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# Statistics for the Terrified

**by**Kranzler, John H., Ph.D.

5th

### 9780205004065

0205004067

Paperback

12/21/2010

Pearson

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## Summary

User-friendly and engaging#xA0;introduction to elementary statistics.#xA0; #xA0; Written in a personal and informal style, this book helps readers make the leap from apprehension to comprehension of elementary statistics.#xA0; Statistics For The Terrified, 5 e#xA0; is intended as a supplemental text for #xA0;undergraduate or graduate courses in statistics and research methods, as a refresher for students who have already taken a statistics course, or as a primer for new students of elementary statistics. #xA0; Millions of people have math anxiety- yet this is rarely taken into consideration in textbooks on statistics.#xA0; This book presents self-help strategies that help people manage their math anxiety so they can relax and build confidence while learning statistics.#xA0;#xA0; After covering the essentials required for the journey into statistics, the remainder of the book presents an introduction to elementary statistics with a great deal of encouragement, support, step-by-step assistance, and numerous concrete examples, without lengthy theoretical discussions.

## Table of Contents

Preface | p. viii |

Essentials for Statistics | p. 1 |

Effective Strategies for Studying Statistics | p. 2 |

Effective Strategies for Studying Statistics | p. 4 |

Overcoming Math Anxiety | p. 7 |

How to Deal with Math Anxiety | p. 12 |

Basic Math Review | p. 15 |

Positive and Negative Numbers | p. 17 |

Fractions | p. 18 |

Decimals and Percents | p. 21 |

Exponents and Roots | p. 21 |

Order of Computation | p. 22 |

Summation | p. 24 |

Answers to Example Problems | p. 26 |

Describing Univariate Data | p. 29 |

Frequency Distributions | p. 30 |

Variables | p. 31 |

Scales of Measurement | p. 31 |

Frequency Distributions | p. 33 |

Graphing Data | p. 37 |

The Normal Curve | p. 39 |

Problems | p. 40 |

Answers to Problems | p. 41 |

Descriptive Statistics | p. 42 |

Measures of Central Tendency | p. 43 |

Selecting a Measure of Central Tendency | p. 45 |

Measures of Variability | p. 48 |

Problems | p. 55 |

Answers to Problems | p. 55 |

The Normal Curve | p. 56 |

What Is the Normal Curve? | p. 57 |

Proportions of Scores Under the Normal Curve | p. 58 |

Problems | p. 61 |

Answers to Problems | p. 61 |

Percentiles and Standard Scores | p. 62 |

Percentiles | p. 64 |

Standard Scores | p. 65 |

Other Standard Scores | p. 67 |

Converting Standard Scores to Percentiles | p. 69 |

A Word of Caution | p. 75 |

Problems | p. 76 |

Answers to Problems | p. 76 |

Correlation Coefficients and Linear Regression | p. 79 |

Correlation Coefficients | p. 80 |

Correlation Coefficients | p. 81 |

Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient | p. 82 |

Interpreting Correlation Coefficients | p. 86 |

Other Methods of Correlation | p. 88 |

Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient | p. 88 |

Problems | p. 89 |

Answers to Problems | p. 89 |

Linear Regression | p. 90 |

Regression Equations | p. 91 |

Standard Error of the Estimate | p. 94 |

Problems | p. 96 |

Answers to Problems | p. 96 |

Inferential Statistics | p. 97 |

Introduction to Inferential Statistics | p. 98 |

The Sampling Experiment | p. 100 |

Sample Values (Statistics) and Population Values (Parameters) | p. 102 |

The Null Hypothesis | p. 105 |

Type I and Type II Errors | p. 107 |

Statistical Significance and Type I Error | p. 108 |

Problems | p. 110 |

Answers to Problems | p. 110 |

The t Test | p. 112 |

The t Test for Independent Samples | p. 113 |

Formulas for the t Test for Independent Samples | p. 114 |

The Critical Value of t: t_{crit} | p. 116 |

Requirements for Using the f Test for Independent Samples | p. 118 |

The t Test for Dependent (Matched) Samples | p. 119 |

Directional Versus Nondirectional Tests | p. 122 |

Problems | p. 123 |

Answers to Problems | p. 124 |

Analysis of Variance (Anova) | p. 125 |

Computation Steps | p. 130 |

Strength of Association | p. 132 |

Post hoc Analyses | p. 133 |

The Scheffé Method of Post hoc Analysis | p. 133 |

Problems | p. 135 |

Answers to Problems | p. 136 |

Additional Topics: Nonparametric Statistics and Using Statistical Software Programs | p. 137 |

Nonparametric Statistics: Chi-Square | p. 138 |

One-Way Test of Chi-Square | p. 139 |

Yates' Correction for Continuity | p. 141 |

A Bit More | p. 142 |

Problems | p. 142 |

Answers to Problems | p. 143 |

How to Use SPSS | p. 144 |

Starting SPSS | p. 145 |

Basic Steps in Data Analysis | p. 148 |

Finding Help in SPSS | p. 156 |

Postscript | p. 157 |

Appendices | |

Proportions of Area Under the Normal Curve | p. 161 |

Table of Random Numbers | p. 165 |

Critical Values of t | p. 170 |

Critical Values of F | p. 172 |

Critical Values of Chi-Squared | p. 176 |

Glossary of Formulas | p. 178 |

Index | p. 182 |

Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved. |