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Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics with SPSS Student Version 13. 0,9781412917940
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Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics with SPSS Student Version 13. 0

by
ISBN13:

9781412917940

ISBN10:
1412917948
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/31/2005
Publisher(s):
Sage Publications, Inc
List Price: $73.95
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Summary

NOW WITH SPSS STUDENT VERSION 13.0! The bestselling text Statistics for People Who (Think They) Hate Statistics teaches an often intimidating and difficult subject in a way that is informative, personable, and clear. Researchers and students who find themselves uncomfortable with the analysis portion of their work have appreciated the book's unhurried pace and thorough, friendly presentation. Neil J. Salkind takes students through various statistical procedures, beginning with correlations and graphical representation of data and ending with inferential techniques and analysis of variance. In addition, there is coverage of SPSS (and data sets for hands-on experience available at http://www.soe.ku.edu//faculty//Salkind//stats_fpwhs//), and a review of more advanced statistical techniques, such as reliability, validity, introductory non-parametric statistics, and more. Pedagogical features include sidebars offering additional technical information about the topic and set-off points that reinforce major themes. Finally, answers to chapter exercises and a complete glossary are located at the back of the book.

Table of Contents

A Note to the Student: Why I Wrote This Book xvii
Acknowledgments xviii
And Now, About the 2nd Edition xix
PART I Yippee! I'm in Statistics
1(16)
Statistics or Sadistics? It's Up to You
5(12)
Why Statistics?
5(1)
A Five-Minute History of Statistics
6(2)
Statistics: What It Is (and Isn't)
8(2)
What Are Descriptive Statistics?
8(1)
What Are Inferential Statistics?
9(1)
In Other Words . . .
10(1)
What Am I Doing in a Statistics Class?
10(2)
Ten Ways to Use This Book (and Learn Statistics at the Same Time!)
12(2)
About Those Icons
14(1)
Key to Difficulty Index
15(1)
Glossary
15(1)
Summary
15(1)
Time to Practice
16(1)
PART II Σigma Freud and Descriptive Statistics
17(84)
Means to an End: Computing and Understanding Averages
19(15)
Computing the Mean
20(1)
Things to Remember
21(2)
Computing a Weighted Mean
22(1)
Computing the Median
23(3)
Things to Remember
26(1)
Computing the Mode
27(1)
Apple Pie a la Bimodal
28(1)
When to Use What
28(1)
Using the Computer and Computing Descriptive Statistics
29(3)
The SPSS Output
31(1)
Summary
32(1)
Time to Practice
32(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
33(1)
Vive la Difference: Understanding Variability
34(14)
Why Understanding Variability Is Important
34(1)
Computing the Range
35(1)
Computing the Standard Deviation
36(5)
Why n -- 1? What's Wrong With Just n?
40(1)
What's the Big Deal?
41(1)
Things to Remember
41(1)
Computing the Variance
42(1)
The Standard Deviation Versus the Variance
42(1)
Using the Computer to Compute Measures of Variability
43(2)
The SPSS Output
44(1)
Summary
45(1)
Time to Practice
46(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
47(1)
A Picture Really Is Worth a Thousand Words
48(29)
Why Illustrate Data?
48(1)
Ten Ways to a Great Figure (Eat Less and Exercise More?)
49(1)
First Things First: Creating a Frequency Distribution
50(2)
The Classiest of Intervals
51(1)
The Plot Thickens: Creating a Histogram
52(7)
The Tally-Ho Method
55(1)
The Next Step: A Frequency Polygon
56(1)
