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Statistics Unplugged,9780495090779

Statistics Unplugged

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780495090779

ISBN10:
0495090778
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
2/22/2006
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $52.67
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Summary

It takes a real teacher, such as Sally Caldwell, to write a statistics textbook that students can understand and connect with. STATISTICS UNPLUGGED comes into its second edition with the same goals as in the first edition: to help students overcome their apprehension of statistics. She does this by emphasizing the logic behind statistical analysis, and by focusing on an intuitive understanding of statistics, not just on formulas and equations. Student feedback about the book routinely refers to the student-friendly language that's used in the book and how Caldwell writes in a way that makes the material understandable. In this brief paperback text, Caldwell succinctly alleviates student's fears of formulas, and helps them to understand the relevance of statistics to their lives.

Table of Contents

Introduction: Methods, Material, and Moments to Remember 1(3)
The What and How of Statistics
4(14)
A World of Information
4(3)
Levels of Measurement
7(2)
Samples and Populations
9(3)
The Purposes of Statistical Analysis
12(3)
Descriptive Statistics
12(1)
Inferential Statistics
13(2)
Chapter Summary
15(1)
Some Other Things You Should Know
15(1)
Key Terms
16(1)
Chapter Problems
16(2)
Describing Data and Distributions
18(31)
Measures of Central Tendency
19(7)
The Mean
19(3)
The Median
22(3)
The Mode
25(1)
Measures of Variability or Dispersion
26(18)
The Range
27(1)
Deviations From the Mean
27(3)
The Mean Deviation
30(2)
The Variance
32(3)
The Standard Deviation
35(6)
n Versus n -- 1
41(3)
Chapter Summary
44(1)
Some Other Things You Should Know
45(1)
Key Terms
46(1)
Chapter Problems
46(3)
The Shape of Distributions
49(19)
The Basic Elements
50(3)
Beyond the Basics: Comparisons and Conclusions
53(4)
A Special Curve
57(7)
Chapter Summary
64(1)
Some Other Things You Should Know
65(1)
Key Terms
66(1)
Chapter Problems
66(2)
The Normal Curve
68(21)
Real-World Normal Curves
69(3)
Into the Theoretical World
72(3)
The Table of Areas Under the Normal Curve
75(6)
Finally, an Application
81(5)
Chapter Summary
86(1)
Some Other Things You Should Know
86(1)
Key Terms
87(1)
Chapter Problems
87(2)
Four Fundamental Concepts
89(14)
Fundamental Concept #1: Random Sampling
90(2)
Fundamental Concept #2: Sampling Error
92(3)
Fundamental Concept #3: The Sampling Distribution of Sample Means
95(1)
Fundamental Concept #4: The Central Limit Theorem
96(4)
Chapter Summary
100(1)
Some Other Things You Should Know
100(1)
Key Terms
101(1)
Chapter Problems
101(2)
Confidence Intervals
103(40)
Confidence Interval for the Mean
104(1)
Confidence Interval for the Mean With σ Known
105(13)
An Application
105(2)
Reviewing Z Values
107(1)
Z Values and the Width of the Interval
108(1)
Bringing in the Standard Error of the Mean
109(3)
The Relevance of the Central Limit Theorem and the Standard Error
112(2)
Confidence and Interval Width
114(3)
A Brief Recap
117(1)
Confidence Interval for the Mean With σ Unknown
118(13)
Estimating the Standard Error of the Mean
118(3)
The Family of t Distributions
121(2)
The Table for the Family of t Distributions
123(4)
An Application
127(2)
A Final Comment About the Interpretation of a Confidence Interval for the Mean
129(1)
A Final Comment About Z Versus t
130(1)
Confidence Intervals for Proportions
131(4)
An Application
132(2)
Margin of Error
134(1)
Chapter Summary
135(2)
Some Other Things You Should Know
137(1)
Key Terms
138(1)
Chapter Problems
139(4)
Hypothesis Testing With a Single Sample Mean
143(29)
Setting the Stage
144(1)
A Hypothesis as a Statement of Your Expectations: The Case of the Null Hypothesis
145(2)
Single Sample Test With σ Known
147(16)
Refining the Null and Phrasing It the Right Way
148(1)
The Logic of the Test
149(2)
Applying the Test
