SPSS Prefix: General Overview and Guide for Using SPSS | |

Overview of SPSS: What are you looking at? | |

Preview of SPSS in Focus | |

Introduction to Statistics | |

Descriptive and inferential statistics | |

Statistics in research | |

Scales of measurement | |

Types of data | |

Research in Focus: Types of data and scales of measurement | |

SPSS in Focus: Entering and defining variables | |

Summarizing Data: Tables, Graphs, and Distributions | |

Why summarize data? | |

Frequency distributions for grouped data | |

SPSS in Focus: Frequency distributions for quantitative data | |

Frequency distributions for ungrouped data | |

Research in Focus: Summarizing demographic information | |

SPSS in Focus: Frequency distributions for categorical data | |

Pictorial frequency distributions | |

Graphing distributions: Continuous data | |

Graphing distributions: Discrete and categorical data | |

Research in Focus: Frequencies and percents | |

SPSS in Focus: Histograms, bar charts, and pie charts | |

Summarizing Data: Central Tendency | |

Introduction to central tendency | |

Measures of central tendency | |

Characteristics of the mean | |

Choosing an appropriate measure of central tendency | |

Research in Focus: Describing central tendency | |

SPSS in Focus: Mean, median, and mode | |

Summarizing Data: Variability | |

Measuring variability | |

Range and midrange | |

Research in Focus: Reporting the range | |

Measures of variability: Quartiles and interquartiles | |

Research in Focus: The âÇ£midrange of behaviorâÇ | |

The variance | |

Explaining variance for populations and samples | |

The computational formula for variance | |

The Standard deviation | |

What does the standard deviation tell us? | |

Characteristics of the standard deviation | |

SPSS in Focus: Range, variance, and standard deviation | |

Probability | |

Introduction to probability | |

Calculating probability | |

Probability and relative frequency | |

The relationship between multiple outcomes | |

Conditional probabilities and BayesâÇÖ Theorem | |

SPSS in Focus: Probability tables | |

Probability distributions | |

The mean of a probability distribution and expected value | |

Research in Focus: When are risks worth taking? | |

The variance and standard deviation of a probability distribution | |

Expected value and the binomial distribution | |

a final thought on the likelihood of random behavioral outcomes | |

Probability and Normal Distributions | |

The normal distribution in behavioral science | |

Characteristics of the normal distribution | |

Research in Focus: The statistical norm | |

The standard normal distribution | |

The unit normal table: a brief introduction | |

Locating proportions | |

Locating scores | |

SPSS in Focus: Converting raw scores to standard z-scores | |

Going from binomial to normal | |

The normal approximation to the binomial distribution | |

Probability and Sampling Distributions | |

Selecting samples from populations | |

Selecting a sample: WhoâÇÖs in and whoâÇÖs out? | |

Sampling distributions: The mean | |

Sampling distributions: The variance | |

The standard error of the mean | |

Factors that decrease standard error | |

SPSS in Focus: Estimating the standard error of the mean | |

APA in Focus: Reporting the standard error | |

Standard normal transformations with sampling distributions | |

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing | |

Inferential Statistics and hypothesis testing | |

Four steps to hypothesis testing | |

Hypothesis testing and sampling distributions | |

Making a decision: Types of error | |

Testing a research hypothesis: Examples using the z-test | |

Research in Focus: Directional versus non-directional tests | |

Measuring the size of an effect: CohenâÇÖs d | |

Effect size, power, and sample size | |

Additional factors that increase power | |

SPSS in Focus: a preview for Chapters 9 to 18 | |

APA in Focus: Reporting the test statistic and effect size | |

Testing Means: Independent Sample t-Tests | |

Going from z to t | |

The degrees of freedom | |

Reading the t-table | |

One-independent sample t-test | |

Effect size for the one-independent sample t-test | |

SPSS in Focus: One-independent sample t-test | |

Two-independent sample t-test | |

Effect size for the two-independent sample t-test | |

SPSS in Focus: Two-independent sample t-test | |

APA in Focus: Reporting the t-statistic and effect size | |

Testing Means: Related Samples t-Test | |

Related and independent samples | |

Introduction to the related samples t-test | |

Related samples t-test: Repeated measures design | |

SPSS in Focus: The related samples t-test | |

Related samples t-test: Matched pairs design | |

Measuring effect size for the related samples t-test | |

Advantages for selecting related samples | |

APA in Focus: Reporting the t-statistic and effect size for related samples | |

Estimation and Confidence Intervals | |

