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SPSS Prefix: General Overview and Guide for Using SPSS | |
Overview of SPSS: What are you looking at? | |
Preview of SPSS in Focus | |
Introduction to Statistics | |
Descriptive and inferential statistics | |
Statistics in research | |
Scales of measurement | |
Types of data | |
Research in Focus: Types of data and scales of measurement | |
SPSS in Focus: Entering and defining variables | |
Summarizing Data: Tables, Graphs, and Distributions | |
Why summarize data? | |
Frequency distributions for grouped data | |
SPSS in Focus: Frequency distributions for quantitative data | |
Frequency distributions for ungrouped data | |
Research in Focus: Summarizing demographic information | |
SPSS in Focus: Frequency distributions for categorical data | |
Pictorial frequency distributions | |
Graphing distributions: Continuous data | |
Graphing distributions: Discrete and categorical data | |
Research in Focus: Frequencies and percents | |
SPSS in Focus: Histograms, bar charts, and pie charts | |
Summarizing Data: Central Tendency | |
Introduction to central tendency | |
Measures of central tendency | |
Characteristics of the mean | |
Choosing an appropriate measure of central tendency | |
Research in Focus: Describing central tendency | |
SPSS in Focus: Mean, median, and mode | |
Summarizing Data: Variability | |
Measuring variability | |
Range and midrange | |
Research in Focus: Reporting the range | |
Measures of variability: Quartiles and interquartiles | |
Research in Focus: The âÇ£midrange of behaviorâÇ | |
The variance | |
Explaining variance for populations and samples | |
The computational formula for variance | |
The Standard deviation | |
What does the standard deviation tell us? | |
Characteristics of the standard deviation | |
SPSS in Focus: Range, variance, and standard deviation | |
Probability | |
Introduction to probability | |
Calculating probability | |
Probability and relative frequency | |
The relationship between multiple outcomes | |
Conditional probabilities and BayesâÇÖ Theorem | |
SPSS in Focus: Probability tables | |
Probability distributions | |
The mean of a probability distribution and expected value | |
Research in Focus: When are risks worth taking? | |
The variance and standard deviation of a probability distribution | |
Expected value and the binomial distribution | |
a final thought on the likelihood of random behavioral outcomes | |
Probability and Normal Distributions | |
The normal distribution in behavioral science | |
Characteristics of the normal distribution | |
Research in Focus: The statistical norm | |
The standard normal distribution | |
The unit normal table: a brief introduction | |
Locating proportions | |
Locating scores | |
SPSS in Focus: Converting raw scores to standard z-scores | |
Going from binomial to normal | |
The normal approximation to the binomial distribution | |
Probability and Sampling Distributions | |
Selecting samples from populations | |
Selecting a sample: WhoâÇÖs in and whoâÇÖs out? | |
Sampling distributions: The mean | |
Sampling distributions: The variance | |
The standard error of the mean | |
Factors that decrease standard error | |
SPSS in Focus: Estimating the standard error of the mean | |
APA in Focus: Reporting the standard error | |
Standard normal transformations with sampling distributions | |
Introduction to Hypothesis Testing | |
Inferential Statistics and hypothesis testing | |
Four steps to hypothesis testing | |
Hypothesis testing and sampling distributions | |
Making a decision: Types of error | |
Testing a research hypothesis: Examples using the z-test | |
Research in Focus: Directional versus non-directional tests | |
Measuring the size of an effect: CohenâÇÖs d | |
Effect size, power, and sample size | |
Additional factors that increase power | |
SPSS in Focus: a preview for Chapters 9 to 18 | |
APA in Focus: Reporting the test statistic and effect size | |
Testing Means: Independent Sample t-Tests | |
Going from z to t | |
The degrees of freedom | |
Reading the t-table | |
One-independent sample t-test | |
Effect size for the one-independent sample t-test | |
SPSS in Focus: One-independent sample t-test | |
Two-independent sample t-test | |
Effect size for the two-independent sample t-test | |
SPSS in Focus: Two-independent sample t-test | |
APA in Focus: Reporting the t-statistic and effect size | |
Testing Means: Related Samples t-Test | |
Related and independent samples | |
Introduction to the related samples t-test | |
Related samples t-test: Repeated measures design | |
SPSS in Focus: The related samples t-test | |
Related samples t-test: Matched pairs design | |
Measuring effect size for the related samples t-test | |
Advantages for selecting related samples | |
APA in Focus: Reporting the t-statistic and effect size for related samples | |
Estimation and Confidence Intervals | |
