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Statistics for Social Workers,9780205484225
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Statistics for Social Workers

by ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780205484225

ISBN10:
0205484220
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

This widely acclaimed statistics text, emphasizing a conceptual understanding of the topic and its contribution to evidence-based practice, requires no prior knowledge of statistics. It helps students by discussing the types of statistical analyses that are most likely to be encountered by social work practitioners and researchers. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Introduction
1(21)
Uses of Statistics
2(1)
Methodological Terms
3(7)
Data
3(1)
Information
3(1)
Variables and Constants
4(1)
Conceptualization
5(1)
Operationalization
6(1)
Reliability
7(1)
Validity
7(1)
Research Hypotheses
8(2)
Measurement Levels
10(4)
Nominal
11(1)
Ordinal
12(1)
Interval
13(1)
Ratio
14(1)
Measurement Levels and Data Analysis
14(2)
Additional Measurement Classifications
16(1)
Discrete and Continuous Variables
16(1)
Dichotomous, Binary, and Dummy Variables
16(1)
Categories of Statistical Analyses
17(1)
Number of Variables in an Analysis
17(1)
Primary Purpose of the Analysis
17(1)
Analysis of Qualitative Data
18(1)
Concluding Thoughts
19(1)
Study Questions
20(2)
Frequency Distributions and Graphs
22(18)
Frequency Distributions
23(4)
Absolute Frequency Distributions
24(1)
Cumulative Frequency Distributions
25(1)
Percentage Frequency Distributions
25(1)
Cumulative Percentage Frequency Distributions
26(1)
Grouped Frequency Distributions
27(1)
Using Frequency Distributions to Analyze Data
28(2)
Misrepresentation of Data
30(1)
Graphs
31(6)
Bar Graphs and Line Diagrams
32(1)
Pie Charts
32(2)
Histograms
34(1)
Frequency Polygons
35(1)
Stem-and-Leaf Plots
36(1)
A Common Mistake in Displaying Data
37(1)
Concluding Thoughts
38(1)
Study Questions
38(2)
Measures of Central Tendency and Variability
40(20)
Measures of Central Tendency
40(8)
The Mode
41(1)
The Median
41(2)
The Mean
43(3)
Which Measure of Central Tendency to Use?
46(2)
Measures of Variability
48(9)
The Range
49(1)
The Interquartile Range
50(1)
The Mean Deviation
51(1)
Variance
52(1)
Standard Deviation
52(4)
Reporting Measures of Variability
56(52)
Other Uses for Central Tendency and Variability
57(1)
Concluding Thoughts
58(1)
Study Questions
58(2)
The Normal Distribution
60(19)
Skewness
60(2)
Kurtosis
62(1)
Normal Distributions
63(5)
Converting Raw Scores to Z Scores and Percentiles
68(7)
Practical Uses of z Scores
72(3)
Deriving Raw Scores from Percentiles
75(2)
Concluding Thoughts
77(1)
Study Questions
77(2)
The Basics of Hypothesis Testing
79(23)
Alternative Explanations
80(4)
Rival Hypotheses
80(1)
Research Design Flaws
81(2)
Sampling Error
83(1)
Probability and Inference
84(1)
Refuting Sampling Error
85(2)
Replication
85(1)
Statistical Analyses
86(1)
More About Research Hypotheses
87(2)
The One-Tailed Research Hypothesis
88(1)
The Two-Tailed Research Hypothesis
88(1)
The ``No Relationship'' Research Hypothesis
88(1)
Testing the Null Hypothesis
89(2)
Statistical Significance
91(3)
p Values
92(1)
Rejection Levels (``Alpha'')
93(1)
Errors in Drawing Conclusions About Relationships
94(2)
Avoiding Type I Errors
95(1)
Statistically Significant Relationships and Meaningful Findings
96(3)
Assessing Strength of Relationships (Effect Size)
97(1)
Is the Relationship Surprising?
98(1)
Complex Interpretations of Statistically Significant Relationships
99(1)
Concluding Thoughts
99(1)
Study Questions
100(2)
Sampling Distributions and the Null Hypothesis Testing
102(17)
Sample Size and Sampling Error
103(1)
Sampling Distributions and Inference
104(3)
Comparing an Experimental Sample with Its Population
105(1)
Comparing a Non-Experimental Sample with Its Population
106(1)
Sampling Distribution of Means
107(8)
Samples Drawn from Normal Distributions
109(5)
Samples Drawn from Skewed Distributions
114(1)
Estimating Parameters
115(3)
Constructing a 95 Percent Confidence Interval
116(1)
Constructing a 99 Percent Confidence Interval
116(2)
Concluding Thoughts
118(1)
Study Questions
118(1)
Selecting a Statistical Test
