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Introduction: Methods, Material, and Moments to Remember | p. 1 |
The What and How of Statistics | p. 4 |
Before We Begin | p. 5 |
A World of Information | p. 5 |
Levels of Measurement | p. 8 |
Samples and Populations | p. 12 |
The Purposes of Statistical Analysis | p. 14 |
Descriptive Statistics | p. 15 |
Inferential Statistics | p. 15 |
Chapter Summary | p. 17 |
Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 18 |
Key Terms | p. 19 |
Chapter Problems | p. 19 |
Describing Data and Distributions | p. 21 |
Before We Begin | p. 22 |
Measures of Central Tendency | p. 22 |
The Mean | p. 22 |
The Median | p. 26 |
The Mode | p. 28 |
Measures of Variability or Dispersion | p. 30 |
The Range | p. 30 |
Deviations From the Mean | p. 31 |
The Mean Deviation | p. 34 |
The Variance | p. 36 |
The Standard Deviation | p. 39 |
n Versus n-1 | p. 46 |
Chapter Summary | p. 50 |
Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 50 |
Key Terms | p. 51 |
Chapter Problems | p. 51 |
The Shape of Distributions | p. 54 |
Before We Begin | p. 55 |
The Basic Elements | p. 55 |
Beyond the Basics: Comparisons and Conclusions | p. 58 |
A Special Curve | p. 63 |
Chapter Summary | p. 70 |
Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 71 |
Key Terms | p. 72 |
Chapter Problems | p. 72 |
The Normal Curve | p. 74 |
Before We Begin | p. 75 |
Real-World Normal Curves | p. 76 |
Into the Theoretical World | p. 79 |
The Table of Areas Under the Normal Curve | p. 82 |
Finally, an Application | p. 89 |
Chapter Summary | p. 93 |
Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 94 |
Key Terms | p. 94 |
Chapter Problems | p. 95 |
Four Fundamental Concepts | p. 96 |
Before We Begin | p. 97 |
Fundamental Concept #1: Random Sampling | p. 97 |
Fundamental Concept #2: Sampling Error | p. 100 |
Fundamental Concept #3: The Sampling Distribution of Sample Means | p. 103 |
Fundamental Concept #4: The Central Limit Theorem | p. 105 |
Chapter Summary | p. 110 |
Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 111 |
Key Terms | p. 112 |
Chapter Problems | p. 112 |
Confidence Intervals | p. 114 |
Before We Begin | p. 115 |
Confidence Interval for the Mean | p. 115 |
Confidence Interval for the Mean With ¿ Known | p. 116 |
An Application | p. 117 |
Reviewing Z Values | p. 118 |
Z Values and the Width of the Interval | p. 120 |
Bringing in the Standard Error of the Mean | p. 120 |
The Relevance of the Central Limit Theorem and the Standard Error | p. 123 |
Confidence and Interval Width | p. 126 |
A Brief Recap | p. 128 |
Confidence Interval for the Mean With ¿ Unknown | p. 129 |
Estimating the Standard Error of the Mean | p. 129 |
The Family of t Distributions | p. 132 |
The Table for the Family of t Distributions | p. 134 |
An Application | p. 138 |
A Final Comment About the Interpretation of a Confidence Interval for the Mean | p. 140 |
A Final Comment About Z Versus t | p. 141 |
Confidence Intervals for Proportions | p. 142 |
An Application | p. 143 |
Margin of Error | p. 145 |
Chapter Summary | p. 147 |
Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 149 |
Key Terms | p. 150 |
Chapter Problems | p. 150 |
Hypothesis Testing With a Single Sample Mean | p. 155 |
Before We Begin | p. 156 |
Setting the Stage | p. 156 |
A Hypothesis as a Statement of Your Expectations: The Case of the Null Hypothesis | p. 157 |
Single Sample Test With ¿ Known | p. 159 |
Refining the Null and Phrasing It the Right Way | p. 160 |
The Logic of the Test | p. 161 |
Applying the Test | p. 163 |
Levels of Significance, Critical Values, and the Critical Region | p. 166 |
But What If… | p. 170 |
But What If We're Wrong? | p. 171 |
Single Sample Test With ¿ Unknown | p. 176 |
Applying the Test | p. 177 |
Some Variations on a Theme | p. 178 |
Chapter Summary | p. 179 |
Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 180 |
Key Terms | p. 181 |
Chapter Problems | p. 181 |
Hypothesis Testing With Two Samples (Mean Difference and Difference Between Means) | p. 185 |
Before We Begin | p. 186 |
Related Samples | p. 186 |
