Statistics in a Nutshell

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 10/22/2012
  • Publisher: Oreilly & Associates Inc
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Need to learn statistics as part of your job, or want help passing a statistics course? Statistics in a Nutshell is a clear and concise introduction and reference for anyone who's new to the subject. This book gives you a solid understanding of statistics without being too simple, yet without the numbing complexity of most college texts. Each chapter in this thoroughly revised and expanded edition presents easy-to-follow descriptions illustrated by graphics, formulas, and lots of solved examples. Before you know it, you'll learn to apply statistical reasoning and statistical techniques, from basic concepts of probability and hypothesis testing to multivariate analysis. Statistics in a Nutshell includes: Introductory material-Learn basic concepts of measurement and probability theory, data management for statistical analysis, research design and experimental design, how to write up your own results, and how to critique statistics presented by others Basic inferential statistics-Discover the concepts of hypothesis testing, simple correlation, the distinction between parametric and nonparametric statistics, and learn simple methods of analysis appropriate to dichotomous, categorical, and continuous variables Advanced inferential techniques-Learn the General Linear Model, including analysis of Variance (ANOVA), multiple linear regression, and logistic and multinomial regression Specialized techniques-Use and interpret business and quality improvement statistics, medical and public health statistics, and educational and psychological statistics If you need to know how to perform most common statistical analyses, and how to use a wide range of statistical techniques without getting in over your head, this is the book for you.

Author Biography

Sarah Boslaugh, PhD, MPH, a grant and proposal writer at Kennesaw State University, has worked as a statistician and computer programmer for more than 20 years. She's the author of An Intermediate Guide to SPSS Programming (Sage), Secondary Data Sources for Public Health (Cambridge University Press), Statistics in a Nutshell (first edition; O'Reilly), and editor of The Encyclopedia of Epidemiology (Sage).

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Basic Concepts of Measurementp. 1
Measurementp. 2
Levels of Measurementp. 2
True and Error Scoresp. 8
Reliability and Validityp. 10
Measurement Biasp. 14
Exercisesp. 17
Probabilityp. 21
About Formulasp. 22
Basic Definitionsp. 23
Defining Probabilityp. 30
Bayes' Theoremp. 34
Enough Exposition, Let's Do Some Statistics!p. 36
Exercisesp. 38
Inferential Statisticsp. 45
Probability Distributionsp. 46
Independent and Dependent Variablesp. 53
Populations and Samplesp. 54
The Central Limit Theoremp. 59
Hypothesis Testingp. 64
Confidence Intervalsp. 67
p-valuesp. 68
The Z-Statisticp. 70
Data Transformationsp. 72
Exercisesp. 75
Descriptive Statistics and Graphic Displaysp. 83
Populations and Samplesp. 83
Measures of Central Tendencyp. 84
Measures of Dispersionp. 90
Outliersp. 96
Graphic Methodsp. 97
Bar Chartsp. 100
Bivariate Chartsp. 111
Exercisesp. 117
Categorical Datap. 121
The RC Tablep. 122
The Chi-Square Distributionp. 125
The Chi-Square Testp. 127
Fisher's Exact Testp. 132
McNemar's Test for Matched Pairsp. 134
Proportions: The Large Sample Casep. 136
Correlation Statistics for Categorical Datap. 138
The Likert and Semantic Differential Scalesp. 145
Exercisesp. 147
The t-Testp. 155
The t Distributionp. 155
The One-Sample t-Testp. 157
The Independent Samples t-Testp. 160
Repeated Measures t-Testp. 164
Unequal Variance t-Testp. 167
Exercisesp. 168
The Pearson Correlation Coefficientp. 173
Associationp. 174
Scatterplotsp. 175
The Pearson Correlation Coefficientp. 182
The Coefficient of Determinationp. 187
Exercisesp. 188
Introduction to Regression and ANOVAp. 193
The General Linear Modelp. 193
Linear Regressionp. 195
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)p. 206
Calculating Simple Regression by Handp. 212
Exercisesp. 214
Factorial ANOVA and ANCOVAp. 223
Factorial ANOVAp. 223
ANCOVAp. 233
Exercisesp. 238
Multiple Linear Regressionp. 243
Multiple Regression Modelsp. 243
Exercisesp. 267
Logistic, Multinomial, and Polynomial Regressionp. 273
Logistic Regressionp. 273
Multinomial Logistic Regressionp. 279
Polynomial Regressionp. 282
Overfittingp. 285
Exercisesp. 287
Factor Analysis, Cluster Analysis, and Discriminant Function Analysisp. 291
Factor Analysisp. 291
Cluster Analysisp. 299
Discriminant Function Analysisp. 302
Exercisesp. 305
Nonparametric Statisticsp. 307
Between-Subjects Designsp. 308
Within-Subjects Designsp. 317
Exercisesp. 321
Business and Quality Improvement Statisticsp. 325
Index Numbersp. 325
Time Seriesp. 331
Decision Analysisp. 334
Quality Improvementp. 339
Exercisesp. 347
Medical and Epidemiological Statisticp. 351
Measures of Disease Frequencyp. 351
Ratio, Proportion, and Ratep. 352
Prevalence and Incidencep. 354
Crude, Category-Specific, and Standardized Ratesp. 357
The Risk Ratiop. 362
The Odds Ratiop. 367
Confounding, Stratified Analysis, and the Mantel-Haenszel Common Odds Ratiop. 370
Power Analysisp. 375
Sample Size Calculationsp. 377
Exercisesp. 380
Educational and Psychological Statisticsp. 385
Percentilesp. 386
Standardized Scoresp. 388
Test Constructionp. 390
Classical Test Theory: The True Score Modelp. 393
Reliability of a Composite Testp. 394
Measures of Internal Consistencyp. 395
Item Analysisp. 400
Item Response Theoryp. 403
Exercisesp. 408
Data Managementp. 411
An Approach, Not a Set of Recipesp. 412
The Chain of Commandp. 413
Codebooksp. 413
The Rectangular Data Filep. 415
Spreadsheets and Relational Databasesp. 418
Inspecting a New Data Filep. 418
String and Numeric Datap. 422
Missing Datap. 423
Research Designp. 425
Basic Vocabularyp. 426
Observational Studiesp. 428
Quasi-Experimental Studiesp. 431
Experimental Studiesp. 436
Gathering Experimental Datap. 437
Example Experimental Designp. 447
Communicating with Statisticsp. 449
General Notesp. 449
Critiquing Statistics Presented by Othersp. 457
Evaluating the Whole Articlep. 457
The Misuse of Statisticsp. 458
Common Problemsp. 459
Quick Checklistp. 461
Issues in Research Designp. 463
Descriptive Statisticsp. 466
Inferential Statisticsp. 470
Review of Basic Mathematicsp. 473
Introduction to Statistical Packagesp. 499
Referencesp. 513
Probability Tables for Common Distributionsp. 527
Online Resourcesp. 539
Glossary of Statistical Termsp. 543
Indexp. 553
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