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Statistics For The Behavioral Sciences



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Wadsworth Publishing
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  • Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
    Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
  • Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
    Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
  • Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences (with InfoTrac)
    Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences (with InfoTrac)
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    Statistics for The Behavioral Sciences
  • Study Guide for Gravetter/Wallnau’s Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 8th
    Study Guide for Gravetter/Wallnau’s Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 8th
  • Statistics For The Behavioral Sciences
    Statistics For The Behavioral Sciences
  • Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
    Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences


Master statistics with STATISTICS FOR THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES! With straightforward instruction, built-in learning aids, and real world examples, this psychology text provides you with the tools you need to succeed. You will have numerous opportunities to practice statistical techniques through learning checks, examples, demonstrations, and problems. Exam preparation is made easy with a student companion website that provides tutorials, crossword puzzles, flashcards, learning objectives, and more!

Table of Contents

Introduction and Descriptive Statisticsp. 1
Introduction to Statisticsp. 2
Previewp. 3
Statistics, Science, and Observationsp. 4
Populations and Samplesp. 4
Data Structures, Research Methods, and Statisticsp. 10
Variables and Measurementp. 18
Statistical Notationp. 24
Summaryp. 28
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 30
Demonstrations 1.1 and 1.2p. 30
Problemsp. 33
Frequency Distributionsp. 35
Previewp. 36
Overviewp. 37
Frequency Distribution Tablesp. 37
Frequency Distribution Graphsp. 44
The Shape of a Frequency Distributionp. 50
Percentiles, Percentile Ranks, and Interpolationp. 52
Stem and Leaf Displaysp. 58
Summaryp. 61
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 63
Demonstrations 2.1 and 2.2p. 64
Problemsp. 66
Central Tendencyp. 70
Previewp. 71
Overviewp. 71
The Meanp. 73
The Medianp. 82
The Modep. 87
Selecting a Measure of Central Tendencyp. 89
Central Tendency and the Shape of the Distributionp. 95
Summaryp. 97
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 98
Demonstrations 3.1 and 3.2p. 99
Problemsp. 101
Variabilityp. 104
Previewp. 105
Overviewp. 105
The Range and Interquartile Rangep. 107
Standard Deviation and Variance for a Populationp. 109
Standard Deviation and Variance for Samplesp. 116
More about Variance and Standard Deviationp. 121
Comparing Measures of Variabilityp. 128
Summaryp. 129
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 131
Demonstration 4.1p. 132
Problemsp. 133
Foundations of Inferential Statisticsp. 136
z-Scores: Location of Scores and Standardized Distributionsp. 137
Previewp. 138
Introduction to z-Scoresp. 138
z-Scores and Location in a Distributionp. 140
Using z-Scores to Standardize a Distributionp. 144
Other Standardized Distributions Based on z-Scoresp. 149
Computing z-Scores for Samplesp. 151
Looking Ahead to Inferential Statisticsp. 152
Summaryp. 155
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 156
Demonstrations 5.1 and 5.2p. 157
Problemsp. 158
Probabilityp. 161
Previewp. 162
Introduction to Probabilityp. 162
Probability and the Normal Distributionp. 168
Probabilities and Proportions for Scores from a Normal Distributionp. 175
Probability and the Binomial Distributionp. 181
Looking Ahead to Inferential Statisticsp. 186
Summaryp. 188
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 190
Demonstrations 6.1 and 6.2p. 190
Problemsp. 193
Probability and Samples: The Distribution of Sample Meansp. 195
Previewp. 196
Overviewp. 196
The Distribution of Sample Meansp. 197
Probability and the Distribution of Sample Meansp. 205
More about Standard Errorp. 208
Looking Ahead to Inferential Statisticsp. 213
Summaryp. 217
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 219
Demonstration 7.1p. 219
Problemsp. 221
Inferences about Means and Mean Differencesp. 224
Introduction to Hypothesis Testingp. 225
Previewp. 226
The Logic of Hypothesis Testingp. 226
Uncertainty and Errors in Hypothesis Testingp. 237
An Example of a Hypothesis Testp. 241
Directional (One-Tailed) Hypothesis Testsp. 250
The General Elements of Hypothesis Testing: A Reviewp. 254
Concerns about Hypothesis Testing: Measuring Effect Sizep. 256
Statistical Powerp. 260
Summaryp. 265
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 267
Demonstrations 8.1 and 8.2p. 268
Problemsp. 270
Introduction to the t Statisticp. 274
Previewp. 275
The t Statistic-An Alternative to zp. 275
Hypothesis Tests with the t Statisticp. 281
Measuring Effect Size for the t Statisticp. 285
Directional Hypotheses and One-Tailed Testsp. 291
