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Introduction and Descriptive Statistics | p. 1 |
Introduction to Statistics | p. 2 |
Preview | p. 3 |
Statistics, Science, and Observations | p. 4 |
Populations and Samples | p. 4 |
Data Structures, Research Methods, and Statistics | p. 10 |
Variables and Measurement | p. 18 |
Statistical Notation | p. 24 |
Summary | p. 28 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 30 |
Demonstrations 1.1 and 1.2 | p. 30 |
Problems | p. 33 |
Frequency Distributions | p. 35 |
Preview | p. 36 |
Overview | p. 37 |
Frequency Distribution Tables | p. 37 |
Frequency Distribution Graphs | p. 44 |
The Shape of a Frequency Distribution | p. 50 |
Percentiles, Percentile Ranks, and Interpolation | p. 52 |
Stem and Leaf Displays | p. 58 |
Summary | p. 61 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 63 |
Demonstrations 2.1 and 2.2 | p. 64 |
Problems | p. 66 |
Central Tendency | p. 70 |
Preview | p. 71 |
Overview | p. 71 |
The Mean | p. 73 |
The Median | p. 82 |
The Mode | p. 87 |
Selecting a Measure of Central Tendency | p. 89 |
Central Tendency and the Shape of the Distribution | p. 95 |
Summary | p. 97 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 98 |
Demonstrations 3.1 and 3.2 | p. 99 |
Problems | p. 101 |
Variability | p. 104 |
Preview | p. 105 |
Overview | p. 105 |
The Range and Interquartile Range | p. 107 |
Standard Deviation and Variance for a Population | p. 109 |
Standard Deviation and Variance for Samples | p. 116 |
More about Variance and Standard Deviation | p. 121 |
Comparing Measures of Variability | p. 128 |
Summary | p. 129 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 131 |
Demonstration 4.1 | p. 132 |
Problems | p. 133 |
Foundations of Inferential Statistics | p. 136 |
z-Scores: Location of Scores and Standardized Distributions | p. 137 |
Preview | p. 138 |
Introduction to z-Scores | p. 138 |
z-Scores and Location in a Distribution | p. 140 |
Using z-Scores to Standardize a Distribution | p. 144 |
Other Standardized Distributions Based on z-Scores | p. 149 |
Computing z-Scores for Samples | p. 151 |
Looking Ahead to Inferential Statistics | p. 152 |
Summary | p. 155 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 156 |
Demonstrations 5.1 and 5.2 | p. 157 |
Problems | p. 158 |
Probability | p. 161 |
Preview | p. 162 |
Introduction to Probability | p. 162 |
Probability and the Normal Distribution | p. 168 |
Probabilities and Proportions for Scores from a Normal Distribution | p. 175 |
Probability and the Binomial Distribution | p. 181 |
Looking Ahead to Inferential Statistics | p. 186 |
Summary | p. 188 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 190 |
Demonstrations 6.1 and 6.2 | p. 190 |
Problems | p. 193 |
Probability and Samples: The Distribution of Sample Means | p. 195 |
Preview | p. 196 |
Overview | p. 196 |
The Distribution of Sample Means | p. 197 |
Probability and the Distribution of Sample Means | p. 205 |
More about Standard Error | p. 208 |
Looking Ahead to Inferential Statistics | p. 213 |
Summary | p. 217 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 219 |
Demonstration 7.1 | p. 219 |
Problems | p. 221 |
Inferences about Means and Mean Differences | p. 224 |
Introduction to Hypothesis Testing | p. 225 |
Preview | p. 226 |
The Logic of Hypothesis Testing | p. 226 |
Uncertainty and Errors in Hypothesis Testing | p. 237 |
An Example of a Hypothesis Test | p. 241 |
Directional (One-Tailed) Hypothesis Tests | p. 250 |
The General Elements of Hypothesis Testing: A Review | p. 254 |
Concerns about Hypothesis Testing: Measuring Effect Size | p. 256 |
Statistical Power | p. 260 |
Summary | p. 265 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 267 |
Demonstrations 8.1 and 8.2 | p. 268 |
Problems | p. 270 |
Introduction to the t Statistic | p. 274 |
Preview | p. 275 |
The t Statistic-An Alternative to z | p. 275 |
Hypothesis Tests with the t Statistic | p. 281 |
Measuring Effect Size for the t Statistic | p. 285 |
Directional Hypotheses and One-Tailed Tests | p. 291 |
Summary | p. 293 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 295 |
Demonstrations 9.1 and 9.2 | p. 295 |
Problems | p. 297 |
The t Test for Two Independent Samples | p. 301 |
Preview | p. 302 |
Overview | p. 302 |
The t Statistic for an Independent-Measures Research Design | p. 304 |
Hypothesis Tests and Effect Size with the Independent-Measures t Statistic | p. 311 |
Assumptions Underlying the Independent-Measures t Formula | p. 320 |
Summary | p. 323 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 325 |
Demonstrations 10.1 and 10.2 | p. 326 |
Problems | p. 328 |
The t Test for Two Related Samples | p. 333 |
Preview | p. 334 |
Overview | p. 334 |
The t Statistic for Related Samples | p. 336 |
Hypothesis Tests and Effect Size for the Repeated-Measures Design | p. 340 |
Uses and Assumptions for Related-Samples t Tests | p. 346 |
