9780521570800

Sub-Half-Micron Lithography for Ulsis

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780521570800

  • ISBN10:

    0521570808

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2000-06-26
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
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Summary

In semiconductor-device fabrication processes, lithography technology is used to print circuit patterns on semiconductor wafers. The remarkable miniaturization of semiconductor devices has been made possible only because of the continuous progress in lithography technology. However, for the trend of ever-increasing miniaturization to continue, a breakthrough in lithography technology is now needed. This book describes advanced techniques under development that represent the key to future semiconductor-device fabrication. To help the reader understand the background to developments in lithography technology, trends in ULSI technology and future prospects are reviewed, and the requirements that future lithography technology must meet are described. Several important lithography methods, such as deep UV lithography, x-ray lithography, electron-beam lithography, and focused ion-beam lithography are described in detail by experts in each area. Other relevant technologies, such as those that concern resist materials, metrology, and defect inspection and repair are also described.

Table of Contents

List of contributors
vii
Preface xi
Acknowledgements xiii
List of principal abbreviations
xiv
Introduction
1(9)
Masao Fukuma
Device technology trends
1(6)
Demands for lithography
7(2)
Conclusion
9(1)
References
9(1)
Optical lithography
10(56)
Kunihiko Kasama
Shinji Okazaki
Hisatake Sano
Wataru Wakamiya
Introduction
10(1)
History
11(4)
Principles
15(2)
i-line lithography
17(5)
Deep-UV lithography
22(18)
Resolution-enhancement technologies
40(10)
Mask/reticle technology
50(13)
References
63(3)
X-ray lithography
66(41)
Kimiyoshi Deguchi
Teruo Hosokawa
Sunao Ishihara
Katsumi Suzuki
Principles
66(2)
X-ray source
68(13)
X-ray mask
81(7)
X-ray mask alignment technology
88(8)
X-ray lithography processes and device fabrication
96(8)
Summary
104(1)
References
105(2)
Electron-beam lithography
107(89)
Takayuki Abe
Koichi Moriizumi
Yukinori Ochiai
Norio Saitou
Tadahiro Takigawa
Akio Yamada
Direct writing
107(51)
Mask writing
158(14)
Data conversion
172(8)
Proximity effect correction
180(11)
Summary
191(1)
References
192(4)
Ion-beam lithography
196(17)
Masanori Komuro
Shinji Matsui
Principles
196(2)
Focused-ion-beam lithography
198(8)
Masked-ion-beam lithography
206(4)
Summary
210(1)
References
211(2)
Resists
213(65)
Hiroshi Ban
Tadayoshi Kokubo
Makoto Nakase
Takeshi Ohfuji
Principles
213(12)
Resists for i-line lithography
225(9)
Resists for deep-UV lithography
234(18)
Resists for electron-beam and X-ray lithography
252(12)
Advanced resist process technology
264(8)
Summary
272(1)
References
273(5)
Metrology, defect inspection, and repair
278(43)
Tadahito Matsuda
Toru Tojo
Seiichi Yabumoto
Introduction
278(1)
Metrology
278(13)
Inspection
291(17)
Repair
308(9)
Summary
317(1)
References
318(3)
Index 321

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