9780764584664

Statistics Workbook For Dummies

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780764584664

  • ISBN10:

    0764584669

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-05-27
  • Publisher: For Dummies

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Summary

A friendly, hands-on guide to the dreaded field of statistics Competence in and understanding statistics is important to success in such fields as business and science, and is often a requirement for college students in a variety of programs. This handy guide complements author Deborah Rumsey's Statistics For Dummies by presenting exercises and fully worked solutions that let students and professionals practice and sharpen their statistical skills and understanding of the subject. Offering a simple, straightforward examination of the process and products of statistical computation-as well as a wealth of tips and tricks-Statistics Workbook For Dummies is an invaluable resource for reinforcing the concepts and practice of statistics.

Author Biography

Deborah Rumsey has a PhD in Statistics from The Ohio State University (1993). Upon graduating, she joined the faculty in the Department of Statistics at Kansas State University, winning the distinguished Presidential Teaching Award and earning tenure and promotion in 1998. In 2000, she returned to Ohio State and is now a Statistics Education Specialist/Auxiliary Faculty Member for the Department of Statistics. Dr. Rumsey has served on the American Statistical Association’s Statistics Education Executive Committee and as the Editor of the Teaching Bits Section of the Journal of Statistics Education. She’s the author of the book Statistics For Dummies (Wiley), and she has published many papers and given many professional presentations on the subject of statistics education. Her particular research interests are curriculum materials development, teacher training and support, and immersive learning environments. Her passions, besides teaching, include her family, fishing, bird watching, driving a John Deere tractor, and Ohio State Buckeye football (not necessarily in that order).