The Logic of the Test | p. 187 |
The Null Hypothesis | p. 191 |
Combining the Logic and the Null | p. 191 |
The Estimate of the Standard Error of the Mean Difference | p. 192 |
Applying the Test | p. 193 |
Interpreting the Results | p. 193 |
Some Additional Examples | p. 194 |
Independent Samples | p. 195 |
The Logic of the Test | p. 196 |
The Null Hypothesis | p. 199 |
Combining the Logic and the Null | p. 199 |
The Estimate of the Standard Error of the Difference of Means | p. 199 |
Applying the Test | p. 202 |
Interpreting the Results | p. 202 |
Some Additional Examples | p. 203 |
Chapter Summary | p. 204 |
Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 205 |
Key Terms | p. 206 |
Chapter Problems | p. 206 |
Beyond the Null Hypothesis | p. 210 |
Before We Begin | p. 211 |
Research or Alternative Hypotheses | p. 211 |
One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Test Scenarios | p. 213 |
Testing a Non-directional Research Hypothesis | p. 214 |
Testing a Directional Research Hypothesis | p. 217 |
Power and Effect | p. 221 |
Chapter Summary | p. 225 |
Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 226 |
Key Terms | p. 226 |
Chapter Problems | p. 227 |
Analysis of Variance | p. 229 |
Before We Begin | p. 231 |
The Logic of ANOVA | p. 231 |
From Curves to Data Distributions | p. 233 |
The Different Means | p. 234 |
From Different Means to Different Types of Variation | p. 236 |
The Null Hypothesis | p. 238 |
The Application | p. 239 |
Calculating the Within-Groups Sum of Squares (SS_{W}) | p. 240 |
Calculating the Between-Groups Sum of Squares (SS_{B}) | p. 243 |
From Sums of Squares to Estimates of Variance | p. 245 |
Calculating the F Ratio | p. 249 |
The Interpretation | p. 250 |
Interpretation of the F Ratio | p. 250 |
Post Hoc Testing | p. 252 |
Chapter Summary | p. 256 |
Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 257 |
Key Terms | p. 258 |
Chapter Problems | p. 258 |
The Chi-Square Test | p. 263 |
Before We Begin | p. 264 |
The Chi-Square Test of Independence | p. 264 |
The Logic of the Test | p. 265 |
A Focus on the Departure From Chance | p. 269 |
The Null Hypothesis | p. 270 |
The Application | p. 271 |
The Formula | p. 275 |
The Calculation | p. 275 |
Conclusion and Interpretation | p. 276 |
Chapter Summary | p. 278 |
Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 279 |
Key Terms | p. 279 |
Chapter Problems | p. 280 |
Correlation and Regression | p. 283 |
Before We Begin | p. 284 |
Scatter Plots | p. 284 |
Linear Associations: Direction and Strength | p. 286 |
Other Types of Association | p. 288 |
Correlation Analysis | p. 289 |
Two Variables: X and Y | p. 290 |
The Logic of Correlation | p. 292 |
The Formula for Pearson's r | p. 293 |
Application | p. 296 |
Interpretation | p. 298 |
An Additional Step: Testing the Null | p. 300 |
Conclusion and Interpretation | p. 301 |
Regression Analysis | p. 302 |
An Application | p. 302 |
The Logic of Prediction and the Line of Best Fit | p. 304 |
The Regression Equation | p. 306 |
The Standard Error of the Estimate | p. 309 |
Chapter Summary | p. 311 |
Some Other Things You Should Know | p. 311 |
Key Terms | p. 312 |
Chapter Problems | p. 313 |
Table of Areas Under the Normal Curve (Distribution of Z) | p. 318 |
Family of t Distributions (Two-Tailed Test) | p. 320 |
Family of t Distributions (One-Tailed Test) | p. 321 |
Distribution of F (.05 Level of Significance) | p. 322 |
Distribution of F (.01 Level of Significance) | p. 323 |
Distribution of Q (.05 Level of Significance) | p. 324 |
Distribution of Q (.01 Level of Significance) | p. 325 |
Critical Values for Chi-Square (X^{2}) | p. 326 |
Critical Values of r (Correlation Coefficient) | p. 327 |
Data Sets and Computer-Based Data Analysis | p. 328 |
It Usually Starts with Rows and Columns | p. 328 |
Good News; Words of Caution; It's Up to You | p. 332 |
Some of the More Common Formulas Used in the Text | p. 334 |
Answers to Chapter Problems | p. 337 |
Glossary | p. 343 |
References | p. 349 |
Index | p. 351 |
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