Preface to the Instructor 

xi  
Introduction to the Student 

xix  

Displaying the Order in a Group of Numbers 


1  (28) 

The Two Branches of Statistical Methods 


2  (1) 


2  (1) 


3  (1) 


4  (4) 


8  (5) 

Shapes of Frequency Distributions 


13  (7) 

Math Anxiety, Statistics Anxiety, and You: A Message for Those of You Who Are Truly Worried About This Course 


14  (4) 

Gender, Ethnicity, and Math Performance 


18  (2) 

Frequency Tables, Histograms, and Frequency Polygons in Research Articles 


20  (1) 


21  (1) 


22  (1) 

Example WorkedOut Problems 


22  (1) 


23  (6) 

The Mean, Variance, Standard Deviation, and Z Scores 


29  (28) 


30  (6) 

The Variance and the Standard Deviation 


36  (6) 


42  (7) 

The Psychology of Statistics and the Tyranny of the Mean 


43  (6) 

Mean, Variance, Standard Deviation, and Z Scores in Research Articles 


49  (2) 


51  (1) 


51  (1) 

Example WorkedOut Problems 


51  (2) 


53  (4) 

Correlation and Prediction 


57  (50) 

Graphing Correlations: The Scatter Diagram 


59  (1) 


60  (7) 

The Degree of Linear Correlation: The Correlation Coefficient 


67  (8) 


71  (4) 

Issues in Interpreting the Correlation Coefficient 


75  (3) 


78  (5) 

Multiple Regression and Multiple Correlation 


83  (3) 

The Correlation Coefficient and the Proportion of Variance Accounted For 


86  (1) 

Correlation and Prediction in Research Articles 


86  (3) 


89  (2) 


91  (1) 

Exampled WorkedOut Problems 


91  (3) 


94  (10) 

Chapter Appendix: Hypothesis Tests and Power for the Correlation Coefficient 


104  (3) 

Some Key Ingredients for Inferential Statistics: The Normal Curve, Probability, and Population Versus Sample 


107  (25) 


107  (10) 


117  (3) 


120  (5) 

Surveys, Polls, and 1948's Costly ``Free Sample'' 


124  (1) 

Normal Curves, Probabilities, Samples, and Populations in Research Articles 


125  (1) 


125  (1) 


126  (1) 

Example WorkedOut Problems 


126  (2) 


128  (4) 

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing 


132  (22) 

A HypothesisTesting Example 


133  (1) 

The Core Logic of Hypothesis Testing 


134  (1) 

The HypothesisTesting Process 


135  (5) 

OneTailed and TwoTailed Hypothesis Tests 


140  (6) 

To Be or Not to BeBut Can Not Being Be? The Problem of Whether and When to Accept the Null Hypothesis 


143  (3) 

Hypothesis Tests in Research Articles 


146  (1) 


147  (1) 


147  (1) 

Example WorkedOut Problem 


147  (2) 


149  (5) 

Hypothesis Testing and the Means of Samples 


154  (31) 

The Distribution of Means 


154  (10) 

Hypothesis Testing with a Distribution of Means 


164  (4) 

Estimation and Confidence Intervals 


168  (4) 

Hypothesis Tests about Means of Samples and Confidence Intervals in Research Articles 


172  (3) 

More about Polls: Sampling Errors and Errors in Thinking about Samples 


173  (2) 


175  (1) 


176  (1) 

Example WorkedOut Problems 


176  (1) 


177  (8) 

Making Sense of Statistical Significance: Decision Errors, Effect Size, and Statistical Power 


185  (32) 


185  (4) 


189  (5) 


194  (5) 

Effect Sizes for Relaxation and Meditation: A Restful MetaAnalysis 


195  (4) 

What Determines the Power of a Study? 


199  (7) 

The Role of Power When Planning a Study 


206  (2) 

The Role of Power When Interpreting the Results of a Study 


208  (3) 

Decision Errors, Effect Size, and Power in Research Articles 


211  (1) 


212  (1) 


213  (1) 

Example WorkedOut Problem 


213  (1) 


213  (4) 

Introduction to the t Test 


217  (39) 

The t Test for a Single Sample 


218  (10) 

William S. Gosset, alias ``Student'': Not a Mathematician, but a Practical Man 


219  (9) 

The t Test for Dependent Means 


228  (11) 

Assumptions of the t Test 


239  (1) 

Effect Size and Power for the t Test for Dependent Means 


240  (3) 

t Test in Research Articles 


243  (2) 


245  (1) 


245  (1) 

Example WorkedOut Problems 


245  (4) 


249  (7) 

The t Test for Independent Means 


256  (33) 

The Distribution of Differences Between Means 


257  (6) 

Hypothesis Testing with a t Test for Independent Means 


263  (9) 

Assumptions of the t Test for Independent Means 


272  (1) 

Effect Size and Power for the t Test for Independent Means 


272  (1) 

The t Test for Independent Means in Research Articles 


272  (5) 

Two Women Make a Point about Gender and Statistics 


274  (3) 


277  (1) 


278  (1) 

Example WorkedOut Problems 


278  (3) 


281  (8) 

Introduction to the Analysis of Variance 


289  (44) 

Basic Logic of the Analysis of Variance 


290  (7) 

Sir Ronald Fisher, Caustic Genius at Statistics 


296  (1) 

Carrying Out an Analysis of Variance 


297  (8) 

Hypothesis Testing with the Analysis of Variance 


305  (1) 

Assumptions in the Analysis of Variance 


306  (1) 

Comparing Each Group to Each Other Group 


306  (3) 

Effect Size and Power for the Analysis of Variance 


309  (3) 

Factorial Analysis of Variance 


312  (3) 

Recognizing and Interpreting Interaction Effects 


315  (6) 

Analysis of Variance in Research Articles 


321  (1) 


321  (1) 


322  (1) 

Example WorkedOut Problems 


323  (1) 


324  (9) 

ChiSquare Tests and Strategies When Population Distribution Are Not Normal 


333  (44) 


333  (2) 

The ChiSquare Statistic and the ChiSquare Test for Goodness of Fit 


335  (6) 

Karl Pearson: Inventor of ChiSquare and Center of Controversy 


336  (5) 

The ChiSquare Test for Independence 


341  (8) 

Assumptions for the ChiSquare Tests 


349  (1) 

Effect Size and Power for the ChiSquare Tests for Independence 


350  (3) 

Strategies for Hypothesis Testing When Population Distributions Are Not Normal 


353  (3) 


356  (4) 


360  (4) 

ChiSquare Tests, Data Transformations, and RankOrder Tests in Research Articles 


364  (2) 


366  (1) 


367  (1) 

Example WorkedOut Problems 


367  (4) 


371  (6) 

Making Sense of Advanced Statistical Procedures in Research Articles 


377  (36) 

Brief Review of Multiple Regression 


378  (1) 

Hierarchical and Stepwise Multiple Regression 


378  (4) 


382  (1) 


383  (1) 


384  (3) 


387  (4) 

Procedures that Compare Groups 


391  (1) 

Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) 


392  (1) 

Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) 


393  (1) 

Overview of Statistical Techniques 


394  (1) 

The Golden Age of Statistics: Four Guys around London 


395  (1) 

How to Read Results Involving Unfamiliar Statistical Techniques 


395  (1) 


396  (1) 


397  (1) 


397  (16) 
Appendix: Tables 

413  (8) 
Answers to Set I Practice Problems 

421  (21) 
Glossary 

442  (7) 
Glossary of Symbols 

449  (2) 
References 

451  (6) 
Index 

457  