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Preface | p. viii |
Essentials for Statistics | p. 1 |
Effective Strategies for Studying Statistics | p. 2 |
Effective Strategies for Studying Statistics | p. 4 |
Overcoming Math Anxiety | p. 7 |
How to Deal with Math Anxiety | p. 12 |
Basic Math Review | p. 15 |
Positive and Negative Numbers | p. 17 |
Fractions | p. 18 |
Decimals and Percents | p. 21 |
Exponents and Roots | p. 21 |
Order of Computation | p. 22 |
Summation | p. 24 |
Answers to Example Problems | p. 26 |
Describing Univariate Data | p. 29 |
Frequency Distributions | p. 30 |
Variables | p. 31 |
Scales of Measurement | p. 31 |
Frequency Distributions | p. 33 |
Graphing Data | p. 37 |
The Normal Curve | p. 39 |
Problems | p. 40 |
Answers to Problems | p. 41 |
Descriptive Statistics | p. 42 |
Measures of Central Tendency | p. 43 |
Selecting a Measure of Central Tendency | p. 45 |
Measures of Variability | p. 48 |
Problems | p. 55 |
Answers to Problems | p. 55 |
The Normal Curve | p. 56 |
What Is the Normal Curve? | p. 57 |
Proportions of Scores Under the Normal Curve | p. 58 |
Problems | p. 61 |
Answers to Problems | p. 61 |
Percentiles and Standard Scores | p. 62 |
Percentiles | p. 64 |
Standard Scores | p. 65 |
Other Standard Scores | p. 67 |
Converting Standard Scores to Percentiles | p. 69 |
A Word of Caution | p. 75 |
Problems | p. 76 |
Answers to Problems | p. 76 |
Correlation Coefficients and Linear Regression | p. 79 |
Correlation Coefficients | p. 80 |
Correlation Coefficients | p. 81 |
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient | p. 82 |
Interpreting Correlation Coefficients | p. 86 |
Other Methods of Correlation | p. 88 |
Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient | p. 88 |
Problems | p. 89 |
Answers to Problems | p. 89 |
Linear Regression | p. 90 |
Regression Equations | p. 91 |
Standard Error of the Estimate | p. 94 |
Problems | p. 96 |
Answers to Problems | p. 96 |
Inferential Statistics | p. 97 |
Introduction to Inferential Statistics | p. 98 |
The Sampling Experiment | p. 100 |
Sample Values (Statistics) and Population Values (Parameters) | p. 102 |
The Null Hypothesis | p. 105 |
Type I and Type II Errors | p. 107 |
Statistical Significance and Type I Error | p. 108 |
Problems | p. 110 |
Answers to Problems | p. 110 |
The t Test | p. 112 |
The t Test for Independent Samples | p. 113 |
Formulas for the t Test for Independent Samples | p. 114 |
The Critical Value of t: t_{crit} | p. 116 |
Requirements for Using the f Test for Independent Samples | p. 118 |
The t Test for Dependent (Matched) Samples | p. 119 |
Directional Versus Nondirectional Tests | p. 122 |
Problems | p. 123 |
Answers to Problems | p. 124 |
Analysis of Variance (Anova) | p. 125 |
Computation Steps | p. 130 |
Strength of Association | p. 132 |
Post hoc Analyses | p. 133 |
The Scheffé Method of Post hoc Analysis | p. 133 |
Problems | p. 135 |
Answers to Problems | p. 136 |
Additional Topics: Nonparametric Statistics and Using Statistical Software Programs | p. 137 |
Nonparametric Statistics: Chi-Square | p. 138 |
One-Way Test of Chi-Square | p. 139 |
Yates' Correction for Continuity | p. 141 |
A Bit More | p. 142 |
Problems | p. 142 |
Answers to Problems | p. 143 |
How to Use SPSS | p. 144 |
Starting SPSS | p. 145 |
Basic Steps in Data Analysis | p. 148 |
Finding Help in SPSS | p. 156 |
Postscript | p. 157 |
Appendices | |
Proportions of Area Under the Normal Curve | p. 161 |
Table of Random Numbers | p. 165 |
Critical Values of t | p. 170 |
Critical Values of F | p. 172 |
Critical Values of Chi-Squared | p. 176 |
Glossary of Formulas | p. 178 |
Index | p. 182 |
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