119(18)
The Importance of Selecting the Correct Test
119(2)
Where Can We Go Wrong?
120(1)
Factors to Consider
121(7)
Sampling Method(s) Used
122(1)
Distribution of the Variables within the Population
123(1)
Level of Measurement of the Variables
123(1)
Desirable Amount of Statistical Power
124(4)
Robustness of Tests Being Considered
128(1)
Parametric and Nonparametric Tests
128(2)
Multivariate Tests
130(1)
Deciding Which Test to Use
131(1)
More About Getting Help
132(1)
The Process of Hypothesis Testing
133(2)
Concluding Thoughts
135(1)
Study Questions
135(2)
Correlation
137(28)
Uses of Correlation
137(1)
Scattergrams
138(3)
Perfect Correlations
141(2)
Nonperfect Correlations
143(1)
Interpreting Linear Correlations
143(7)
Understanding Correlation Coefficients
144(1)
Very Strong Correlations
145(2)
Correlation is Not Causation
147(1)
Using Correlation for Inference
148(2)
Pearson's r
150(5)
Computation and Presentation
150(5)
Nonparametric Alternatives
155(2)
Spearman's Rho and Kendall's Tau
155(2)
Correlation with Three or More Variables
157(3)
Partial r
157(1)
Multiple R
158(1)
Variations of Multiple R
159(1)
Other Multivariate Tests That Use Correlation
160(3)
Factor Analysis
161(1)
Cluster Analysis
162(1)
Concluding Thoughts
163(1)
Study Questions
164(1)
Regression Analyses
165(25)
What is Prediction?
165(3)
What is Simple Linear Regression?
168(2)
Formulating a Research Question
169(1)
Limitations of Simple Linear Regression
170(1)
Computation of the Regression Equation
170(2)
More About the Regression Line
172(6)
The Least-squares Criterion
174(3)
Interchanging X and Y Variables
177(1)
Interpreting Results
178(3)
Presentation of Y'
178(1)
The Standard Error
178(1)
Using Regression in Social Work Practice
179(2)
Regression with Three or More Variables
181(4)
Other Types of Regression Analyses
185(3)
Discriminant Analysis
185(1)
Logistic Regression
186(2)
Concluding Thoughts
188(1)
Study Questions
189(1)
Cross Tabulation
190(27)
The Chi-Square Test of Association
190(18)
Observed Frequencies
192(2)
Expected Frequencies
194(2)
Degrees of Freedom
196(1)
Using Chi-Square
196(3)
Presentation of Findings
199(1)
Interpreting the Results of a Chi-Square Analysis
200(1)
Meaningfulness and Sample Size
201(3)
Restrictions on the Use of Chi-Square
204(1)
An Alternative: Fisher's Exact Test
204(1)
Using Chi-Square in Social Work Practice
205(3)
Cross Tabulation with Three or More Variables
208(3)
Problems with Sizes of Expected Frequencies
210(1)
Effects of Introducing Additional Variables
210(1)
Special Applications of the Chi-Square Formula
211(4)
McNemar's Test
211(2)
The Median Test
213(2)
Concluding Thoughts
215(1)
Study Questions
216(1)
t Tests and Analysis of Variance
217(32)
The Use of tTests
218(1)
Misuse of t
218(1)
The One-Sample tTest
219(7)
Determining If a Sample is Representative
221(1)
Hypothesis Testing
222(1)
Presentation of Findings
223(1)
A Nonparametric Alternative: Chi-Square Goodness of Fit
223(3)
The Dependent tTest
226(4)
Use with Two Connected (or Matched) Samples Measured Once
226(1)
Use with One Sample Measured Twice
227(1)
A Nonparametric Alternative: Wilcoxon Sign
228(2)
The Independent tTest
230(13)
Nonparametric Alternatives: U and K-s
239(3)
A Multivariate Alternative: T2
242(1)
Simple Analysis of Variance (Simple Anova)
243(3)
Additional Data Analyses
245(1)
A Nonparametric Alternative: Kruskal-Wallis
246(1)
Multivariate Analysis of Variance
246(1)
Concluding Thoughts
247(1)
Study Questions
247(2)
Other Contributions of Statistics to Evidence-Based Practice
249(19)
Meta-Analysis
250(3)
Answers Sought in Program Evaluations
253(1)
Needs Assessments and Formative Evaluations
253(1)
Outcome Evaluations
254(5)
Hypothesis Testing in Outcome Evaluations
254(3)
Statistical Analyses of Outcome Evaluation Data
257(2)
Answers Sought in Single-System Research
259(7)
Hypothesis Testing in Single-System Research
259(1)
Statistical Analyses of Single-System Data
260(1)
Using Familiar Statistical Tests
261(1)
Two Other Popular Tests
262(4)
Concluding Thoughts
266(1)
Study Questions
267(1)
Appendix A Beginning to Select a Statistical Test 268(2)
Glossary 270(19)
Index 289


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