151(3)
Levels of Significance, Critical Values, and the Critical Region
154(3)
But What If . . .
157(2)
But What If We're Wrong?
159(4)
Single Sample Test With σ Unknown
163(4)
Applying the Test
164(1)
Some Variations on a Theme
165(2)
Chapter Summary
167(1)
Some Other Things You Should Know
167(1)
Key Terms
168(1)
Chapter Problems
168(4)
Hypothesis Testing With Two Samples (Mean Difference and Difference of Means)
172(25)
Related Samples
173(9)
The Logic of the Test
175(2)
The Null Hypothesis
177(1)
Combining the Logic and the Null
178(1)
The Estimate of the Standard Error of the Mean Difference
178(1)
Applying the Test
179(1)
Interpreting the Results
180(1)
Some Additional Examples
181(1)
Independent Samples
182(9)
The Logic of the Test
184(1)
The Null Hypothesis
185(1)
Combining the Logic and the Null
185(1)
The Estimate of the Standard Error of the Difference of Means
186(3)
Applying the Test
189(1)
Interpreting the Results
189(1)
Some Additional Examples
190(1)
Chapter Summary
191(1)
Some Other Things You Should Know
192(1)
Key Terms
193(1)
Chapter Problems
193(4)
Beyond the Null Hypothesis
197(17)
Research or Alternative Hypothesis
198(2)
One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Test Scenarios
200(7)
Testing a Non-directional Research Hypothesis
201(2)
Testing a Directional Research Hypothesis
203(4)
Power and Effect
207(4)
Chapter Summary
211(1)
Some Other Things You Should Know
211(1)
Key Terms
212(1)
Chapter Problems
212(2)
Analysis of Variance
214(33)
The Logic of Anova
216(7)
From Curves to Data Distributions
218(1)
The Different Means
219(1)
From Different Means to Different Types of Variation
220(3)
The Null Hypothesis
223(1)
The Application
223(12)
Calculating the Within-Groups Sum of Squares (SSW)
225(2)
Calculating the Between-Groups Sum of Squares (SSB)
227(2)
From Sums of Squares to Estimates of Variance
229(5)
Calculating the F Ratio
234(1)
The Interpretation
235(6)
Interpretation of the F Ratio
235(2)
Post Hoc Testing
237(4)
Chapter Summary
241(1)
Some Other Things You Should Know
242(1)
Key Terms
243(1)
Chapter Problems
243(4)
The Chi-Square Test
247(19)
The Chi-Square Test of Independence
248(13)
The Logic of the Test
249(4)
A Focus on the Departure From Chance
253(1)
The Null Hypothesis
254(1)
The Application
254(3)
The Formula
257(2)
The Calculation
259(1)
Conclusion and Interpretation
260(1)
Chapter Summary
261(1)
Some Other Things You Should Know
262(1)
Key Terms
263(1)
Chapter Problems
263(3)
Correlation and Regression
266(35)
Scatter Plots
267(5)
Linear Associations: Direction and Strength
268(3)
Other Types of Association
271(1)
Correlation Analysis
272(13)
Two Variables: X and Y
273(2)
The Logic of Correlation
275(1)
The Formula for Pearson's r
276(3)
Application
279(2)
Interpretation
281(2)
An Additional Step: Testing the Null
283(1)
Conclusion and Interpretation
284(1)
Regression Analysis
285(9)
An Application
285(2)
The Logic of Prediction and the Line of Best Fit
287(2)
The Regression Equation
289(3)
The Standard Error of the Estimate
292(2)
Chapter Summary
294(1)
Some Other Things You Should Know
295(1)
Key Terms
296(1)
Chapter Problems
296(5)
Appendix A Table of Areas Under the Normal Curve (Distribution of Z)
301(2)
Appendix B Family of t Distributions (Two-Tailed Test)
303(1)
Appendix C Family of t Distributions (One-Tailed Test)
304(1)
Appendix D Distribution of F (.05 Level of Significance)
305(1)
Appendix E Distribution of F (.01 Level of Significance)
306(1)
Appendix F Distribution of Q (.05 Level of Significance)
307(1)
Appendix G Distribution of Q (.01 Level of Significance)
308(1)
Appendix H Critical Values for Chi-Square (Χ2)
309(1)
Appendix I Critical Values of r (Correlation Coefficient)
310(1)
Appendix J Data Sets and Computer-Based Data Analysis
311(6)
It's Usually Starts With Rows and Columns
311(4)
Good News: Words of Caution: It's Up to You
315(2)
Appendix K Some of the More Common Formulas Used in the Text
317(2)
Answers to Chapter Problems 319(5)
Glossary 324(6)
References 330(1)
Index 331


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