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A Student Handbook for Writing in Biology,9780716767091

A Student Handbook for Writing in Biology

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780716767091

ISBN10:
0716767090
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
11/29/2004
Publisher(s):
W. H. Freeman
List Price: $21.33

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Summary

This book provides practical advice to students who are learning to write according to the conventions in biology. Using the standards of journal publication as a model, the author provides, in a user-friendly format, specific instructions on: using biology databases to locate references; developing sound reading strategies; paraphrasing for improved comprehension; writing for a particular audience with the appropriate tone; preparing lab reports or scientific papers, posters, and oral presentations with accepted format and content; self-evaluating drafts; and using peer and instructor feedback for professional development.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
The Scientific Method
1(10)
An Introduction to the Scientific Method
1(10)
Ask a Question
2(1)
Look for Answers to Your Question
2(1)
Turn Your Question into a Hypothesis
2(1)
Design an Experiment to Test Your Hypothesis
3(1)
Make Predictions about the Outcome of Your Experiment
4(1)
Collect Data
5(2)
Organize the Data
7(1)
Try to Explain the Results
8(1)
Revise Original Hypotheses to Take New Findings into Account
8(1)
Share Findings with Other Scientists
8(3)
Finding Primary References
11(8)
Current Journal Articles
12(2)
References Cited in ``Hits''
14(1)
Books
15(1)
The Internet
16(3)
Connecting to the Internet
16(1)
General Navigation
16(1)
Search Tools
17(1)
Evaluate Internet Sources Critically
17(2)
Reading and Writing Scientific Papers
19(10)
Types of Scientific Writing
19(1)
Hallmarks of Scientific Writing
19(1)
Scientific Paper Format
20(2)
Styles for Documenting References
22(1)
Strategies for Reading Journal Articles
22(2)
Strategies for Reading your Textbook
24(2)
Study Groups
26(1)
Avoid Plagiarism: Paraphrase What You Read
26(1)
The Benefits of Learning to Write Scientific Papers
27(1)
Credibility and Reputation
27(1)
Model Papers
28(1)
Step-by-Step Instructions for Preparing a Laboratory Report or Scientific Paper
29(38)
Timetable
29(1)
Format Your Report Correctly
30(3)
Computer Savvy
31(2)
Getting Started
33(1)
Reread the Laboratory Exercise
33(1)
Audience and Tone
33(1)
Start with the Materials and Methods Section
34(4)
Writing Style
35(1)
Details: To Include or Not To Include?
35(3)
Do the Results Section Next
38(16)
Tips for Writing the Body of the Results Section
39(3)
Visuals
42(6)
Organizing Your Data
48(5)
Think Ahead to the Discussion
53(1)
Equations
54(1)
Make Connections
54(2)
Write the Discussion
55(1)
Write the Introduction
55(1)
Effective Advertising
56(1)
Write the Abstract
56(1)
Write the Title
57(1)
Documenting Sources
57(10)
Citation and Reference Formats
58(1)
The Citation-Sequence System
59(1)
The Name-Year System
59(1)
Electronic Journal Articles
59(4)
Sources from the Internet and the World Wide Web
63(2)
Unpublished Laboratory Exercise
65(1)
Personal Communication
65(2)
Revision
67(32)
Getting Ready to Revise
67(3)
Take a Break
67(1)
Look at the Big Picture
67(1)
Get Feedback
68(2)
Revise Again
70(26)
Conventions in Biology
71(3)
Numbers
74(1)
Standard Abbreviations
75(1)
Punctuation
75(6)
Clarity
81(4)
Grammar
85(4)
Word usage
89(4)
Spelling
93(1)
Global Revision
94(2)
The Biology Lab Report Checklist
96(3)
A ``Good'' Sample Student Laboratory Report
