A Note to the Student Why I Wrote this Book 

xvi  
Acknowledgments 

xviii  

PART I Yippee! I'm in Statistics 


1  (38) 

Statistics or Sadistics? It's Up to You 


5  (14) 


5  (1) 


6  (1) 

A FiveMinute History of Statistics 


6  (2) 

Statistics: What It Is (and Isn't) 


8  (3) 

What Are Descriptive Statistics? 


9  (1) 

What Are Inferential Statistics? 


9  (1) 


10  (1) 

Tooling Around With the Analysis ToolPak 


11  (1) 

What Am I Doing in a Statistics Class? 


11  (2) 

Ten Ways to Use This Book (and Learn Statistics at the Same Time!) 


13  (2) 


15  (1) 


16  (1) 

Key to ``How Much Excel'' Icons 


17  (1) 


17  (2) 


17  (1) 


17  (2) 

All You Need to Know About Formulas and Functions 


19  (16) 


19  (4) 


20  (2) 

Operator, OperatorGet Me a Formula! 


22  (1) 


22  (1) 


23  (12) 


24  (5) 

Using Functions in Formulas 


29  (1) 

We're Taking Names: Naming Ranges 


30  (1) 


31  (1) 


32  (1) 


32  (1) 

Answers to Practice Questions 


33  (2) 

All You Need to Know About Using the Amazing Data Analysis ToolPak 


35  (4) 

A Look at a Data Analysis Tool 


36  (1) 


37  (2) 

PART II Σigma Freud and Descriptive Statistics 


39  (96) 

Computing and Understanding Averages: Means to an End 


41  (25) 


42  (3) 

And Now . . . Using Excel's Average Function 


43  (2) 


45  (3) 

Computing a Weighted Mean 


46  (2) 


48  (5) 

And Now . . . Using Excel's Median Function 


50  (3) 


53  (1) 


53  (3) 

And Now . . . Using Excel's Mode Function 


54  (2) 


56  (1) 

Using the Amazing Analysis ToolPak to Compute Descriptive Statistics 


56  (5) 

Make the Analysis ToolPak Output Pretty 


60  (1) 


61  (5) 


62  (1) 


62  (1) 

Answers to Practice Questions 


63  (3) 

Vive la Difference: Understanding Variability 


66  (16) 

Why Understanding Variability Is Important 


66  (1) 


67  (1) 

Computing the Standard Deviation 


68  (7) 

And Now . . . Using Excel's STDEV Function 


70  (3) 

Why n  I? What's Wrong With Just n? 


73  (1) 


74  (1) 


75  (1) 


75  (3) 

And Now . . . Using Excel's VAR Function 


76  (1) 

The Standard Deviation Versus the Variance 


77  (1) 

Using the Amazing Analysis ToolPak (AGAIN!) 


78  (4) 


78  (1) 


78  (1) 

Answers to Practice Questions 


79  (3) 

A Picture Really Is Worth a Thousand Words 


82  (28) 


82  (1) 

Ten Ways to a Great Figure (Eat Less and Exercise More?) 


83  (1) 

First Things First: Creating a Frequency Distribution 


84  (2) 

The Classiest of Intervals 


85  (1) 

The Plot Thickens: Creating a Histogram 


86  (10) 


88  (1) 

Using the Amazing Analysis ToolPak to Create a Histogram 


89  (5) 

The Next Step: A Frequency Polygon 


94  (1) 


94  (2) 

Fat and Skinny Frequency Distributions 


96  (4) 


96  (1) 


96  (1) 


97  (1) 


98  (2) 


100  (4) 

Your First Excel Chart: A Moment to Remember 


101  (3) 

Excellent Charts Part Deux: Making Charts Pretty 


104  (1) 


105  (5) 


106  (1) 


106  (1) 


107  (1) 


107  (1) 


108  (1) 

Answers to Practice Questions 


108  (2) 

Ice Cream and Crime: Computing Correlation Coefficients 


110  (25) 

What Are Correlations All About? 