Summary | p. 350 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 351 |
Demonstrations 11.1 and 11.2 | p. 352 |
Problems | p. 354 |
Estimation | p. 359 |
Preview | p. 360 |
An Overview of Estimation | p. 360 |
Estimation with the t Statistic | p. 366 |
A Final Look at Estimation | p. 375 |
Summary | p. 377 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 378 |
Demonstrations 12.1 and 12.2 | p. 379 |
Problems | p. 382 |
Introduction to Analysis of Variance | p. 387 |
Preview | p. 388 |
Introduction | p. 389 |
The Logic of Analysis of Variance | p. 393 |
ANOVA Notation and Formulas | p. 397 |
The Distribution of F-Ratios | p. 406 |
Examples of Hypothesis Testing and Effect Size with ANOVA | p. 408 |
Post Hoc Tests | p. 418 |
The Relationship Between ANOVA and t Tests | p. 423 |
Summary | p. 425 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 428 |
Demonstrations 13.1 and 13.2 | p. 428 |
Problems | p. 430 |
Repeated-Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) | p. 435 |
Preview | p. 436 |
Overview | p. 436 |
Testing Hypotheses with the Repeated-Measures ANOVA | p. 441 |
Advantages of the Repeated-Measures Design | p. 449 |
Individual Differences and the Consistency of the Treatment Effects | p. 451 |
Summary | p. 453 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 456 |
Demonstrations 14.1 and 14.2 | p. 456 |
Problems | p. 460 |
Two-Factor Analysis of Variance (Independent Measures) | p. 465 |
Preview | p. 466 |
Overview | p. 466 |
Main Effects and Interactions | p. 468 |
Notation and Formulas | p. 476 |
Interpreting the Results from a Two-Factor ANOVA | p. 485 |
Assumptions for the Two-Factor ANOVA | p. 489 |
Summary | p. 490 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 492 |
Demonstrations 15.1 and 15.2 | p. 493 |
Problems | p. 499 |
Correlations and Nonparametric Tests | p. 504 |
Correlation | p. 505 |
Preview | p. 506 |
Overview | p. 506 |
The Pearson Correlation | p. 511 |
Understanding and Interpreting the Pearson Correlation | p. 516 |
Hypothesis Tests with the Pearson Correlation | p. 521 |
The Spearman Correlation | p. 525 |
Other Measures of Relationship | p. 532 |
Summary | p. 536 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 539 |
Demonstrations 16.1 and 16.2 | p. 540 |
Problems | p. 543 |
Introduction to Regression | p. 548 |
Preview | p. 549 |
Introduction to Linear Equations and Regression | p. 549 |
Testing the Significance of the Regression Equation: Analysis of Regression | p. 562 |
Introduction to Multiple Regression with Two Predictor Variables | p. 564 |
Evaluating the Contribution of Each Predictor Variable | p. 569 |
Summary | p. 571 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 573 |
Demonstrations 17.1 and 17.2 | p. 574 |
Problems | p. 577 |
The Chi-Square Statistic: Tests for Goodness of Fit and Independence | p. 580 |
Preview | p. 581 |
Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Tests | p. 581 |
The Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit | p. 582 |
The Chi-Square Test for Independence | p. 592 |
Measuring Effect Size for the Chi-Square Test for Independence | p. 602 |
Assumptions and Restrictions for Chi-Square Tests | p. 604 |
Special Applications of the Chi-Square Tests | p. 605 |
Summary | p. 608 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 611 |
Demonstration 18.1 | p. 612 |
Problems | p. 614 |
The Binomial Test | p. 619 |
Preview | p. 620 |
Overview | p. 620 |
The Binomial Test | p. 624 |
The Relationship Between Chi-Square and the Binomial Test | p. 626 |
The Sign Test | p. 627 |
Summary | p. 631 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 632 |
Demonstration 19.1 | p. 633 |
Problems | p. 633 |
Statistical Techniques for Ordinal Data: Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon, Kruskal Wallis, and Friedman Tests | p. 637 |
Preview | p. 638 |
Data from an Ordinal Scale | p. 638 |
The Mann-Whitney U-Test: An Alternative to the Independent-Measures t Test | p. 641 |
The Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test: An Alternative to the Repeated-Measures t Test | p. 649 |
The Kruskal-Wallis Test: An Alternative to the Independent-Measures ANOVA | p. 655 |
The Friedman Test: An Alternative to Repeated-Measures ANOVA | p. 659 |
Summary | p. 662 |
Focus on Problem Solving | p. 666 |
Demonstrations 20.1, 20.2, 20.3, and 20.4 | p. 666 |
Problems | p. 671 |
Basic Mathematics Review | p. 677 |
Symbols and Notation | p. 679 |
Proportions: Fractions, Decimals, and Percentages | p. 681 |
Negative Numbers | p. 687 |
Basic Algebra: Solving Equations | p. 689 |
Exponents and Square Roots | p. 692 |
Statistical Tables | p. 699 |
Solutions for Odd-Numbered Problems | p. 71 |
General Instructions for Using SPSS | p. 735 |
Statistics Organizer | p. 738 |
References | p. 750 |
Index | p. 753 |
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