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Preface | p. ix |
Acknowledgments | p. xi |
Introduction to the First Edition: An Accident Waiting To Happen | p. xiii |
Introduction to the Second Edition: Invasive Data | p. xvii |
Things People Do with Censored Data that Are Just Wrong | p. 1 |
Why Not Substitute-Missing the Signals that Are Present in the Data | p. 3 |
Why Not Substitute?-Finding Signals that Are Not There | p. 8 |
So Why Not Substitute? | p. 10 |
Other Common Misuses of Censored Data | p. 10 |
Three Approaches for Censored Data | p. 12 |
Approach 1: Nonparametric Methods after Censoring at the Highest Reporting Limit | p. 13 |
Approach 2: Maximum Likelihood Estimation | p. 14 |
Approach 3: Nonparametric Survival Analysis Methods | p. 17 |
Application of Survival Analysis Methods to Environmental Data | p. 17 |
Parallels to Uncensored Methods | p. 21 |
Reporting Limits | p. 22 |
Limits When the Standard Deviation is Considered Constant | p. 23 |
Insider Censoring-Biasing Interpretations | p. 29 |
Reporting the Machine Readings of all Measurements | p. 33 |
Limits When the Standard Deviation Changes with Concentration | p. 34 |
For Further Study | p. 36 |
Reporting, Storing, and Using Censored Data | p. 37 |
Reporting and Storing Censored Data | p. 37 |
Using Interval-Censored Data | p. 41 |
Exercises | p. 42 |
Plotting Censored Data | p. 44 |
Boxplots | p. 44 |
Histograms | p. 46 |
Empirical Distribution Function | p. 47 |
Survival Function Plots | p. 49 |
Probability Plot | p. 52 |
X-Y Scatterplots | p. 59 |
Exercises | p. 61 |
Computing Summary Statistics and Totals | p. 62 |
Nonparametric Methods after Censoring at the Highest Reporting Limit | p. 62 |
Maximum Likelihood Estimation | p. 64 |
The Nonparametric Kaplan-Meier and Turnbull Methods | p. 70 |
ROS: A "Robust" Imputation Method | p. 79 |
Methods in Excel | p. 86 |
Handling Data with High Reporting Limits | p. 86 |
A Review of Comparison Studies | p. 87 |
Summing Data with Censored Observations | p. 94 |
Exercises | p. 98 |
Computing Interval Estimates | p. 99 |
Parametric Intervals | p. 100 |
Nonparametric Intervals | p. 103 |
Intervals for Censored Data by Substitution | p. 103 |
Intervals for Censored Data by Maximum Likelihood | p. 104 |
Intervals for the Lognormal Distribution | p. 112 |
Intervals Using "Robust" Parametric Methods | p. 125 |
Nonparametric Intervals for Censored Data | p. 126 |
Bootstrapped Intervals | p. 136 |
For Further Study | p. 140 |
Exercises | p. 141 |
What Can be Done When All Data Are Below the Reporting Limit? | p. 142 |
Point Estimates | p. 143 |
Probability of Exceeding the Reporting Limit | p. 144 |
Exceedance Probability for a Standard Higher than the Reporting Limit | p. 148 |
Hypothesis Tests Between Groups | p. 151 |
Summary | p. 152 |
Exercises | p. 152 |
Comparing Two Groups | p. 153 |
Why Not Use Substitution? | p. 154 |
Simple Nonparametric Methods After Censoring at the Highest Reporting Limit | p. 156 |
Maximum Likelihood Estimation | p. 161 |
Nonparametric Methods | p. 167 |
Value of the Information in Censored Observations | p. 178 |
Interval-Censored Score Tests: Testing Data that Include (DL to RL) Values | p. 180 |
Paired Observations | p. 183 |
Summary of Two-Sample Tests for Censored Data | p. 192 |
Exercises | p. 192 |
Comparing Three or More Groups | p. 194 |
Substitution Does Not Work-Invasive Data | p. 195 |
Nonparametric Methods after Censoring at the Highest Reporting Limit | p. 196 |
Maximum Likelihood Estimation | p. 199 |
Nonparametric Method-The Generalized Wilcoxon Test | p. 209 |
Summary | p. 215 |
Exercises | p. 216 |
Correlation | p. 218 |
Types of Correlation Coefficients | p. 218 |
Nonparametric Methods after Censoring at the Highest Reporting Limit | p. 219 |
Maximum Likelihood Correlation Coefficient | p. 224 |
Nonparametric Correlation Coefficient-Kendall's Tau | p. 227 |
Interval-Censored Score Tests: Testing Correlation with (DL to RL) Values | p. 230 |
Summary: A Comparison Among Methods | p. 232 |
For Further Study | p. 234 |
Exercises | p. 235 |
Regression and Trends | p. 236 |
Why Not Substitute? | p. 237 |
Nonparametric Methods After Censoring at the Highest Reporting Limit | p. 239 |
Maximum Likelihood Estimation | p. 249 |
Akritas-Theil-Sen Nonparametric Regression | p. 258 |
Additional Methods for Censored Regression | p. 264 |
Exercises | p. 266 |
Multivariate Methods for Censored Data | p. 268 |
A Brief Overview of Multivariate Procedures | p. 269 |
Nonparametric Methods After Censoring at the Highest Reporting Limit | p. 273 |
Multivariate Methods for Data with Multiple Reporting Limits | p. 288 |
Summary of Multivariate Methods for Censored Data | p. 296 |
The NADA for R Software | p. 297 |
A Brief Overview of R and the NADA Software | p. 297 |
Summary of the Commands Available in NADA | p. 300 |
Appendix: Datasets | p. 303 |
References | p. 309 |
Index | p. 321 |
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