Introduction: Methods, Material, and Moments to Remember 

1  (3) 

The What and How of Statistics 


4  (14) 


4  (3) 


7  (2) 


9  (3) 

The Purposes of Statistical Analysis 


12  (3) 


12  (1) 


13  (2) 


15  (1) 

Some Other Things You Should Know 


15  (1) 


16  (1) 


16  (2) 

Describing Data and Distributions 


18  (31) 

Measures of Central Tendency 


19  (7) 


19  (3) 


22  (3) 


25  (1) 

Measures of Variability or Dispersion 


26  (18) 


27  (1) 


27  (3) 


30  (2) 


32  (3) 


35  (6) 


41  (3) 


44  (1) 

Some Other Things You Should Know 


45  (1) 


46  (1) 


46  (3) 

The Shape of Distributions 


49  (19) 


50  (3) 

Beyond the Basics: Comparisons and Conclusions 


53  (4) 


57  (7) 


64  (1) 

Some Other Things You Should Know 


65  (1) 


66  (1) 


66  (2) 


68  (21) 


69  (3) 

Into the Theoretical World 


72  (3) 

The Table of Areas Under the Normal Curve 


75  (6) 


81  (5) 


86  (1) 

Some Other Things You Should Know 


86  (1) 


87  (1) 


87  (2) 

Four Fundamental Concepts 


89  (14) 

Fundamental Concept #1: Random Sampling 


90  (2) 

Fundamental Concept #2: Sampling Error 


92  (3) 

Fundamental Concept #3: The Sampling Distribution of Sample Means 


95  (1) 

Fundamental Concept #4: The Central Limit Theorem 


96  (4) 


100  (1) 

Some Other Things You Should Know 


100  (1) 


101  (1) 


101  (2) 


103  (40) 

Confidence Interval for the Mean 


104  (1) 

Confidence Interval for the Mean With σ Known 


105  (13) 


105  (2) 


107  (1) 

Z Values and the Width of the Interval 


108  (1) 

Bringing in the Standard Error of the Mean 


109  (3) 

The Relevance of the Central Limit Theorem and the Standard Error 


112  (2) 

Confidence and Interval Width 


114  (3) 


117  (1) 

Confidence Interval for the Mean With σ Unknown 


118  (13) 

Estimating the Standard Error of the Mean 


118  (3) 

The Family of t Distributions 


121  (2) 

The Table for the Family of t Distributions 


123  (4) 


127  (2) 

A Final Comment About the Interpretation of a Confidence Interval for the Mean 


129  (1) 

A Final Comment About Z Versus t 


130  (1) 

Confidence Intervals for Proportions 


131  (4) 


132  (2) 


134  (1) 


135  (2) 

Some Other Things You Should Know 


137  (1) 


138  (1) 


139  (4) 

Hypothesis Testing With a Single Sample Mean 


143  (29) 


144  (1) 

A Hypothesis as a Statement of Your Expectations: The Case of the Null Hypothesis 


145  (2) 

Single Sample Test With σ Known 


147  (16) 

Refining the Null and Phrasing It the Right Way 


148  (1) 


149  (2) 


151  (3) 

Levels of Significance, Critical Values, and the Critical Region 


154  (3) 


157  (2) 


159  (4) 

Single Sample Test With σ Unknown 


163  (4) 


164  (1) 

Some Variations on a Theme 


165  (2) 


167  (1) 

Some Other Things You Should Know 


167  (1) 


168  (1) 


168  (4) 

Hypothesis Testing With Two Samples (Mean Difference and Difference of Means) 


172  (25) 


173  (9) 


175  (2) 


177  (1) 

Combining the Logic and the Null 


178  (1) 

The Estimate of the Standard Error of the Mean Difference 


178  (1) 


179  (1) 


180  (1) 


181  (1) 


182  (9) 


184  (1) 


185  (1) 

Combining the Logic and the Null 


185  (1) 

The Estimate of the Standard Error of the Difference of Means 


186  (3) 


189  (1) 


189  (1) 


190  (1) 


191  (1) 

Some Other Things You Should Know 


192  (1) 


193  (1) 


193  (4) 

Beyond the Null Hypothesis 


197  (17) 

Research or Alternative Hypothesis 


198  (2) 

OneTailed and TwoTailed Test Scenarios 


200  (7) 

Testing a Nondirectional Research Hypothesis 


201  (2) 

Testing a Directional Research Hypothesis 


203  (4) 


207  (4) 


211  (1) 

Some Other Things You Should Know 


211  (1) 


212  (1) 


212  (2) 


214  (33) 


216  (7) 

From Curves to Data Distributions 


218  (1) 


219  (1) 

From Different Means to Different Types of Variation 


220  (3) 


223  (1) 


223  (12) 

Calculating the WithinGroups Sum of Squares (SSW) 


225  (2) 

Calculating the BetweenGroups Sum of Squares (SSB) 


227  (2) 

From Sums of Squares to Estimates of Variance 


229  (5) 


234  (1) 


235  (6) 

Interpretation of the F Ratio 


235  (2) 


237  (4) 


241  (1) 

Some Other Things You Should Know 


242  (1) 


243  (1) 


243  (4) 


247  (19) 

The ChiSquare Test of Independence 


248  (13) 


249  (4) 

A Focus on the Departure From Chance 


253  (1) 


254  (1) 


254  (3) 


257  (2) 


259  (1) 

Conclusion and Interpretation 


260  (1) 


261  (1) 

Some Other Things You Should Know 


262  (1) 


263  (1) 


263  (3) 

Correlation and Regression 


266  (35) 


267  (5) 

Linear Associations: Direction and Strength 


268  (3) 

Other Types of Association 


271  (1) 


272  (13) 


273  (2) 


275  (1) 

The Formula for Pearson's r 


276  (3) 


279  (2) 


281  (2) 

An Additional Step: Testing the Null 


283  (1) 

Conclusion and Interpretation 


284  (1) 


285  (9) 


285  (2) 

The Logic of Prediction and the Line of Best Fit 


287  (2) 


289  (3) 

The Standard Error of the Estimate 


292  (2) 


294  (1) 

Some Other Things You Should Know 


295  (1) 


296  (1) 


296  (5) 

Appendix A Table of Areas Under the Normal Curve (Distribution of Z) 


301  (2) 

Appendix B Family of t Distributions (TwoTailed Test) 


303  (1) 

Appendix C Family of t Distributions (OneTailed Test) 


304  (1) 

Appendix D Distribution of F (.05 Level of Significance) 


305  (1) 

Appendix E Distribution of F (.01 Level of Significance) 


306  (1) 

Appendix F Distribution of Q (.05 Level of Significance) 


307  (1) 

Appendix G Distribution of Q (.01 Level of Significance) 


308  (1) 

Appendix H Critical Values for ChiSquare (Χ2) 


309  (1) 

Appendix I Critical Values of r (Correlation Coefficient) 


310  (1) 

Appendix J Data Sets and ComputerBased Data Analysis 


311  (6) 

It's Usually Starts With Rows and Columns 


311  (4) 

Good News: Words of Caution: It's Up to You 


315  (2) 

Appendix K Some of the More Common Formulas Used in the Text 


317  (2) 
Answers to Chapter Problems 

319  (5) 
Glossary 

324  (6) 
References 

330  (1) 
Index 

331  