This practical book provides an in-depth look at specific behaviors and the strategies employed for addressing each behavior. This revision places school-based interventions in the context of positive behavioral support, a view embraced by practitioners and supported by research. It continues to promote collaboration between other agencies and families, along with better coordination of treatment options to create effective services and intervention in education.
Table of Contents
I. FOUNDATIONS OF EFFECTIVE BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT.
1. Identifying and Serving Students with Behavioral Problems.
2. Assessment-based Intervention Planning.
3. Keeping Track of Student Progress.
4. Selecting and Evaluating Interventions.
5. Universal School and Classroom Management Strategies.
II. STRATEGIES FOR SPECIFIC BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS.
6. Disruptive Behavior.
7. Improving School Survival Skills and Social Skills.
8. Aggressive Behaviors.
9. Stereotypic Behaviors.
III. BEYOND THE CLASSROOM.
10. Psychiatric Problems.
11. Extending Intervention Effects.
12. The Challenges of Working with Students with EBD.
In our preface to the third edition of this text, we observed that public and professional concerns about students with challenging behavior had increased alarmingly. Fueled by press coverage of recent acts of school violence, this trend has accelerated. America's schools are facing a crisis with regard to finding more effective ways to deal with students who exhibit challenging behavior, including those who bring weapons to school, assault other students and teachers, exhibit defiant and disruptive behaviors, and commit acts of vandalism. The strategies traditionally used to address such problems, including punishment and school exclusion, have not been effective. Policies of "zero tolerance" for misbehavior have resulted in large numbers of students, even preschoolers, being suspended and expelled, or placed in alternative programs, often without services to address their complex behavioral and emotional needs. At the same time, national reports continue to indicate that special education programs for the segment of the school population identified as having emotional disturbance (ED) or emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) have not been effective. These students include children and youth with internalizing disorders (social withdrawal, psychological problems, and psychiatric disorders) in addition to those with externalizing disorders such as those mentioned above. This student population remains chronically underidentified and underserved in the public schools, and identified students are educated in the most restrictive settings and experience the lowest rates of planned inclusion. Status and outcome reports document poor academic achievement, high rates of grade retention, the lowest rate of high school graduation of any group of students with disabilities, and extremely poor post-school adjustment. These issues continue to prevail in spite of the articulation of national educational policies and goals that focus more than ever on recognizing and addressing the mental health needs of children (i.e., Education 2000). Educational reform has been a major agenda in many states. Unfortunately, with regard to student behavior, most reform efforts continue to emphasize harsh and reactive punishment, applied piecemeal and too late. Excluding students with undesired behavior from schools only transfers the problem to other child-serving agencies, such as those in the fields of mental health, child welfare, and juvenile justice. These systems likewise are being overwhelmed by the sheer number of children needing services, as well as by their own set of poor outcomes (e.g., high rates of psychiatric hospitalization, out-of-home placement, and incarceration). Moreover, the cost of treatment in these systems is enormously more expensive than public education (e.g., between $35,000 and $60,000 a year to incarcerate one juvenile), and these expenses are borne by taxpayers, not the youths' parents. Professionals in all of these disciplines are recognizing that EBD is a severe disability that often cannot be adequately addressed within a single system or in one location. Accordingly, in many parts of the country, system-of-care initiatives have been developed to provide comprehensive and coordinated services to these children and their families in their local communities. Evaluation reports indicate that it is possible to meet the diverse and complex needs of these children and their families without resorting to expensive programs that remove the child and attempt to treat him or her out of the context of the natural environment. However, even within these systems of care, services often are applied well after the child's and family's needs have reached crisis proportions. Fortunately, the initiatives directed toward student behavior that we cited in the third edition have continued to evolve and have been augmented by more recent advances. A national movement to improve school safety through positive and pr