Introduction and Descriptive Statistics | p. 1 |

Introduction to Statistics | p. 2 |

Preview | p. 3 |

Statistics, Science, and Observations | p. 4 |

Populations and Samples | p. 4 |

Data Structures, Research Methods, and Statistics | p. 10 |

Variables and Measurement | p. 18 |

Statistical Notation | p. 24 |

Summary | p. 28 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 30 |

Demonstrations 1.1 and 1.2 | p. 30 |

Problems | p. 33 |

Frequency Distributions | p. 35 |

Preview | p. 36 |

Overview | p. 37 |

Frequency Distribution Tables | p. 37 |

Frequency Distribution Graphs | p. 44 |

The Shape of a Frequency Distribution | p. 50 |

Percentiles, Percentile Ranks, and Interpolation | p. 52 |

Stem and Leaf Displays | p. 58 |

Summary | p. 61 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 63 |

Demonstrations 2.1 and 2.2 | p. 64 |

Problems | p. 66 |

Central Tendency | p. 70 |

Preview | p. 71 |

Overview | p. 71 |

The Mean | p. 73 |

The Median | p. 82 |

The Mode | p. 87 |

Selecting a Measure of Central Tendency | p. 89 |

Central Tendency and the Shape of the Distribution | p. 95 |

Summary | p. 97 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 98 |

Demonstrations 3.1 and 3.2 | p. 99 |

Problems | p. 101 |

Variability | p. 104 |

Preview | p. 105 |

Overview | p. 105 |

The Range and Interquartile Range | p. 107 |

Standard Deviation and Variance for a Population | p. 109 |

Standard Deviation and Variance for Samples | p. 116 |

More about Variance and Standard Deviation | p. 121 |

Comparing Measures of Variability | p. 128 |

Summary | p. 129 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 131 |

Demonstration 4.1 | p. 132 |

Problems | p. 133 |

Foundations of Inferential Statistics | p. 136 |

z-Scores: Location of Scores and Standardized Distributions | p. 137 |

Preview | p. 138 |

Introduction to z-Scores | p. 138 |

z-Scores and Location in a Distribution | p. 140 |

Using z-Scores to Standardize a Distribution | p. 144 |

Other Standardized Distributions Based on z-Scores | p. 149 |

Computing z-Scores for Samples | p. 151 |

Looking Ahead to Inferential Statistics | p. 152 |

Summary | p. 155 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 156 |

Demonstrations 5.1 and 5.2 | p. 157 |

Problems | p. 158 |

Probability | p. 161 |

Preview | p. 162 |

Introduction to Probability | p. 162 |

Probability and the Normal Distribution | p. 168 |

Probabilities and Proportions for Scores from a Normal Distribution | p. 175 |

Probability and the Binomial Distribution | p. 181 |

Looking Ahead to Inferential Statistics | p. 186 |

Summary | p. 188 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 190 |

Demonstrations 6.1 and 6.2 | p. 190 |

Problems | p. 193 |

Probability and Samples: The Distribution of Sample Means | p. 195 |

Preview | p. 196 |

Overview | p. 196 |

The Distribution of Sample Means | p. 197 |

Probability and the Distribution of Sample Means | p. 205 |

More about Standard Error | p. 208 |

Looking Ahead to Inferential Statistics | p. 213 |

Summary | p. 217 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 219 |

Demonstration 7.1 | p. 219 |

Problems | p. 221 |

Inferences about Means and Mean Differences | p. 224 |

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing | p. 225 |

Preview | p. 226 |

The Logic of Hypothesis Testing | p. 226 |

Uncertainty and Errors in Hypothesis Testing | p. 237 |

An Example of a Hypothesis Test | p. 241 |

Directional (One-Tailed) Hypothesis Tests | p. 250 |

The General Elements of Hypothesis Testing: A Review | p. 254 |

Concerns about Hypothesis Testing: Measuring Effect Size | p. 256 |

Statistical Power | p. 260 |

Summary | p. 265 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 267 |

Demonstrations 8.1 and 8.2 | p. 268 |

Problems | p. 270 |

Introduction to the t Statistic | p. 274 |

Preview | p. 275 |

The t Statistic-An Alternative to z | p. 275 |

Hypothesis Tests with the t Statistic | p. 281 |

Measuring Effect Size for the t Statistic | p. 285 |

Directional Hypotheses and One-Tailed Tests | p. 291 |

Summary | p. 293 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 295 |

Demonstrations 9.1 and 9.2 | p. 295 |

Problems | p. 297 |

The t Test for Two Independent Samples | p. 301 |

Preview | p. 302 |

Overview | p. 302 |

The t Statistic for an Independent-Measures Research Design | p. 304 |

Hypothesis Tests and Effect Size with the Independent-Measures t Statistic | p. 311 |