99(14)
Laboratory Report Mistakes
108(5)
Poster Presentations
113(6)
Why Posters?
113(1)
Poster Format
113(2)
Size
113(1)
Font (Type Size and Appearance)
114(1)
Poster Esthetics
115(1)
Nuts and Bolts
115(1)
Poster Content
115(3)
Title Banner
116(1)
Introduction
116(1)
Materials and Methods
116(1)
Results
116(1)
Discussion or Conclusions
117(1)
Literature Citations
118(1)
Presenting Your Poster
118(1)
Oral Presentations
119(10)
Organization
119(1)
Plan Ahead
120(1)
Write the Text
120(1)
Prepare the Visuals
121(3)
Rehearsal
124(1)
Delivery
125(2)
Presentation Style
125(1)
Integrating Visuals
125(1)
Interacting with the Audience
126(1)
Group Presentations
127(1)
Fielding Listener Questions
127(1)
Feedback
127(2)
APPENDIX 1 Word Processing Basics in Microsoft Word
129(46)
Good Housekeeping Habits
129(9)
File Organization
129(4)
Saving your Files
133(3)
Protecting your Files Against Viruses and Worms
136(1)
Removing Files
136(2)
Formatting a Document
138(14)
Menu Bar and Toolbars
138(2)
Paper
140(1)
Margins
141(1)
Font Style and Point Size
142(1)
Page Numbers
142(1)
Page Breaks
143(1)
Line Spacing
143(1)
Aligning Text
144(1)
Justification
145(1)
Indentation
145(1)
Tabs
145(1)
Creating a Table
146(1)
Lists That Begin with Numbers or Bullets
147(3)
Style
150(1)
Templates
151(1)
Editing the Text
152(7)
Views
153(1)
Cut, Copy, and Paste
154(1)
Find and Replace
154(1)
Spelling and Grammar
155(3)
Word Count
158(1)
Tracking Changes Made By Peer Reviewers
158(1)
Special Functions in Scientific Papers
159(16)
Greek Letters and Mathematical Symbols
160(4)
Superscripts and Subscripts
164(1)
Italics
165(1)
Customizing Your Toolbars
165(2)
Shortcut Keys
167(1)
AutoCorrect
168(2)
Tables Inserted in the Document
170(1)
Figures Imported from Another Program Such as Excel
171(1)
Equations
172(1)
Leaving Space for Sketches
172(2)
Hanging Indent to List References in the Name-Year System
174(1)
APPENDIX 2 Making XY Graphs in Microsoft Excel
175(32)
The Microsoft Excel Screen
176(2)
Title bar
176(1)
Menu bar
177(1)
Toolbars
177(1)
Formula bar
178(1)
Entering Data in Spreadsheet
178(6)
Terminology
180(1)
Using Chart Wizard to Plot the Data
180(4)
Modifying Graphs
184(8)
Chart Type
184(1)
Source Data
185(1)
Chart Options
186(1)
Location
186(1)
Add Data
186(1)
Add Trendline
186(1)
Format Data Series
186(2)
Format Plot Area
188(1)
Format Chart Area
188(1)
Format Legend
188(1)
Format Axes
188(1)
Format Axis Label
188(1)
Inserting Greek Characters and Other Symbols in Axis Labels
189(3)
Applying CBE Guidelines to Figure A2.7
192(1)
Importing Graphs into Microsoft Word
192(2)
Trendlines
194(4)
Example: Standard Curve for a Protein Assay
196(2)
Multiple Lines on One Set of Axes
198(2)
Multiple Trendlines on One Set of Axes
200(3)
Figures as an Appendix to the Lab Report
203(2)
Importing Tables into a Word Document
205(2)
APPENDIX 3 Preparing Oral Presentations with Microsoft PowerPoint
207(24)
Starting PowerPoint
207(1)
Choosing a Slide Layout
208(3)
Sample Presentation
208(2)
Creating a Title
210(1)
Adding New Slides
211(1)
Formatting Text
211(2)
Adding Images
213(3)
Copy and Paste
213(1)
Insert | Picture
214(1)
Drawing Toolbar
214(2)
Adding a Table
216(1)
Adding a Graph
216(1)
Navigating among Slides
216(1)
Saving and Printing Presentations
217(1)
Revising and Polishing Presentations
218(9)
Moving Slides
219(1)
Adding and Deleting Slides
219(1)
Copying Slides
219(1)
Spell Check
220(1)
Special Effects
220(7)
Delivering Your Presentation
227(4)
Running the Show
228(1)
Navigating among Slides during a Slide Show
228(3)
Bibliography 231(2)
Index 233


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