Descriptive Statistics | p. 1 |

The Study of Statistics | p. 3 |

Why Study Statistics? | p. 4 |

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics | p. 6 |

Measurement | p. 9 |

Summation Sign | p. 17 |

Summary | p. 24 |

Frequency Distributions and Graphing | p. 28 |

Types of Frequency Distributions | p. 29 |

Constructing Frequency Distributions with Class Intervals | p. 34 |

Graphs of Frequency Distributions | p. 40 |

How Distributions Differ | p. 46 |

Summary | p. 50 |

Characteristics of Distributions | p. 53 |

Indicators of Central Tendency | p. 55 |

Indicators of Variability | p. 63 |

Populations and Samples | p. 69 |

A Note on Calculators and Computers | p. 72 |

Summary | p. 74 |

Elements of Exploratory Data Analysis | p. 78 |

Stem-and-Leaf Displays | p. 79 |

Resistant Indicators | p. 88 |

Summary | p. 97 |

Indicators of Relative Standing | p. 100 |

Percentiles | p. 101 |

Changing the Properties of Scales | p. 107 |

Standard Scores and the Normal Distribution | p. 113 |

Summary | p. 129 |

Regression | p. 133 |

Linear Relationships | p. 134 |

Regression Constants and the Regression Line | p. 142 |

Standard Error of Estimate | p. 152 |

Summary | p. 158 |

Correlation | p. 162 |

The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient | p. 163 |

Properties of the Correlation Coefficient | p. 170 |

Sampling Factors That Change the Correlation Coefficient | p. 176 |

Causality and Correlation | p. 183 |

Summary | p. 184 |

Inferential Statistics | p. 189 |

Sampling, Sampling Distributions, and Probability | p. 191 |

Methods of Sampling | p. 192 |

Sampling Distributions and Sampling Error | p. 195 |

Probability and Its Application to Hypothesis Testing | p. 204 |

Estimation | p. 207 |

Summary | p. 210 |

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing: Terminology and Theory | p. 214 |

Statistical Terminology | p. 215 |

Hypothesis Testing When [sigma subscript x] Is Estimated by s[subscript x] | p. 231 |

Summary | p. 237 |

Elementary Techniques of Hypothesis Testing | p. 240 |

Inferences about the Difference between Means | p. 241 |

Inferences about Correlation Coefficients | p. 253 |

A Comparison of the Difference between Means and Correlation | p. 260 |

Statistics in the Journals | p. 263 |

Summary | p. 264 |

Beyond Hypothesis Testing: Effect Size and Interval Estimation | p. 269 |

Beyond Hypothesis Testing | p. 270 |

Indices of Size | p. 273 |

Interval Estimation | p. 277 |

Summary | p. 291 |

Special Topics | p. 297 |

Introduction to Research Design | p. 299 |

Scientific Questions | p. 301 |

Operationalizing | p. 307 |

Data Collection and Data Analysis | p. 313 |

Conclusions and Interpretations | p. 314 |

The Research Report | p. 314 |

Ethical Considerations | p. 316 |

Summary | p. 320 |

Topics in Probability | p. 322 |

Set Theory | p. 323 |

Simple Classical Probability | p. 328 |

Probability of Complex Events | p. 333 |

Methods of Counting | p. 340 |

Summary | p. 347 |

Simple Analysis of Variance | p. 351 |

Logic of the Analysis of Variance | p. 353 |

Computational Procedures | p. 367 |

Comparisons between Specific Means | p. 375 |

Size of Relationship | p. 381 |

Summary | p. 386 |

Two-Factor Analysis of Variance | p. 389 |

Two-Factor Classification | p. 390 |

Logic of Two-Factor Analysis of Variance | p. 394 |

Computational Procedures | p. 41 |

Summary | p. 420 |

Nonparametric Techniques | p. 424 |

Parametric and Nonparametric Tests | p. 425 |

Tests on Independent Samples | p. 428 |

Tests on Correlated Samples | p. 446 |

Rank-Order Correlation | p. 450 |

Summary | p. 454 |

Math Review | p. 461 |

Tables | p. 469 |

Symbols | p. 490 |

Terms | p. 493 |

Answers | p. 502 |

Index | p. 523 |

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