Point estimation and interval estimation | |
The process of estimation | |
Estimation for the one-independent sample z-test | |
Estimation for the one-independent sample t-test | |
SPSS in Focus: Confidence intervals for the one-independent t-test | |
Estimation for the two-independent sample t-test | |
SPSS in Focus: Confidence intervals for the two-independent t-test | |
Estimation for the related samples t-test | |
SPSS in Focus: Confidence intervals for the related samples t-test | |
Characteristics of estimation: Precisions and certainty | |
APA in Focus: Reporting confidence intervals | |
Analysis of Variance: One-Way Between-Subjects Design | |
Increasing k: a shift to analyzing variance | |
An introduction to analysis of variance | |
Sources of variation and the test statistic | |
Degrees of freedom | |
The one-way between-subjects ANOVA | |
What is the next step? | |
Post hoc comparisons | |
SPSS in Focus: The one-way between-subjects ANOVA | |
Measuring effect size | |
APA in Focus: Reporting the F-statistic, significance, and effect size | |
Analysis of Variance: One-Way Within-Subjects Design | |
Observing the same participants across treatments | |
Sources of variation and the test statistic | |
Degrees of freedom | |
The one-way within-subjects ANOVA | |
Post hoc comparison: Bonferroni procedure | |
SPSS in Focus: The one-way within-subjects ANOVA | |
Measuring effect size | |
The within-subjects design: Consistency and power | |
APA in Focus: Reporting the F-statistic, significance, and effect size | |
Analysis of Variance: Two-Way Between-Subjects Factorial Design | |
Observing two factors at the same time | |
New terminology and notation | |
Designs for the two-way ANOVA | |
Describing variability: Main effects and interactions | |
The two-way between-subjects ANOVA | |
Analyzing main effects and interactions | |
Measuring effect size | |
SPSS in Focus: The two-way between-subjects ANOVA | |
APA in Focus: Reporting main effects, interactions, and effect size | |
Correlation | |
Treating factors as dependent measures | |
Describing a correlation | |
Pearson correlation coefficient | |
SPSS in Focus: Pearson correlation coefficient | |
Assumptions of tests for linear correlations | |
Limitations in interpretation: Causality, outliers, and restriction of range | |
Alternative to Pearson r: Spearman correlation coefficient | |
SPSS in Focus: Spearman correlation coefficient | |
Alternative to Pearson r: Point-biserial correlation coefficient | |
SPSS in Focus: Point-biserial correlation coefficient | |
Alternative to Pearson r: Phi correlation coefficient | |
SPSS in Focus: Phi correlation coefficient | |
APA in Focus: Reporting correlations | |
Linear Regression | |
From relationships to predictions | |
Fundamentals of linear regression | |
What makes the regression line the best fitting line? | |
The slope and y-intercept of a straight line | |
Using the method of least squares to find the best fit | |
Using analysis of regression to measure significance | |
SPSS in Focus: Analysis of regression | |
Using the standard error of estimate to measure accuracy | |
Multiple regression | |
APA in Focus: Reporting regression analysis | |
Nonparametric Tests: Chi-Square Tests | |
Tests for nominal data | |
The chi-square goodness-of-fit test | |
SPSS in Focus: The chi-square goodness-of-fit test | |
Interpreting the chi-square goodness-of-fit test | |
Independent observations and expected frequency size | |
The chi-square test for independence | |
The relationship between chi-square and the phi coefficient | |
Using the phi coefficient as a measure for effect size | |
SPSS in Focus: The chi-square test for independence | |
APA in Focus: Reporting the chi-square test | |
Nonparametric Tests: Tests For Ordinal Data | |
Tests for ordinal data | |
The sign test | |
SPSS in Focus: The related samples sign test | |
The Wilcoxon signed-ranks T test | |
SPSS in Focus: The Wilcoxon signed-ranks T test | |
The Mann-Whitney U test | |
SPSS in Focus: The Mann-Whitney U test | |
The Kruskal-Wallis H test | |
SPSS in Focus: The Kruskal-Wallis H test | |
The Friedman test | |
SPSS in Focus: The Friedman test | |
APA in Focus: Reporting nonparametric tests | |
Mathematics in Statistics | |
Positive and negative numbers | |
Addition | |
Subtraction | |
Multiplication | |
Division | |
Fractions | |
Decimals and percents | |
Exponents and roots | |
Order of computation | |
Equations: Solving for x | |
Summation notation | |
Statistical Tables | |
Unit Normal Table | |
The t Table | |
The F Table | |
Studentized Range Statistic Table | |
The Pearson Correlation Table | |
The Spearman Correlation Table | |
The Chi-square Table | |
Binomial Probability Distribution Table | |
The Wilcoxon T Table | |
The Mann-Whitney U Table | |
Chapter Solutions For Even Numbered Problems | |
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