110  (2) 

Types of Correlation Coefficients: Flavor 1 and Flavor 2 


111  (1) 


112  (2) 

Computing a Simple Correlation Coefficient 


114  (9) 

And Now . . . Using Excel's Correl Function 


116  (1) 

A Visual Picture of a Correlation: The Scatterplot 


117  (4) 

Using Excel to Create a Scatterplot 


121  (1) 

Bunches of Correlations: The Correlation Matrix 


122  (1) 

More ExcelBunches of Correlations a la Excel 


123  (1) 

Using the Amazing Analysis ToolPak to Compute Correlations 


124  (2) 

Understanding What the Correlation Coefficient Means 


126  (3) 


126  (1) 

A Determined Effort: Squaring the Correlation Coefficient 


127  (2) 

As More Ice Cream Is Eaten . . . the Crime Rate Goes Up (or Association Versus Causality) 


129  (1) 


130  (5) 


131  (1) 


132  (1) 

Answers to Practice Questions 


133  (2) 

PART III Taking Chances for Fun and Profit 


135  (38) 

Hypotheticals and You: Testing Your Questions 


137  (14) 

So You Want to Be a Scientist 


137  (2) 


138  (1) 


139  (2) 

The Purposes of the Null Hypothesis 


140  (1) 


141  (5) 

The Nondirectional Research Hypothesis 


142  (1) 

The Directional Research Hypothesis 


143  (2) 

Some Differences Between the Null Hypothesis and the Research Hypothesis 


145  (1) 

What Makes a Good Hypothesis? 


146  (5) 


149  (1) 


149  (1) 

Answers to Practice Questions 


149  (2) 

Are Your Curves Normal? Probability and Why It Counts 


151  (22) 


151  (1) 

The Normal Curve (a.k.a. the BellShaped Curve) 


152  (7) 


153  (2) 


155  (4) 

Our Favorite Standard Score: The z Score 


159  (14) 

Using Excel to Compute z Scores 


161  (3) 


164  (4) 

What z Scores Really Represent 


168  (1) 

Hypothesis Testing and z Scores: The First Step 


169  (1) 


170  (1) 


170  (1) 

Answers to Practice Questions 


171  (2) 

PART IV Significantly Different: Using Inferential Statistics 


173  (164) 

Significantly Significant: What It Means for You and Me 


175  (17) 

The Concept of Significance 


175  (7) 


176  (2) 

The World's Most Important Table (for This Semester Only) 


178  (1) 


179  (1) 


180  (2) 

Significance Versus Meaningfulness 


182  (2) 

An Introduction to Inferential Statistics 


184  (3) 


184  (1) 

How to Select What Test to Use 


185  (2) 

Here's How to Use the Chart 


187  (1) 

An Introduction to Tests of Significance 


187  (5) 

How a Test of Significance Works: The Plan 


188  (1) 

Here's the Picture That's Worth a Thousand Words 


189  (2) 


191  (1) 


191  (1) 

Answers to Practice Questions 


191  (1) 

t(ea) for Two: Tests Between the Means of Different Groups 


192  (19) 

Introduction to the t Test for Independent Samples 


192  (3) 

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge 


193  (2) 

Computing the Test Statistic 


195  (7) 

So How Do I Interpret t(58) = .14, p > .05? 


199  (1) 

And Now . . . Using Excel's TTEST Function 


200  (2) 

Using the Amazing Data Analysis ToolPak to Compute the t Value 


202  (3) 

Special Effects: Are Those Differences for Real? 


205  (4) 

Computing and Understanding the Effect Size 


206  (2) 

A Very Cool Effect Size Calculator 


208  (1) 


209  (1) 


209  (1) 

Answers to Practice Questions 


209  (2) 

t(ea) for Two (Again): Tests Between the Means of Related Groups 


211  (14) 

Introduction to the t Test for Dependent Samples 


211  (3) 

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge 


212  (2) 

Computing the Test Statistic 


214  (6) 

So How Do I Interpret t(24) = 2.45, p < .05? 


217  (1) 

And Now . . . Using Excel's TTEST Function 


218  (2) 

Using the Amazing Data Analysis ToolPak to Compute the t Value 


220  (3) 


223  (1) 


223  (1) 

Answers to Practice Questions 


224  (1) 

Two Groups Too Many? Try Analysis of Variance 


225  (19) 

Introduction to Analysis of Variance 


225  (4) 

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge 


226  (1) 

Different Flavors of Anova 


226  (3) 

Computing the F Test Statistic 


229  (8) 

So How Do I Interpret F(2.27) = 8.80. p < .05? 


236  (1) 

And Now . . . Using Excel's FDIST and FTEST Functions 


237  (1) 

Using the Amazing Data Analysis ToolPak to Compute the F Value 


237  (7) 


240  (1) 


240  (2) 

Answers to Practice Questions 


242  (2) 

Two Too Many Factors: Factorial Analysis of Variance: A Brief Introduction 


244  (15) 

Introduction to Factorial Analysis of Variance 


244  (5) 

Two Flavors of Factorial Anova 


245  (1) 

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge 


246  (1) 


247  (2) 

The Main Event: Main Effects in Factorial Anova 


249  (2) 

Even More Interesting: Interaction Effects 


251  (2) 

Computing the Anova F Statistic Using the Amazing Data Analysis ToolPak 


253  (6) 


257  (1) 


257  (1) 

Answers to Practice Questions 


257  (2) 

Cousins or Just Good Friends? Testing Relationships Using the Correlation Coefficient 


259  (11) 

Introduction to Testing the Correlation Coefficient 


259  (1) 

The Path to Wisdom and Knowledge 


260  (1) 

Computing the Test Statistic 


260  (10) 

So How Do I Interpret r(27) = .393, p < .05? 


