Ways and Poor Ways to Sample? 


155  (12) 

What Are Good Ways and Poor Ways to Experiment? 


167  (6) 

What Are Other Ways to Perform Experimental and Observational Studies? 


173  (19) 

Answers to Chapter Figure Questions 


184  (1) 


184  (1) 


184  (8) 

Probability in Our Daily Lives 


192  (52) 

How Can Probability Quantify Randomness? 


194  (7) 

How Can We Find Probabilities? 


201  (13) 

Conditional Probability: What's the Probability of A, Given B? 


214  (10) 

Applying the Probability Rules 


224  (20) 

Answers to Chapter Figure Questions 


237  (1) 


237  (1) 


238  (6) 

Probability Distributions 


244  (70) 

How Can We Summarize Possible Outcomes and Their Probabilities? 


246  (11) 

How Can We Find Probabilities for BellShaped Distributions? 


257  (11) 

How Can We Find Probabilities When Each Observation Has Two Possible Outcomes 


268  (10) 

How Likely Are the Possible Values of a Statistic? The Sampling Distribution 


278  (10) 

How Close Are Sample Means to Population Means 


288  (9) 

How Can We Make Inferences About a Population? 


297  (17) 

Answers to Chapter Figure Questions 


304  (1) 


304  (1) 


305  (9) 

Statistical Inference: Confidence Intervals 


314  (52) 

What Are Point and Interval Estimates of Population Parameters? 


316  (6) 

How Can We Construct a Confidence Interval to Estimate a Population Proportion? 


322  (11) 

How Can We Construct a Confidence Interval to Estimate a Population Mean? 


333  (12) 

How Do We Choose the Sample Size for a Study? 


345  (9) 

How Do Computers Make New Estimation Methods Possible? 


354  (12) 

Answers to Chapter Figure Questions 


358  (1) 


358  (1) 


359  (7) 

Statistical Inference: Significance Tests About Hypotheses 


366  (58) 

What Are the Steps for Performing a Significance Test? 


368  (4) 

Significance Tests About Proportions 


372  (16) 

Significance Tests About Means 


388  (12) 

Decisions and Types of Errors in Significance Tests 


400  (4) 

Limitations of Significance Tests 


404  (7) 

How Likely Is a Type II Error (Not Rejecting H0, Even though It's False)? 


411  (13) 

Answers to Chapter Figure Questions 


417  (1) 


417  (2) 


419  (5) 


424  (60) 

Categorical Response: How Can We Compare Two Proportions? 


427  (12) 

Quantitative Response: How Can We Compare Two Means? 


439  (12) 

Other Ways of Comparing Means and Comparing Proportions 


451  (7) 

How Can We Analyze Dependent Samples? 


458  (11) 

How Can We Adjust for Effects of Other Variables? 


469  (15) 

Answers to Chapter Figure Questions 


475  (1) 


475  (1) 


476  (8) 

Analyzing the Association Between Categorical Variables 


484  (40) 

What Is Independence and What Is Association? 


486  (4) 

How Can We Test Whether Categorical Variables are Independent? 


490  (13) 

How Strong Is the Association? 


503  (7) 

How Can Residuals Reveal the Pattern of Association? 


510  (4) 

What if the Sample Size Is Small? Fisher's Exact Test 


514  (10) 

Answers to Chapter Figure Questions 


518  (1) 


519  (1) 


519  (5) 

Analyzing Association Between Quantitative Variables: Regression Analysis 


524  (52) 

How Can We ``Model'' How Two Variables Are Related? 


526  (8) 

How Can We Describe Strength of Association? 


534  (12) 

How Can We Make Inferences About the Association? 


546  (7) 

What Do We Learn from How the Data Vary Around the Regression Line? 


553  (10) 

Exponential Regression: A Model for Nonlinearity 


563  (13) 

Answers to Chapter Figure Questions 


568  (1) 


569  (1) 


570  (6) 


576  (48) 

How Can We Use Several Variables to Predict a Response? 


578  (5) 

Extending the Correlation and RSquared for Multiple Regression 


583  (5) 

How Can We Use Multiple Regression to Make Inferences? 


588  (11) 

Checking a Regression Model Using Residual Plots 


599  (5) 

How Can Regression Include Categorical Predictors? 


604  (6) 

How Can We Model a Categorical Response? 


610  (14) 

Answers to Chapter Figure Questions 


618  (1) 


619  (1) 


619  (5) 

Comparing Groups: Analysis of Variance Methods 


624  (42) 

How Can We Compare Several Means?: OneWay ANOVA 


626  (10) 

How Should We Follow Up an ANOVA F Test 


636  (9) 

What if There Are Two Factors?: TwoWay ANOVA 


645  (21) 

Answers to Chapter Figure Questions 


659  (1) 


659  (1) 


660  (6) 


666  

How Can We Compare Two Groups by Ranking? 


668  (11) 

Nonparametric Methods for Several Groups and for Matched Pairs 


679  

Answers to Chapter Figure Questions 


689  (1) 


690  (1) 


690  


1  (1) 


1  (6) 


7  
Index 

1  (1) 
Photo Credits 

1  