Cumulating Frequencies
57(2)
Fat and Skinny Frequency Distributions
59(5)
Average Value
59(1)
Variability
60(1)
Skewness
61(1)
Kurtosis
62(2)
Other Cool Ways to Chart Data
64(3)
Column Charts
64(1)
Bar Charts
65(1)
Line Charts
65(1)
Pie Charts
66(1)
Using the Computer to Illustrate Data
67(6)
Creating a Histogram Graph
67(2)
Creating a Bar Graph
69(1)
Creating a Line Graph
70(2)
Creating a Pie Graph
72(1)
Summary
73(1)
Time to Practice
74(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
75(2)
Ice Cream and Crime: Computing Correlation Coefficients
77(24)
What Are Correlations All About?
77(2)
Types of Correlation Coefficients: Flavor 1 and Flavor 2
78(1)
Things to Remember
79(2)
Computing a Simple Correlation Coefficient
81(7)
A Visual Picture of a Correlation: The Scatterplot
83(4)
Bunches of Correlations: The Correlation Matrix
87(1)
Understanding What the Correlation Coefficient Means
88(1)
Using-Your-Thumb Rule
88(1)
A Determined Effort: Squaring the Correlation Coefficient
89(3)
As More Ice Cream Is Eaten . . . the Crime Rate Goes Up (or Association vs. Causality)
90(2)
Other Cool Correlations
92(1)
Using the Computer to Compute a Correlation Coefficient
93(2)
The SPSS Output
94(1)
Creating an SPSS Scatterplot (or Scattergram or Whatever)
95(1)
Summary
96(1)
Time to Practice
97(2)
Answers to Practice Questions
99(2)
PART III Taking Chances for Fun and Profit
101(38)
Hypotheticals and You: Testing Your Questions
103(15)
So You Want to Be a Scientist . . .
103(2)
Samples and Populations
104(1)
The Null Hypothesis
105(2)
The Purposes of the Null Hypothesis
106(1)
The Research Hypothesis
107(5)
The Nondirectional Research Hypothesis
108(1)
The Directional Research Hypothesis
109(2)
Some Differences Between the Null Hypothesis and the Research Hypothesis
111(1)
What Makes a Good Hypothesis?
112(3)
Summary
115(1)
Time to Practice
116(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
117(1)
Are Your Curves Normal? Probability and Why It Counts
118(21)
Why Probability?
118(1)
The Normal Curve (a.k.a. the Bell-Shaped Curve)
119(7)
Hey, That's Not Normal!
120(2)
More Normal Curve 101
122(4)
Our Favorite Standard Score: The z Score
126(9)
What z Scores Represent
129(3)
What z Scores Really Represent
132(2)
Hypothesis Testing and z Scores: The First Step
134(1)
Using the Computer to Compute z Scores
135(1)
Summary
136(1)
Time to Practice
137(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
138(1)
PART IV Significantly Different: Using Inferential Statistics
139(174)
Significantly Significant: What It Means for You and Me
141(19)
The Concept of Significance
141(7)
If Only We Were Perfect
142(2)
The World's Most Important Table (for This Semester Only)
144(1)
More About Table 8.1
145(1)
Back to Type I Errors
146(2)
Significance Versus Meaningfulness
148(2)
An Introduction to Inferential Statistics
150(3)
How Inference Works
150(1)
How to Select What Test to Use
151(2)
Here's How to Use the Chart
153(1)
An Introduction to Tests of Significance
153(4)
How a Test of Significance Works: The Plan
154(1)
Here's the Picture That's Worth a Thousand Words
155(2)
Summary
157(1)
Time to Practice
158(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
159(1)
t(ea) for Two: Tests Between the Means of Different Groups
160(19)
Introduction to the t Test for Independent Samples
160(3)
The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge
161(2)
Computing the Test Statistic
163(4)
So How Do I Interpret t(58) = --.14, p > .05?
167(1)
Special Effects: Are Those Differences for Real?
167(4)
Computing and Understanding the Effect Size
169(2)
A Very Cool Effect Size Calculator
171(1)
