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Strategies for Teaching Strings: Building a Successful String and Orchestra Program, Second Edition, is an essential guide for prospective, novice, and experienced string teachers alike. Now featuring an integrated DVD, this comprehensive text provides all the information necessary to develop and manage a successful school-based program. Based on the national standards for teaching strings and orchestra, the text covers performance objectives, strategies for teaching technical and performance skills, and solutions to common playing problems for elementary, middle, and high school skill levels. It also offers rehearsal strategies to develop large-group ensemble techniques, practical approaches to teaching improvisation, and advice on how to increase student recruitment and retention. New to the Second Edition *In-text DVD demonstrating playing techniques, fingering positions, and teaching strategies in action; these are keyed to the text by clip numbers and marginal icons *New and updated lists of resources at chapter ends, including new resources for jazz improvisation in Chapter 8 *Expanded appendices, including the national standards for school orchestra directors, tools for evaluation, correlated string orchestra music and teaching strategies to develop bowing and left-hand playing skills, and additional pedagogical resources *A more extensive history of string instruments in Chapter 1 *Thorough updating of Chapter 10 to include the most recent literature on method books and music for the school orchestra program
Table of Contents
Strategies for Teaching Strings DVD Preface How To Use This Book Chapter 1. THE STRING INSTRUMENT FAMILY Instruments Bows Accessories and Supplies Selecting String Instruments Care and Maintenance of String Instruments and Bows Summary Resources Chapter 2. BEGINNING STRING CLASS INSTRUCTION Guiding Principles for Teaching Beginning String Classes Rote-to-Note Teaching Sequence Recommended Seating Configuration for Beginning String Classes Performance Goals and Objectives of First and Second-Year String Classes Pedagogy for Teaching Instrument Position Creating Lesson Plans for Beginning String Class Instruction Additional Instrument Position Teaching Strategies Left-Hand Shape: General Guidelines Pedagogy for Teaching the Left-Hand Shape Pedagogy for Teaching Pizzicato Pedagogy for Teaching Beginning Finger Placement Bowing Instruction: General Guidelines Bow Hand Shape: General Guidelines Pedagogy for Teaching Bow Hand Shape Sound Production Principles Détaché Bowing: General Guidelines Pedagogy for Teaching Détaché Bowing Beginning String Crossings: General Guidelines Pedagogy for Teaching String Crossings Staccato and Hooked Bowings: General Guidelines Pedagogy for Teaching Staccato and Hooked Bowings Pedagogy for Teaching Slurs Aural Skill Development in Beginning Classes: General Guidelines Pedagogy for Teaching Beginning Aural Skills Strategies for Teaching Instrument Tuning in Beginning String Classes Problem Solving: Beginning Students' Common Playing Problems and Solutions References Additional Resources Chapter 3. INTERMEDIATE STRING CLASS INSTRUCTION Performance Goals and Objectives of Third and Fourth-Year String Classes Pedagogy for Teaching Parallel Bowing Pedagogy for Teaching Smooth Direction Changes Pedagogy for Teaching Tone Production at Different Dynamic Levels Pedagogy for Teaching Moderate-to-Faster Tempo String Crossings Pedagogy for Teaching Slurring More than Four Notes Pedagogy for Teaching Martelé Bowing Pedagogy for Teaching Basic Spiccato Pedagogy for Teaching Consistent Lengthened and Balanced Body Posture Pedagogy for Refining Instrument Position Intermediate Left-Hand Skills: General Guidelines Pedagogy for Refining Left-Hand Shapes Pedagogy for Teaching Cello Extensions Shifting: General Principles Pedagogy for Teaching Shifting Vibrato: General Principles Pedagogy for Teaching Vibrato Double Bass Pivoting: General Guidelines Pedagogy for Developing Intermediate Aural Skills in the School Orchestra Intermediate Instrument Tuning Problem Solving: Intermediate Students' Common Playing Problems and Solutions References Additional Resources Chapter 4. ADVANCED STRING CLASS INSTRUCTION Goals and Objectives of Advanced Playing Skills Pedagogy for Teaching Expressive Détaché Bowing Pedagogy for Teaching Louré (Portato) Bowing Pedagogy for Teaching Sul Tasto Bowing Pedagogy for Teaching Ponticello Bowing Pedagogy for Teaching Controlled Tremolo Bowing Pedagogy for Teaching Collé Bowing Pedagogy for Teaching Fast String Crossings Pedagogy for Teaching Expressive Spiccato Two-Octave Scales through Four Sharps and Four Flats: General Guidelines Introducing Three-Octave Scales: General Guidelines Pedagogy for Refining Shifting Pedagogy for Refining Vibrato Pedagogy for Developing Advanced Aural Skills in the School Orchestra Advanced Instrument Tuning Problem Solving: Advanced Students' Common Playing Problems and Solutions References Additional Resources Chapter 5. THE SCHOOL ORCHESTRA PROGRAM A Brief History of Orchestra Programs in the Schools Values of Orchestra Programs in the School Music Curriculum Strategies for Defending the School Orchestra Program Developing Community Support for the Orchestra Program 00 The School Orchestra Curriculum Enhancing the Orchestra Curriculum References Additional Resources Chapter 6. PREPARING FOR YOUR ORCHESTRA REHEARSAL Preparing Your Rehearsal Room and Equipment Factors to Consider in the Preparation of Your Rehearsal Strategies Differences and Commonalties in Teaching Wind, Brass, and String Instruments Choosing Music for Your Groups Score Preparation Lesson Planning Auditions/Tryouts Nearing the Rehearsal References Additional Resources Chapter 7. " CONDUCTING" YOUR REHEARSAL Tuning Warm-Ups Review of Old and Introduction of New Materials Sight Reading End of the Rehearsal Troubleshooting During Rehearsals Effective Teacher/Director Presentation Other Considerations Additional Resources Chapter 8. PRACTICAL APPROACHES TO TEACHING IMPROVISATION IN THE SCHOOL ORCHESTRA A Creative Drone Approach A Riff Approach A Call-and-Response or Question-and-Answer Approach A Chordal Approach A Rhythmic Ostinato Approach Summary References Additional Resources Chapter 9. STRING STUDENT RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION Philosophy Why Children Choose to Play Instruments Preparation for Recruitment Recruitment Procedures Retention References Additional Resources Chapter 10. METHOD BOOKS AND MUSIC FOR THE SCHOOL ORCHESTRA PROGRAM Guidelines for Choosing Music String Method Books and Method Book Evaluation Criteria Recommended Publishers String and Full Orchestra Literature: Criteria for Grade Level Distinctions References Additional Resources Appendix A. CORRELATED STRING ORCHESTRA MUSIC AND TEACHING STRATEGIES TO DEVELOP BOWING AND LEFT-HAND PLAYING Appendix B. THE NATIONAL STANDARDS Appendix C. THE SURVEY OF TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS (STE) Appendix D. ADDITIONAL PEDAGOGICAL RESOURCES Index