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Statistics for Social Workers,9780205375981
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Statistics for Social Workers

by ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780205375981

ISBN10:
0205375987
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $79.80
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Summary

This best-selling social work statistics book requires no prior knowledge of statistics, emphasizing a conceptual understanding of the topic and its usefulness to social work practice and research. Rather than focusing on mathematical computation, Statistics for Social Workers instead focuses on providing an understanding of the logical underpinnings of statistical analysis and how to apply the results of analysis in a social work practice environment. the authors have used this approach to teaching statistics for over 25 years, and it remains the most widely used book of its kind.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
1 Introduction to Statistical Analysis
1(19)
USES OF STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
2(1)
GENERAL METHODOLOGICAL TERMS
3(7)
Data
3 (1)
Information
3 (1)
Variables and Constants
3 (2)
Conceptualization
5 (1)
Operationalization
6 (1)
Reliability
7 (1)
Validity
7 (1)
Research Hypotheses
8 (2)
LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT
10(4)
Nominal
10(1)
Ordinal
11(2)
Interval
13(1)
Ratio
13(1)
LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
14(1)
OTHER MEASUREMENT CLASSIFICATIONS
15 (1)
Discrete Variables and Continuous Variables
15 (1)
Dichotomous, Binary, and Dummy Variables
15 (1)
CATEGORIES OF STATISTICAL ANALYSES
16 (1)
Number of Variables Analyzed
16 (1)
Purpose of the Analysis
16 (1)
CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
17 (1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
17(3)
2 Frequency Distributions and Graphs
20(19)
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS
21 (3)
Absolute Frequency Distributions
22 (1)
Cumulative Frequency Distributions
22 (1)
Percentage Frequency Distributions
23 (1)
Cumulative Percentage Distributions
24 (1)
GROUPED FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS
24 (2)
USING FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS TO ANALYZE DATA
26(2)
MISREPRESENTATION OF DATA
28 (1)
Example: An Administrator's Efforts to Hire More Women
28 (1)
GRAPHICAL PRESENTATION OF DATA
29 (7)
Bar Graphs
30 (2)
Pie Charts
32 (1)
Histograms
32 (1)
Frequency Polygons
33 (1)
Pareto Charts
34 (1)
Stem-and-Leaf Plots
35 (1)
A COMMON MISTAKE IN DISPLAYING DATA
36(1)
CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
37 (1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
37 (2)
3 Central Tendency and Variability
39(19)
CENTRAL TENDENCY
39 (9)
The Mode
40 (2)
The Median
42 (1)
The Mean
43 (2)
Which Measure of Central Tendency to Use?
45(3)
VARIABILITY
48 (8)
The Range
49 (1)
The Interquartile Range
50(1)
The Mean Deviation
50 (1)
The Variance
51 (1)
The Standard Deviation
52(3)
Reporting Measures of Variability
55(1)
CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
56 (1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
56 (2)
4 Normal Distributions
58(18)
SKEWED DISTRIBUTIONS
58 (2)
NORMAL DISTRIBUTIONS
60 (4)
CONVERTING RAW SCORES TO z SCORES AND PERCENTILES
64 (9)
Practical Uses of z Scores
69 (1)
Example: Student Anxiety
70 (3)
DERIVING RAW SCORES FROM PERCENTILES
73 (1)
CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
74 (1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
74 (2)
5 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing
76(24)
ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATIONS
76 (5)
Rival Hypotheses
77 (1)
Design Flaws
77 (3)
Sampling Error
80 (1)
PROBABILITY
81 (2)
REFUTING SAMPLING ERROR
83 (2)
Replication
83 (1)
Statistical Analyses
84 (1)
RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
85 (2)
The One-Tailed Research Hypothesis
86 (1)
The Two-Tailed Research Hypothesis
86(1)
The "No Relationship" Research Hypothesis
87 (1)
TESTING THE NULL HYPOTHESIS
87 (2)
STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE
89 (3)
p-Values
90 (1)
Rejection Levels
90 (2)
ERRORS IN DRAWING CONCLUSIONS ABOUT RELATIONSHIPS
92 (1)
Avoiding Type I Errors
93 (1)
STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIPS AND MEANINGFUL FINDINGS
93 (4)
Assessing Strength (Effect Size)
95 (1)
Is the Relationship Surprising?
96(1)
Complex Interpretations of Statistically Significant Relationships
97(1)
CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
97 (1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
98 (2)
6 Sampling Distributions and Hypothesis Testing
100(18)
SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLING ERROR
100 (2)
SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS AND INFERENCE
102 (2)
Comparing an Experimental Sample with Its Population
102 (1)
Comparing a Nonexperimental Sample with Its Population
103 (1)
SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION OF MEANS
104 (9)
Samples Drawn from Normal Distributions
107 (5)
Samples Drawn from Skewed Distributions
112 (1)
ESTIMATING PARAMETERS FROM STATISTICS
113 (3)
Constructing a 95 Percent Confidence Interval
114 (1)
Constructing a 99 Percent Confidence Interval
114 (2)
OTHER DISTRIBUTIONS
116 (1)
CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
116 (1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