Using the Computer to Perform a t Test
171(4)
What the SPSS Output Means
175(1)
Summary
175(1)
Time to Practice
176(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
177(2)
t(ea) for Two (Again): Tests Between the Means of Related Groups
179(14)
Introduction to the t Test for Dependent Samples
179(3)
The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge
180(2)
Computing the Test Statistic
182(4)
So How Do I Interpret t(24) = 2.45, p < .05?
185(1)
Using the Computer to Perform a t Test
186(4)
What the SPSS Output Means
187(3)
Summary
190(1)
Time to Practice
191(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
192(1)
Two Groups Too Many? Try Analysis of Variance
193(19)
Introduction to Analysis of Variance
193(4)
The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge
194(1)
Different Flavors of ANOVA
194(3)
Computing the Test Statistic
197(8)
So How Do I Interpret F(2,27) = 8.80, p < .05?
204(1)
Using the Computer to Compute the F Ratio
205(3)
What the SPSS Output Means
206(2)
Summary
208(2)
Time to Practice
210(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
211(1)
Two Too Many Factors: Factorial Analysis of Variance
212(16)
Introduction to Factorial Analysis of Variance
212(4)
The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge
213(1)
A New Flavor of ANOVA
214(2)
The Main Event: Main Effects in Factorial ANOVA
216(2)
Even More Interesting: Interaction Effects
218(2)
Things to Remember
220(1)
Computing the Test Statistic
220(5)
What the SPSS Output Means
225(1)
Summary
225(1)
Time to Practice
226(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
227(1)
Cousins or Just Good Friends? Testing Relationships Using the Correlation Coefficient
228(14)
Introduction to Testing the Correlation Coefficient
228(3)
The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge
229(2)
Computing the Test Statistic
231(5)
So How Do I Interpret r(27) = .393, p < .05?
234(1)
Causes and Associations (Again!)
235(1)
Significance Versus Meaningfulness (Again, Again!)
235(1)
Using the Computer to Compute a Correlation Coefficient (Again)
236(2)
What the SPSS Output Means
238(1)
Summary
238(1)
Time to Practice
239(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
240(2)
Predicting Who'll Win the Super Bowl: Using Linear Regression
242(19)
What Is Prediction All About?
242(2)
The Logic of Prediction
244(4)
Drawing the World's Best Line (for Your Data)
248(3)
How Good Is Our Prediction?
250(1)
Using the Computer to Compute the Regression Line
251(4)
What the SPSS Output Means
254(1)
The More Predictors the Better? Maybe . . .
255(2)
The Big Rule When It Comes to Using Multiple Predictor Variables
256(1)
Summary
257(1)
Time to Practice
258(2)
Answers to Practice Questions
260(1)
What to Do When You're Not Normal: Chi-Square and Some Other Nonparametric Tests
261(12)
Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics
261(1)
Introduction to One-Sample Chi-Square
262(1)
Computing the Chi-Square Test Statistic
263(4)
So How Do I Interpret Χ2(2) = 20.6, p < .05?
267(1)
Using the Computer to Perform a Chi-Square Test
267(2)
What the SPSS Output Means
269(1)
Other Nonparametric Tests You Should Know About
269(1)
Summary
270(1)
Time to Practice
271(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
272(1)
Just the Truth: An Introduction to Understanding Reliability and Validity
273(24)
An Introduction to Reliability and Validity
273(2)
What's Up With This Measurement Stuff?
274(1)
All About Measurement Scales
275(2)
A Rose by Any Other Name: The Nominal Level of Measurement
275(1)
Any Order Is Fine With Me: The Ordinal Level of Measurement
276(1)
1 + 1 = 2: The Interval Level of Measurement
276(1)
