Preface 

vii  


1  (8) 

Statistics and the Life Sciences 


1  (1) 


1  (8) 

Description of Populations and Samples 


9  (62) 


9  (3) 

Frequency Distributions: Techniques for Data 


12  (9) 

Frequency Distributions: Shapes and Examples 


21  (5) 

Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Center 


26  (6) 


32  (8) 


40  (10) 

Effect of Transformation of Variables (Optional) 


50  (7) 

Samples and Populations: Statistical Inference 


57  (6) 


63  (8) 

Random Sampling, Probability, and the Binomial Distribution 


71  (48) 

Probability and the Life Sciences 


71  (1) 


71  (7) 

Introduction to Probability 


78  (5) 


83  (5) 

Probability Rules (Optional) 


88  (5) 


93  (3) 


96  (6) 

The Binomial Distribution 


102  (10) 

Fitting a Binomial Distribution to Data (Optional) 


112  (7) 


119  (30) 


119  (3) 


122  (1) 

Areas Under a Normal Curve 


123  (10) 


133  (8) 

The Continuity Correction (Optional) 


141  (4) 


145  (4) 


149  (30) 


149  (2) 


151  (6) 

Quantitative Observations 


157  (10) 

Illustration of the Central Limit Theorem (Optional) 


167  (3) 

The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution (Optional) 


170  (5) 


175  (4) 


179  (40) 


179  (1) 

Standard Error of the Mean 


180  (5) 

Confidence Interval for μ 


185  (12) 

Planning a Study to Estimate μ 


197  (2) 

Conditions for Validity of Estimation Methods 


199  (7) 

Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion 


206  (7) 


213  (6) 

Comparison of Two Independent Samples 


219  (90) 


219  (3) 

Standard Error of (y1  y2) 


222  (5) 

Confidence Interval for (μ1  μ2) 


227  (7) 

Hypothesis Testing: The t test 


234  (14) 

Further Discussion of the t test 


248  (8) 


256  (10) 

More on Interpretation of Statistical Significance 


266  (7) 

Planning for Adequate Power (Optional) 


273  (7) 

Student's t: Conditions and Summary 


280  (4) 

More on Principles of Testing Hypotheses 


284  (4) 

The WilcoxonMannWhitney Test 


288  (10) 


298  (11) 

Statistical Principles of Design 


309  (38) 


309  (2) 


311  (6) 


317  (9) 

Restricted Randomization: Blocking and Stratification 


326  (8) 


334  (4) 

Sampling Concerns (Optional) 


338  (3) 


341  (6) 

Comparison of Paired Samples 


347  (44) 


347  (1) 

The PairedSample t test and Confidence Interval 


348  (10) 


358  (6) 


364  (8) 

The Wilcoxon SignedRank Test 


372  (5) 

Further Considerations in Paired Experiments 


377  (4) 


381  (10) 

Analysis of Categorical Data 


391  (72) 

Inference for Proportions: The ChiSquare GoodnessofFit Test 


391  (11) 

The ChiSquare Test for the 2 x 2 Contingency Table 


402  (10) 

Indepence and Association in the 2 x 2 Contingency Table 


412  (10) 

Fisher's Exact Test (Optional) 


422  (6) 

The r x k Contingency Table 


428  (6) 


434  (5) 

Confidence Interval for Difference Between Probabilities 


439  (2) 

Paired Data and 2 x 2 Tables (Optional) 


441  (3) 

Relative Risk and the Odds Ratio (Optional) 


444  (10) 

Summary of ChiSquare Tests 


454  (9) 

Comparing the Means of Many Independent Samples 


463  (62) 


463  (4) 

The Basic Analysis of Variance 


467  (9) 

The Analysis of Variance Model (Optional) 


476  (2) 


478  (6) 


484  (3) 


487  (11) 

Linear Combinations of Means (Optional) 


498  (9) 

Multiple Comparisons (Optional) 


507  (9) 


516  (9) 

Linear Regression and Correlation 


525  (70) 


525  (2) 

The Fitted Regression Line 


527  (14) 

Parametric Interpretation of Regression: The Linear Model 


541  (7) 

Statistical Inference Concerning β1 


548  (5) 

The Correlation Coefficient 


553  (12) 

Guidelines for Interpreting Regression and Correlation 


565  (11) 


576  (10) 


586  (9) 

A Summary of Inference Methods 


595  (16) 


595  (2) 


597  (14) 
Chapter Appendices 

611  (22) 
Chapter Notes 

633  (36) 
Statistical Tables 

669  (32) 


670  (4) 

Binomial Coefficients nCj 


674  (1) 

Areas Under the Normal Curve 


675  (2) 

Critical Values of Student's t Distribution 


677  (1) 

Number of Observations for IndependentSamples t Test 


678  (2) 

Critical Values of U, the WilcoxonMannWhitney Statistic 


680  (4) 

Critical Values of B for the Sign Test 


684  (1) 

Critical Values of W for the Wilcoxon Signedrank Test 


685  (1) 

Critical Values of the ChiSquare Distribution 


686  (1) 

Critical Values of the F Distribution 


687  (10) 

Critical Constants for the NewmanKeuls Procedure 


697  (2) 

Bonferroni Multipliers for 95% Confidence Intervals 


699  (2) 
Answers to Selected Exercises 

701  (14) 
Index 

715  (8) 
Index of Examples 

723  