Assumptions Underlying the Independent-Measures t Formula | p. 320 |

Summary | p. 323 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 325 |

Demonstrations 10.1 and 10.2 | p. 326 |

Problems | p. 328 |

The t Test for Two Related Samples | p. 333 |

Preview | p. 334 |

Overview | p. 334 |

The t Statistic for Related Samples | p. 336 |

Hypothesis Tests and Effect Size for the Repeated-Measures Design | p. 340 |

Uses and Assumptions for Related-Samples t Tests | p. 346 |

Summary | p. 350 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 351 |

Demonstrations 11.1 and 11.2 | p. 352 |

Problems | p. 354 |

Estimation | p. 359 |

Preview | p. 360 |

An Overview of Estimation | p. 360 |

Estimation with the t Statistic | p. 366 |

A Final Look at Estimation | p. 375 |

Summary | p. 377 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 378 |

Demonstrations 12.1 and 12.2 | p. 379 |

Problems | p. 382 |

Introduction to Analysis of Variance | p. 387 |

Preview | p. 388 |

Introduction | p. 389 |

The Logic of Analysis of Variance | p. 393 |

ANOVA Notation and Formulas | p. 397 |

The Distribution of F-Ratios | p. 406 |

Examples of Hypothesis Testing and Effect Size with ANOVA | p. 408 |

Post Hoc Tests | p. 418 |

The Relationship Between ANOVA and t Tests | p. 423 |

Summary | p. 425 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 428 |

Demonstrations 13.1 and 13.2 | p. 428 |

Problems | p. 430 |

Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) | p. 435 |

Preview | p. 436 |

Overview | p. 436 |

Testing Hypotheses with the Repeated-Measures ANOVA | p. 441 |

Advantages of the Repeated-Measures Design | p. 449 |

Individual Differences and the Consistency of the Treatment Effects | p. 451 |

Summary | p. 453 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 456 |

Demonstrations 14.1 and 14.2 | p. 456 |

Problems | p. 460 |

Two-Factor Analysis of Variance (Independent Measures) | p. 465 |

Preview | p. 466 |

Overview | p. 466 |

Main Effects and Interactions | p. 468 |

Notation and Formulas | p. 476 |

Interpreting the Results from a Two-Factor ANOVA | p. 485 |

Assumptions for the Two-Factor ANOVA | p. 489 |

Summary | p. 490 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 492 |

Demonstrations 15.1 and 15.2 | p. 493 |

Problems | p. 499 |

Correlations and Nonparametric Tests | p. 504 |

Correlation | p. 505 |

Preview | p. 506 |

Overview | p. 506 |

The Pearson Correlation | p. 511 |

Understanding and Interpreting the Pearson Correlation | p. 516 |

Hypothesis Tests with the Pearson Correlation | p. 521 |

The Spearman Correlation | p. 525 |

Other Measures of Relationship | p. 532 |

Summary | p. 536 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 539 |

Demonstrations 16.1 and 16.2 | p. 540 |

Problems | p. 543 |

Introduction to Regression | p. 548 |

Preview | p. 549 |

Introduction to Linear Equations and Regression | p. 549 |

Testing the Significance of the Regression Equation: Analysis of Regression | p. 562 |

Introduction to Multiple Regression with Two Predictor Variables | p. 564 |

Evaluating the Contribution of Each Predictor Variable | p. 569 |

Summary | p. 571 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 573 |

Demonstrations 17.1 and 17.2 | p. 574 |

Problems | p. 577 |

The Chi-Square Statistic: Tests for Goodness of Fit and Independence | p. 580 |

Preview | p. 581 |

Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Tests | p. 581 |

The Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit | p. 582 |

The Chi-Square Test for Independence | p. 592 |

Measuring Effect Size for the Chi-Square Test for Independence | p. 602 |

Assumptions and Restrictions for Chi-Square Tests | p. 604 |

Special Applications of the Chi-Square Tests | p. 605 |

Summary | p. 608 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 611 |

Demonstration 18.1 | p. 612 |

Problems | p. 614 |

The Binomial Test | p. 619 |

Preview | p. 620 |

Overview | p. 620 |

The Binomial Test | p. 624 |

The Relationship Between Chi-Square and the Binomial Test | p. 626 |

The Sign Test | p. 627 |

Summary | p. 631 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 632 |

Demonstration 19.1 | p. 633 |

Problems | p. 633 |

Statistical Techniques for Ordinal Data: Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon, Kruskal Wallis, and Friedman Tests | p. 637 |

Preview | p. 638 |

Data from an Ordinal Scale | p. 638 |

The Mann-Whitney U-Test: An Alternative to the Independent-Measures t Test | p. 641 |

The Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test: An Alternative to the Repeated-Measures t Test | p. 649 |

The Kruskal-Wallis Test: An Alternative to the Independent-Measures ANOVA | p. 655 |

The Friedman Test: An Alternative to Repeated-Measures ANOVA | p. 659 |

Summary | p. 662 |

Focus on Problem Solving | p. 666 |

Demonstrations 20.1, 20.2, 20.3, and 20.4 | p. 666 |

Problems | p. 671 |

Basic Mathematics Review | p. 677 |

Symbols and Notation | p. 679 |

Proportions: Fractions, Decimals, and Percentages | p. 681 |

Negative Numbers | p. 687 |

Basic Algebra: Solving Equations | p. 689 |

Exponents and Square Roots | p. 692 |

Statistical Tables | p. 699 |

Solutions for Odd-Numbered Problems | p. 71 |

General Instructions for Using SPSS | p. 735 |

Statistics Organizer | p. 738 |

References | p. 750 |

Index | p. 753 |

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