Point estimation and interval estimation | |

The process of estimation | |

Estimation for the one-independent sample z-test | |

Estimation for the one-independent sample t-test | |

SPSS in Focus: Confidence intervals for the one-independent t-test | |

Estimation for the two-independent sample t-test | |

SPSS in Focus: Confidence intervals for the two-independent t-test | |

Estimation for the related samples t-test | |

SPSS in Focus: Confidence intervals for the related samples t-test | |

Characteristics of estimation: Precisions and certainty | |

APA in Focus: Reporting confidence intervals | |

Analysis of Variance: One-Way Between-Subjects Design | |

Increasing k: a shift to analyzing variance | |

An introduction to analysis of variance | |

Sources of variation and the test statistic | |

Degrees of freedom | |

The one-way between-subjects ANOVA | |

What is the next step? | |

Post hoc comparisons | |

SPSS in Focus: The one-way between-subjects ANOVA | |

Measuring effect size | |

APA in Focus: Reporting the F-statistic, significance, and effect size | |

Analysis of Variance: One-Way Within-Subjects Design | |

Observing the same participants across treatments | |

Sources of variation and the test statistic | |

Degrees of freedom | |

The one-way within-subjects ANOVA | |

Post hoc comparison: Bonferroni procedure | |

SPSS in Focus: The one-way within-subjects ANOVA | |

Measuring effect size | |

The within-subjects design: Consistency and power | |

APA in Focus: Reporting the F-statistic, significance, and effect size | |

Analysis of Variance: Two-Way Between-Subjects Factorial Design | |

Observing two factors at the same time | |

New terminology and notation | |

Designs for the two-way ANOVA | |

Describing variability: Main effects and interactions | |

The two-way between-subjects ANOVA | |

Analyzing main effects and interactions | |

Measuring effect size | |

SPSS in Focus: The two-way between-subjects ANOVA | |

APA in Focus: Reporting main effects, interactions, and effect size | |

Correlation | |

Treating factors as dependent measures | |

Describing a correlation | |

Pearson correlation coefficient | |

SPSS in Focus: Pearson correlation coefficient | |

Assumptions of tests for linear correlations | |

Limitations in interpretation: Causality, outliers, and restriction of range | |

Alternative to Pearson r: Spearman correlation coefficient | |

SPSS in Focus: Spearman correlation coefficient | |

Alternative to Pearson r: Point-biserial correlation coefficient | |

SPSS in Focus: Point-biserial correlation coefficient | |

Alternative to Pearson r: Phi correlation coefficient | |

SPSS in Focus: Phi correlation coefficient | |

APA in Focus: Reporting correlations | |

Linear Regression | |

From relationships to predictions | |

Fundamentals of linear regression | |

What makes the regression line the best fitting line? | |

The slope and y-intercept of a straight line | |

Using the method of least squares to find the best fit | |

Using analysis of regression to measure significance | |

SPSS in Focus: Analysis of regression | |

Using the standard error of estimate to measure accuracy | |

Multiple regression | |

APA in Focus: Reporting regression analysis | |

Nonparametric Tests: Chi-Square Tests | |

Tests for nominal data | |

The chi-square goodness-of-fit test | |

SPSS in Focus: The chi-square goodness-of-fit test | |

Interpreting the chi-square goodness-of-fit test | |

Independent observations and expected frequency size | |

The chi-square test for independence | |

The relationship between chi-square and the phi coefficient | |

Using the phi coefficient as a measure for effect size | |

SPSS in Focus: The chi-square test for independence | |

APA in Focus: Reporting the chi-square test | |

Nonparametric Tests: Tests For Ordinal Data | |

Tests for ordinal data | |

The sign test | |

SPSS in Focus: The related samples sign test | |

The Wilcoxon signed-ranks T test | |

SPSS in Focus: The Wilcoxon signed-ranks T test | |

The Mann-Whitney U test | |

SPSS in Focus: The Mann-Whitney U test | |

The Kruskal-Wallis H test | |

SPSS in Focus: The Kruskal-Wallis H test | |

The Friedman test | |

SPSS in Focus: The Friedman test | |

APA in Focus: Reporting nonparametric tests | |

Mathematics in Statistics | |

Positive and negative numbers | |

Addition | |

Subtraction | |

Multiplication | |

Division | |

Fractions | |

Decimals and percents | |

Exponents and roots | |

Order of computation | |

Equations: Solving for x | |

Summation notation | |

Statistical Tables | |

Unit Normal Table | |

The t Table | |

The F Table | |

Studentized Range Statistic Table | |

The Pearson Correlation Table | |

The Spearman Correlation Table | |

The Chi-square Table | |

Binomial Probability Distribution Table | |

The Wilcoxon T Table | |

The Mann-Whitney U Table | |

Chapter Solutions For Even Numbered Problems | |

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