117 (1)
7 Selecting a Statistical Test
118(18)
THE IMPORTANCE OF SELECTING THE CORRECT STATISTICAL TEST
118(2)
FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN SELECTING A STATISTICAL TEST
120(7)
Sampling Method(s) Used
120(1)
Distribution of the Variables within the Population
121(1)
Level of Measurement of the Independent and Dependent Variables
122(1)
Amount of Statistical Power That Is Desirable
123(3)
Robustness of Tests Being Considered
126(1)
PARAMETRIC AND NONPARAMETRIC TESTS
127(1)
MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL TESTS
128(1)
GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR TEST SELECTION
129(2)
GETTING HELP WITH DATA ANALYSES
131(1)
CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
132 (2)
STUDY QUESTIONS
134 (2)
8 Correlation
136(29)
USES OF CORRELATION
136 (4)
Scattergrams
137 (3)
PERFECT CORRELATIONS
140 (2)
NONPERFECT CORRELATIONS
142 (1)
INTERPRETING LINEAR CORRELATIONS
143 (4)
Understanding Correlation Coefficients
143 (2)
Interpreting Very Strong Correlations
145 (1)
The Coefficient of Determination
146 (1)
Correlation Is Not Causation
146 (1)
USING CORRELATION FOR INFERENCE
147 (1)
COMPUTATION AND PRESENTATION OF PEARSON'S r
148 (6)
Example: Verbal Participation among Female Group Members
151 (2)
Example: Worker Experience and Error Rates
153 (1)
NONPARAMETRIC ALTERNATIVES
154 (2)
Spearman's rho and Kendall's tau
154 (1)
Example: Caregiver Attitudes and Longevity of Hospice Patients
155 (1)
USING CORRELATION WITH THREE OR MORE VARIABLES
156 (3)
Partial r
156 (1)
Multiple R
156 (2)
Variations of Multiple R
158 (1)
OTHER MULTIVARIATE TESTS THAT USE CORRELATION
159 (3)
Factor Analysis
160 (2)
Cluster Analysis
162 (1)
CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
162 (1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
163 (2)
9 Regression Analyses
165 (24)
WHAT IS PREDICTION?
165 (3)
WHAT IS SIMPLE LINEAR REGRESSION?
168 (2)
Formulating a Research Question
168 (1)
Limitations of Simple Linear Regression
169 (1)
COMPUTATION OF THE REGRESSION EQUATION
170 (3)
MORE ABOUT THE REGRESSION LINE
173 (4)
The Least-Squares Criterion
174 (1)
The Regression Coefficient (b)
174 (1)
The y-Intercept (a)
175 (1)
Predicted Y (Y')
176 (1)
Interchanging X and Y Variables
177 (1)
INTERPRETING RESULTS
177 (1)
Presentation of Y'
177 (1)
The Standard Error
178 (1)
USING REGRESSION ANALYSES IN SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE
178 (2)
Example: Socializing with Family Members and Life Satisfaction
178 (1)
Example: Worker's Caseload Size and Number of Sick Days Taken
179 (1)
REGRESSION WITH THREE OR MORE VARIABLES
180 (4)
OTHER TYPES OF REGRESSION ANALYSES
184 (3)
Discriminant Analysis
184 (1)
Logistic Regression
185 (2)
CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
187 (1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
188 (1)
10 Cross-Tabulation
189(28)
THE CHI-SQUARE TEST OF ASSOCIATION
189 (15)
Observed Frequencies
191 (2)
Expected Frequencies
193 (2)
Degrees of Freedom
195 (3)
Computation of Chi-Square
198 (1)
Presentation of Chi-Square
199 (1)
Interpreting the Results of a Chi-Square Analysis
199 (1)
Meaningfulness and Sample Size
200 (3)
Reporting the Strength of a Relationship
203 (1)
Restrictions on the Use of Chi-Square
203 (1)
An Alternative to Chi-Square: Fisher's Exact Test
204 (1)
USING CHI-SQUARE IN SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE
204(4)
Example: Discharge Planning and Readmission
205(2)
Example: Legislators' Voting Patterns and Tax Issues
207 (1)
CHI-SQUARE WITH THREE OR MORE VARIABLES
208(3)
Problems with Sizes of Expected Frequencies
210(1)
Effects of Introducing Additional Variables
210 (1)
SPECIAL APPLICATIONS OF THE CHI-SQUARE FORMULA
211(4)
McNemar's Test
211 (2)
Median Test
213 (2)
CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
215 (1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
216 (1)
11 t Tests and Analysis of Variance
217 (30)
THE USE OF t TESTS
218 (1)
THE ONE-SAMPLE t TEST
219 (7)
Determining If a Sample Is Representative
220 (2)
Hypothesis Testing
222 (1)
Presentation of Findings
223 (1)
A Nonparametric Alternative: The Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test
223 (3)
THE DEPENDENT t TEST
226 (3)
Use with Two Connected (or Matched) Samples Measured Once
226 (1)
Use with One Sample Measured Twice
226 (1)
A Nonparametric Alternative: The Wilcoxon Sign Test
227 (2)
THE INDEPENDENT t TEST
229 (13)
Example: Treatment of Marital Problems
231 (2)
Example: Study Guide for the State Merit Exam
233 (2)
Example: Staff Turnover
235 (3)
Nonparametric Alternatives: U and K-S
238 (4)
A MULTIVARIATE ALTERNATIVE TO THE t TESTS: T2
242(1)
SIMPLE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (ONE-WAY ANOVA)
242 (3)
A Nonparametric Alternative: The Kruskal-Wallis Test
244 (1)
MULTIPLE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE
245 (1)
CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
245 (1)
STUDY QUESTIONS
246 (1)
Appendix A Using Statistics to Evaluate Practice Effectiveness
247(13)
EVALUATING PROGRAMS
247(5)
Needs Assessments and Formative Evaluations
248(1)
Outcome Evaluations
248(3)
Statistical Analyses of Program Outcome Data
251(1)
EVALUATING INDIVIDUAL PRACTITIONER EFFECTIVENESS
252(8)
Hypothesis Testing in Single System Research
253 (1)
Statistical Analyses of Single System Data
253 (7)
Glossary 260 (17)
Index 277


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