265  (1) 

Causes and Associations (Again!) 


266  (1) 

Significance Versus Meaningfulness (Again, Again!) 


267  (1) 


267  (1) 


267  (1) 

Answers to Practice Questions 


268  (2) 

Predicting Who'll Win the Super Bowl: Using Linear Regression 


270  (19) 

What Is Prediction All About? 


270  (1) 


271  (4) 

Drawing the World's Best Line (for Your Data) 


275  (8) 

And Now . . . Using Excel's Slope Function 


278  (2) 

And Now . . . Using Excel's Intercept Function 


280  (3) 

How Good Is Our Prediction? 


283  (1) 

The More Predictors the Better? Maybe 


284  (5) 

The Big Rule When It Comes to Using Multiple Predictor Variables 


285  (1) 


286  (1) 


286  (1) 

Answers to Practice Questions 


287  (2) 

What to Do When You're Not Normal: ChiSquare and Some Other Nonparametric Tests 


289  (11) 

Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics 


289  (1) 

Introduction to OneSample ChiSquare 


290  (1) 

Computing the ChiSquare Test Statistic 


291  (5) 

So How Do I Interpret X 2 (2) = 20.6, P < .05? 


295  (1) 

And Now . . . Using Excel's CHIDIST Function 


295  (1) 

Other Nonparametric Tests You Should Know About 


296  (4) 


296  (2) 


298  (1) 

Answers to Practice Questions 


298  (2) 

Just the Truth: An Introduction to Understanding Reliability and Validity 


300  (21) 

An Introduction to Reliability and Validity 


300  (2) 

What's Up With This Measurement Stuff? 


301  (1) 

All About Measurement Scales 


302  (3) 

A Rose by Any Other Name: The Nominal Level of Measurement 


303  (1) 

Any Order Is Fine With Me: The Ordinal Level of Measurement 


303  (1) 

1 + 1 = 2: The Interval Level of Measurement 


303  (1) 

Can Anyone Have Nothing of Anything? The Ratio Level of Measurement 


304  (1) 


304  (1) 

ReliabilityDoing It Again Until You Get It Right 


305  (9) 

Tests ScoresTruth or Dare 


305  (1) 

Observed Score = True Score + Error Score 


306  (1) 

Different Types of Reliability 


307  (6) 

How Big Is Big? Interpreting Reliability Coefficients 


313  (1) 


314  (1) 

ValidityWhoa! What Is the Truth? 


314  (5) 

Different Types of Validity 


315  (3) 


318  (1) 

Validity and Reliability: Really Close Cousins 


319  (2) 


320  (1) 

Answers to Practice Questions 


320  (1) 

Some Other (Important) Statistical Procedures You Should Know About 


321  (6) 

Multivariate Analysis of Variance 


321  (1) 

Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance 


322  (1) 


323  (1) 


323  (1) 


324  (1) 


325  (1) 

Structural Equation Modeling 


325  (2) 


326  (1) 

A Statistical Software Sampler 


327  (10) 

Selecting the Perfect Statistics Software 


328  (1) 


329  (8) 


330  (2) 


332  (3) 


335  (2) 

PART V Ten Things You'll Want to Know and Remember 


337  (13) 

The Ten (or More) Best Internet Sites for Statistics Stuff 


339  (6) 

Tons and Tons of Resources 


339  (1) 


340  (1) 

Who's Who and What's Happened 


341  (1) 


341  (1) 


341  (1) 


342  (1) 

More and More and More and More Resources 


343  (1) 


343  (1) 

How About Studying Statistics in Stockholm? 


343  (1) 

Online Statistical Teaching Materials 


344  (1) 

More and More and More Stuff 


344  (1) 

The Ten Commandments of Data Collection 


345  (5) 
Appendix A: Excelerate Your Learning: All You Need to Know About Excel 

350  (6) 
Appendix B: Tables 

356  (15) 
Appendix C: The Data Sets 

371  (9) 
Glossary 

380  (11) 
Index 

391  (12) 
About the Author 

403  