Structural Geology of Rocks and Regions, 3rd Edition

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 10/1/2011
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Relates the physical and geometric elegance of geologic structures within the Earth's crust and the ways in which these structures reflect the nature and origin of crystal deformation through time. The main thrust is on applications in regional tectonics, exploration geology, active tectonics and geohydrology. Techniques, experiments, and calculations are described in detail, with the purpose of offering active participation and discovery through laboratory and field work.

Table of Contents


CHAPTER 1 Nature of Structural Geology 2

Motivation and Context 2

Practical Applications 5

Field Work 7

“Deformation” is the Heart of the Matter 7

Architecture and Structural Geology 16

Plate Tectonics and Structural Geology 18

The Fundamental Structures 21

Concept of Detailed Structural Analysis 29

The Time Factor 32

CHAPTER 2 Displacement and Strain 34

Transformations 34

Displacement Vectors and Deformation 35

Kinematics 36

Deformation and Kinematics in Active Tectonic Settings 40

Translation 44

Rotation 53

Strain 59

Coaxial and Noncoaxial Strain 78

Three-Dimensional Strain Analysis 84

On to Dynamics 89

CHAPTER 3 Force, Stress, and Strength 90

Introduction 90

Dynamic Analysis 91

Force 95

Tractions 101

Stress 106

Determining Relationships between Stress and Strain 120

Conducting Deformation Experiments in the Laboratory 128

Evaluating Mechanical Behavior During Testing 138

Conclusions 147

CHAPTER 4 Deformation Mechanisms and Microstructures 148

Exploring at the Fine Scale 148

Crystalline Structure and the Strength of Solids 149

Slip Systems and Bonding 152

Deformation Mechanisms 157

Deformation Experiments 181

The BrittleDuctile Transition 188

A Few Final Thoughts 191


CHAPTER 5 Joints 193

Definitions and Distinctions 193

Glimpse of Joint Formation in Response to Loading and Stress 201

Detailed Look at Individual Joint Surfaces 204

Growth of Joint Sets 212

Joint Spacing in Relation to a Single Bed 216

Joint Saturation and Joint In-Filling 223

Creation of Joints in the Laboratory 226

Influence of Pore Fluid Pressure on Jointing 230

A Microscopic Look at the Mechanics of Jointing 236

Examples of Interpreting Regional Joint Patterns 239

Opportunities in Fracture Analysis 247

CHAPTER 6 Faults 249

Introduction 249

Recognizing Faults: The Physical Character of Faults 251

Brittle Fault Rocks 260

Map and Subsurface Expressions of Faults 267

The Naming and Classification of Faults 272

Determination of Slip on Faults 278

Strain Significance of Faults 281

Mechanics of Faulting 286

Thrust Fault Systems 305

Normal Faulting 321

Strike-Slip Faulting 334

Concluding Remarks 343

CHAPTER 7 Folds 344

Incentives for Study 344

Anticlines and Synclines 351

Geometric Analysis of Folds 358

Transition from Geometry to Dynamics 383

Buckling 384

Flexural Folding 390

Kink Folding 397

Passive Folding 401

Regional Tectonic Folding 403

Conclusions 404

CHAPTER 8 Fault-Fold Interactions 405

Incentives for Even Further Study 405

General Model of Fault-Related Folding 407

Assumptions About Dip Domains and Fault-Related Folds 408

Fault-Bend Folds 409

Fault-Propagation Folds 414

Fault-Related Folding Created Through Stretching 428

Salt-Related Structures 433

Structural Inversion 443

Folds Associated With Strike-Slip Faulting 447

Role of Structural Development in Sedimentation 449

Structural Balance 452

Small-Scale Structures, and Scaling 459

Concluding Thoughts 461

CHAPTER 9 Foliation and Lineation 463

Nature of Foliation and Lineation 463

Nature of Cleavage 465

Microscopic Properties of Cleavage and Schistosity 472

Strain Significance of Cleavage 475

Relationship of Cleavage to Other Structures 487

Foliation 492

Lineation 501

Descriptive/geometric Analysis of Foliation and Lineation 511

Strain, Shearing, and Fabric Development 515

Estimating Strain 520

“Tectonite-Forming” Geologic Settings 526

On to Shear Zones 529

CHAPTER 10 Shear Zones and Progressive Deformation 530

The Nature of Shear Zones 530

Types of Shear Zones 540

Why Shear Zones Form, Thin, and Thicken 546

Strain in Shear Zones 548

Determining Sense of Shear 556

Fabric Development and its Relation to the Amount of Strain in Shear Zones 577

Inside the Ellipse: Progressive Deformation 586

On to Active Tectonics 598

CHAPTER 11 Active Tectonics 599

Structural Geology and Active Tectonics 599

Plan of Action for This Chapter 600

Western United States 603

The San Andreas Fault 606

The Los Angeles Basin 616

The Eastern California Shear Zone 627

Relation To Cascadia, American Northwest 649

The Basin and Range 656

The Wasatch Front 666

The Hurricane Fault 673

Finishing Up 677

Summing Up 680


A. Nature of Descriptive Analysis 684

B. Geologic Mapping 687

C. Mapping Contact Relationships 697

D. Identifying Primary Structures 706

E. Measuring the Orientations of Structures 711

F. Preparing Geologic Cross-Sections 718

G. Preparing Subsurface Contour Maps 726

H. Using Orthographic Projection 728

I. Carrying Out Stereographic Projection 735

J. Evaluating Rotation Using Stereographic Projection 751

K. Determining Slip on a Fault through Orthographic and Stereographic Projection 757

L. Carrying Out Strain Analysis 760

M. Determining the Relationship of

Faults to Principal Stress Directions 767

N. Carrying Out Joint Analysis 769

O. Engaging in Fault Analysis 778

P. Carrying Out Fold Analysis 779

Q. Deciphering Structure in Boreholes 785

R. Studying Shear Zones in the Field 790

S. Determining Focal Mechanisms for Earthquakes 793




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