Table of Contents

Introduction 1(1)
About This Book
1(1)
Conventions Used in This Book
2(1)
Foolish Assumptions
2(1)
How This Book Is Organized
3(1)
Part I: Getting Off to a Statistically Significant Start
3(1)
Part II: Probability, the Normal Distribution, and the Central Limit Theorem (Are You Having Fun Yet?)
3(1)
Part III: Guesstimating with Confidence
3(1)
Part IV: Putting a Claim to the (Hypothesis) Test
3(1)
Part V: Getting the Inside Scoop on Statistical Studies
3(1)
Part VI: Exploring and Describing Relationships between Two Variables
4(1)
Part VII: The Part of Tens
4(1)
Icons Used in This Book
4(1)
Where to Go from Here
5(2)
Part I: Getting Off to a Statistically Significant Start
7(62)
Summarizing Categorical Data: Counts and Percents
9(10)
Counting On the Frequency
9(2)
Relating with Percentages
11(2)
Interpreting Counts and Percents with Caution
13(2)
Answers to Problems in Summarizing Categorical Data
15(4)
Organizing Categorical Data: Charts and Graphs
19(16)
Making, Interpreting, and Evaluating Pie Charts
19(6)
Making, Interpreting, and Evaluating Bar Graphs
25(4)
Answers to Problems in Organizing Categorical Data
29(6)
Organizing Quantitative Data: Charts and Graphs
35(18)
Creating a Histogram
35(3)
Making Sense of Histograms
38(5)
Spotting a Misleading Histogram
43(2)
Looking at Line Graphs
45(3)
Answers to Problems in Organizing Quantitative Data
48(5)
Summarizing Quantitative Data: Means, Medians, and More
53(16)
Using Histograms to Explore the Shape of Data
53(2)
Finding and Interpreting Measures of Center
55(2)
Finding and Interpreting Measures of Spread
57(2)
Straightening Out Skewed Data
59(2)
Understanding the Empirical Rule (a.k.a. the 68-95-99.7 Percent Rule)
61(3)
Answers to Problems in Summarizing Quantitative Data
64(5)
Part II: Probability, the Normal Distribution, and the Central Limit Theorem (Are You Having Fun Yet?)
69(46)
Understanding Probability Basics
71(8)
Grasping the Rules of Probability
71(2)
Avoiding Probability Misconceptions
73(2)
Making Predictions Using Probability
75(2)
Answers to Problems in Probability
77(2)
Measures of Relative Standing and the Normal Distribution
79(22)
Mastering the Normal Distribution
79(3)
Converting to the Standard Normal Distribution: Finding and Interpreting Standard (Z) Scores
82(3)
Knowing Where You Stand with Percentiles
85(2)
Finding Probabilities for a Normal Distribution
87(3)
Determining the Original Score When Given the Percentile (Backwards Normal)
90(3)
Answers to Problems in Normal Distribution
93(8)
Demystifying Sampling Distributions and the Central Limit Theorem
101(14)
Exactly What Is a Sampling Distribution?
101(3)
Clearing Up the Central Limit Theorem (Once and for All)
104(2)
Finding Probabilities for Means and Proportions with the Central Limit Theorem
106(2)
When Your Sample's Too Small for the Central Limit Theorem: Employing the T-Distribution
108(3)
Answers to Problems in Sampling Distributions and the Central Limit Theorem
111(4)
Part III: Guesstimating with Confidence
115(38)
Making Sense of Margin of Error
117(12)
Reviewing Margin of Error
117(2)
Calculating the Margin of Error for Means and Proportions
119(3)
Increasing and Decreasing Margin of Error
122(1)
Interpreting Margin of Error Correctly
123(3)
Answers to Problems in Making Sense of Margin of Error
126(3)
Calculating Confidence Intervals
129(16)
Walking through a Confidence Interval: An Overview with Points to Watch For
129(3)
Deriving a Confidence Interval for a Population Mean
132(2)
Figuring a Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion
134(2)
Calculating a Confidence Interval for the Difference of Two Means
136(2)
Computing a Confidence Interval for the Difference of Two Proportions
138(2)
Answers to Problems in Calculating Confidence Intervals
140(5)
Deciphering Your Confidence Interval
145(8)
Interpreting Confidence Intervals the Right Way: How to Satisfy Your Instructor
145(4)
Evaluating Confidence Interval Results: What the Formulas Don't Tell You
149(2)
Answers to Problems in Confidence Intervals
151(2)
Part IV: Putting a Claim to the (Hypothesis) Test
153(36)
Testing Hypotheses
155(20)
Walking Through a Hypothesis Test
155(4)
Testing a Hypothesis about a Population Mean
159(2)
Testing a Hypothesis about a Population Proportion
161(2)
Testing for a Difference between Two Population Means
163(2)
Testing for a Mean Difference (Paired T-Test)
165(2)
Testing a Hypothesis about Two Population Proportions
167(2)
Answers to Problems in Testing Hypotheses
169(6)
Taking the Guesswork Out of p-Values and Type I and II Errors
175(14)
Understanding What p-Values Measure
175(2)
Test (Statistic) Time: Figuring Out p-Values
177(2)
The Value Breakdown: Interpreting p-Values Properly
179(3)
Deciphering Type I Errors
182(1)
Deciphering and Distinguishing Type II Errors
183(3)
Answers to Problems in p-Values and Type I and II Errors
186(3)
Part V: Getting the Inside Scoop on Statistical Studies
189(22)
Examining Polls and Surveys
191(10)
Planning and Designing a Survey
191(2)
Selecting a Random Sample
193(2)
Carrying Out a Survey Properly
195(1)
Interpreting and Evaluating Survey Results
196(3)
Answers to Problems in Polls and Surveys
199(2)
Evaluating Experiments
201(10)
Distinguishing Experiments from Observational Studies
201(2)
Designing a Good Experiment
203(3)
Looking for Cause and Effect: Interpreting Experiment Results
206(2)
Answers to Problems in Evaluating Experiments
208(3)
Part VI: Exploring and Describing Relationships between Two Variables
211(40)
Looking for Links in Categorical Data: Two-Way Tables
213(22)
Understanding Two-Way Tables Inside and Out
213(3)
Working with Intersection, Unions, and the Addition Rule
216(2)
Figuring Marginal Probabilities
218(2)
Nailing Down Conditional Probabilities and the Multiplication Rule
220(4)
Inspecting the Independence of Categorical Variables
224(4)
Answers to Problems in Two-Way Tables
228(7)
Searching for Links in Quantitative Data: Correlation and Regression
235(16)
Relating X and Y with a Scatterplot
235(2)
Toeing the Line of Correlation
237(3)
Picking Out the Best Fitting Regression Line
240(2)
Interpreting the Regression Line and Making Predictions
242(2)
Checking the Fit of the Regression Line
244(3)
Answers to Problems in Correlation and Regression
247(4)
Part VII: The Part of Tens
251(28)
Math Review: Ten Steps to a Better Grade
253(10)
Know Your Math Symbols
253(1)
Uproot Roots and Powers
254(1)
Treat Fractions with Extra Care
254(1)
Obey the Order of Operations
255(1)
Avoid Rounding Errors
256(1)
Get Comfortable with Formulas
256(1)
Stay Calm when Formulas Get Tough
257(1)
Feel Fine about Functions
258(1)
Know When Your Answer Is Wrong
259(1)
Show Your Work
260(3)
Top Ten Statistical Formulas
263(10)
Mean (or Average)
263(1)
Median
264(1)
Sample Standard Deviation
264(2)
Correlation
266(1)
Margin of Error for the Sample Mean
266(1)
Sample Size Needed for X
267(1)
Test Statistic for the Mean
268(1)
Margin of Error for the Sample Proportion
269(1)
Sample Size Needed for p
270(1)
Test Statistic for the Proportion
271(2)
Ten Ways to Spot Common Statistical Mistakes
273(6)
Scrutinizing Graphs
273(1)
Searching for and Specifying Bias
274(1)
Marking the Margin of Error
275(1)
Scanning for Sample Size
275(1)
Studying Sample Selection (Gotta Be Random)
276(1)
Checking for Confounding Variables
276(1)
Considering Correlation
277(1)
Doing the Math
277(1)
Detecting Selective Reporting
278(1)
Avoiding the Anecdote
278(1)
Index 279

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