Summaryp. 293
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 295
Demonstrations 9.1 and 9.2p. 295
Problemsp. 297
The t Test for Two Independent Samplesp. 301
Previewp. 302
Overviewp. 302
The t Statistic for an Independent-Measures Research Designp. 304
Hypothesis Tests and Effect Size with the Independent-Measures t Statisticp. 311
Assumptions Underlying the Independent-Measures t Formulap. 320
Summaryp. 323
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 325
Demonstrations 10.1 and 10.2p. 326
Problemsp. 328
The t Test for Two Related Samplesp. 333
Previewp. 334
Overviewp. 334
The t Statistic for Related Samplesp. 336
Hypothesis Tests and Effect Size for the Repeated-Measures Designp. 340
Uses and Assumptions for Related-Samples t Testsp. 346
Summaryp. 350
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 351
Demonstrations 11.1 and 11.2p. 352
Problemsp. 354
Estimationp. 359
Previewp. 360
An Overview of Estimationp. 360
Estimation with the t Statisticp. 366
A Final Look at Estimationp. 375
Summaryp. 377
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 378
Demonstrations 12.1 and 12.2p. 379
Problemsp. 382
Introduction to Analysis of Variancep. 387
Previewp. 388
Introductionp. 389
The Logic of Analysis of Variancep. 393
ANOVA Notation and Formulasp. 397
The Distribution of F-Ratiosp. 406
Examples of Hypothesis Testing and Effect Size with ANOVAp. 408
Post Hoc Testsp. 418
The Relationship Between ANOVA and t Testsp. 423
Summaryp. 425
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 428
Demonstrations 13.1 and 13.2p. 428
Problemsp. 430
Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)p. 435
Previewp. 436
Overviewp. 436
Testing Hypotheses with the Repeated-Measures ANOVAp. 441
Advantages of the Repeated-Measures Designp. 449
Individual Differences and the Consistency of the Treatment Effectsp. 451
Summaryp. 453
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 456
Demonstrations 14.1 and 14.2p. 456
Problemsp. 460
Two-Factor Analysis of Variance (Independent Measures)p. 465
Previewp. 466
Overviewp. 466
Main Effects and Interactionsp. 468
Notation and Formulasp. 476
Interpreting the Results from a Two-Factor ANOVAp. 485
Assumptions for the Two-Factor ANOVAp. 489
Summaryp. 490
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 492
Demonstrations 15.1 and 15.2p. 493
Problemsp. 499
Correlations and Nonparametric Testsp. 504
Correlationp. 505
Previewp. 506
Overviewp. 506
The Pearson Correlationp. 511
Understanding and Interpreting the Pearson Correlationp. 516
Hypothesis Tests with the Pearson Correlationp. 521
The Spearman Correlationp. 525
Other Measures of Relationshipp. 532
Summaryp. 536
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 539
Demonstrations 16.1 and 16.2p. 540
Problemsp. 543
Introduction to Regressionp. 548
Previewp. 549
Introduction to Linear Equations and Regressionp. 549
Testing the Significance of the Regression Equation: Analysis of Regressionp. 562
Introduction to Multiple Regression with Two Predictor Variablesp. 564
Evaluating the Contribution of Each Predictor Variablep. 569
Summaryp. 571
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 573
Demonstrations 17.1 and 17.2p. 574
Problemsp. 577
The Chi-Square Statistic: Tests for Goodness of Fit and Independencep. 580
Previewp. 581
Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Testsp. 581
The Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fitp. 582
The Chi-Square Test for Independencep. 592
Measuring Effect Size for the Chi-Square Test for Independencep. 602
Assumptions and Restrictions for Chi-Square Testsp. 604
Special Applications of the Chi-Square Testsp. 605
Summaryp. 608
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 611
Demonstration 18.1p. 612
Problemsp. 614
The Binomial Testp. 619
Previewp. 620
Overviewp. 620
The Binomial Testp. 624
The Relationship Between Chi-Square and the Binomial Testp. 626
The Sign Testp. 627
Summaryp. 631
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 632
Demonstration 19.1p. 633
Problemsp. 633
Statistical Techniques for Ordinal Data: Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon, Kruskal Wallis, and Friedman Testsp. 637
Previewp. 638
Data from an Ordinal Scalep. 638
The Mann-Whitney U-Test: An Alternative to the Independent-Measures t Testp. 641
The Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test: An Alternative to the Repeated-Measures t Testp. 649
The Kruskal-Wallis Test: An Alternative to the Independent-Measures ANOVAp. 655
The Friedman Test: An Alternative to Repeated-Measures ANOVAp. 659
Summaryp. 662
Focus on Problem Solvingp. 666
Demonstrations 20.1, 20.2, 20.3, and 20.4p. 666
Problemsp. 671
Basic Mathematics Reviewp. 677
Symbols and Notationp. 679
Proportions: Fractions, Decimals, and Percentagesp. 681
Negative Numbersp. 687
Basic Algebra: Solving Equationsp. 689
Exponents and Square Rootsp. 692
Statistical Tablesp. 699
Solutions for Odd-Numbered Problemsp. 71
General Instructions for Using SPSSp. 735
Statistics Organizerp. 738
Referencesp. 750
Indexp. 753
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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