Can Anyone Have Nothing of Anything? The Ratio Level of Measurement
276(1)
In Sum . . .
277(1)
Reliability---Doing It Again Until You Get It Right
277(7)
Test Scores---Truth or Dare
278(1)
Observed Score = True Score + Error Score
278(1)
Different Types of Reliability
279(5)
Using the Computer to Calculate Cronbach's Alpha
284(5)
What SPSS Means
286(1)
How Big Is Big? Interpreting Reliability Coefficients
287(1)
Just One More Thing
288(1)
Validity---Whoa! What Is the Truth?
289(5)
Different Types of Validity
289(4)
A Last Friendly Word
293(1)
Validity and Reliability: Really Close Cousins
294(1)
Summary
294(1)
Time to Practice
295(1)
Answers to Practice Questions
296(1)
Some Other (Important) Statistical Procedures You Should Know About
297(6)
Multivariate Analysis of Variance
297(1)
Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance
298(1)
Analysis of Covariance
299(1)
Multiple Regression
299(1)
Factor Analysis
300(1)
Path Analysis
301(1)
Structural Equation Modeling
301(1)
Summary
302(1)
A Statistical Software Sampler
303(10)
Selecting the Perfect Statistics Software
304(1)
What's Out There
305(7)
First, the Free Stuff
306(1)
JMP
307(1)
Minitab
307(1)
Statistica
308(1)
SPSS: Mac, Windows, MS-DOS, OS/2, UNIX, VMS, MVS-VM/CMS
309(1)
Systat
310(1)
Statistix for Windows
310(1)
EcStatic
311(1)
Summary
312(1)
PART V Tons of Things You'll Want to Know and Remember
313(12)
The Ten (or More) Best Internet Sites for Statistics Stuff
315(7)
Tons and Tons of Resources
315(1)
Calculators Galore!
316(1)
Who's Who and What's Happened
317(1)
It's All Here
317(1)
HyperStat
318(1)
Data? You Want Data?
318(1)
More and More and More and More Resources
319(1)
Plain, but Fun
319(1)
How About Studying Statistics in Stockholm?
319(1)
More and More and More Resources--Again!
320(1)
Online Statistical Teaching Materials
320(1)
More and More and More Stuff
321(1)
The Ten Commandments of Data Collection
322(3)
Appendix A: SPSS in Less Than 30 Minutes
325(28)
Starting SPSS
327(2)
The SPSS Opening Window
327(2)
The SPSS Toolbar and Status Bar
329(1)
Using SPSS Help
330(2)
Using the F1 Function Key
331(1)
A Brief Tour of SPSS
332(2)
Opening a File
332(1)
A Simple Table and Graph
333(1)
A Simple Analysis
333(1)
Creating and Editing a Data File
334(6)
Defining Variables
335(1)
Custom Defining Variables: Using the Variable View Window
335(2)
Defining Variable Labels
337(1)
Changing Variable Labels
338(2)
Opening a Data File
340(1)
Printing With SPSS
340(1)
Printing an SPSS Data File
340(1)
Printing a Selection From an SPSS Data File
341(1)
Creating an SPSS Chart
341(3)
Creating a Simple Chart
341(2)
Saving a Chart
343(1)
Enhancing SPSS Charts
344(4)
Editing a Chart
344(4)
Describing Data
348(4)
Frequencies and Crosstab Tables
348(2)
Applying the Independent Samples t Test
350(2)
Exiting SPSS
352(1)
Appendix B: Tables
353(16)
Table B1: Areas Beneath the Normal Curve
353(4)
Table B2: t Values Needed for Rejection of the Null Hypothesis
357(3)
Table B3: Critical Values for Analysis of Variance or F Test
360(4)
Table B4: Values of the Correlation Coefficient Needed for Rejection of the Null Hypothesis
364(2)
Table B5: Critical Values for the Chi-Square Test
366(3)
Appendix C: Data Sets
369(13)
Chapter 2 Data Sets
370(1)
Chapter 3 Data Sets
370(1)
Chapter 4 Data Set
371(1)
Chapter 5 Data Sets
371(1)
Chapter 9 Data Sets
372(1)
Chapter 10 Data Sets
373(1)
Chapter 11 Data Sets
374(1)
Chapter 12 Data Sets
375(2)
Chapter 13 Data Sets
377(1)
Chapter 14 Data Sets
377(1)
Chapter 15 Data Sets
378(2)
Sample Data Set
380(2)
Glossary 382(9)
Index 391(12)
About the Author 403


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