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Subject & Strategyhelps students write by offering engaging, teachable readings supported by time-tested pedagogy. Its mix of beloved classics and timely current readings provides exceptional models of writing. Its proven advice on writing and reading, innovative classroom exercises, and engaging writing assignments guide students to choose the rhetorical strategy that best suits their subject and then to use that strategy to achieve their writing purpose. Features include annotated student essays in each mode, extensive apparatus supporting every selection, and a "Writers on Writing" chapter that helps students see themselves as writers. And this classic reader is priced $15-30 less than similar competing readers.
ALFRED ROSA and PAUL ESCHHOLZ are professors emeriti of English at the University of Vermont. They have directed statewide writing programs and conducted numerous workshops throughout the country on writing and the teaching of writing. Rosa and Eschholz have collaborated on a number of best-selling texts for Bedford/St. Martin's, including Models for Writers, Tenth Edition (2010); Outlooks and Insights: A Reader for College Writers, Fourth Edition (1995); with Virginia Clark, Language Awareness, Tenth Edition (2008); and, with Virginia Clark and Beth Simon, Language: Readings in Language and Culture, Seventh Edition (2007).
Table of Contents
1 Reading Developing an Effective Reading Process Step 1: Prepare Yourself to Read the Selection Step 2: Read the Selection Step 3: Reread the Selection Step 4: Annotate the Selection *An Example: Annotating Rita Dove's “Loose Ends” *Rita Dove, Loose Ends
Step 5: Analyze and Evaluate the Selection The Reading Process in Action: Thomas L. Friedman's “My Favorite Teacher” *About the Photographs and Visual Texts in This Book
The Reading-Writing Connection Reading as a Writer
2 Writing Developing an Effective Writing Process Step 1: Understand Your Assignment Finding a Subject Area and Focusing on a Topic Determine Your Purpose Know Your Audience Step 2: Gather Ideas and Formulate a Thesis Brainstorming Clustering Researching Rehearsing Ideas Formulating a Thesis Step 3: Organize and Write Your First Draft Determining a Strategy for Developing Your Essay Choosing Strategies across the Disciplines Writing Your First Draft Academic Writing Step 4: Revise Your Essay Taking Advantage of Peer Critiques Revising the Larger Elements of Your Essay Writing Beginnings and Endings Revising the Smaller Elements of Your Essay Step 5: Edit and Proofread Your Essay A Student Essay in Progress Step 1: Keith's Assignment Step 2: Keith's Ideas Step 3: Keith's First Draft Step 4: Keith's Revised Essay Step 5: Keith's Edited Essay Keith Eldred, Secular Mantras (student essay)
3 Six Writers on Writing Russell Baker, Discovering the Power of My Words Anne Lamott, Shitty First Drafts Linda Flower, Writing for an Audience William Zinsser, Simplicity Donald M. Murray, The Maker's Eye: Revising Your Own Manuscripts *Stephen King, Reading to Write
4 Narration What is Narration? Narration in Written Texts Using Narration as a Writing Strategy Using Narration across the Disciplines Sample Student Essay Using Narration as a Writing Strategy Laura LaPierre, Why Are You Here? (student essay) Suggestions for Using Narration as a Writing Strategy Planning Your Narration Essay Select a Topic That Has Meaning for You Determine Your Point and Purpose Establish a Context Choose the Most Appropriate Point of View Gather Details That “Show, Don't Tell” Organizing Your Narration Essay Identify the Sequence of Events in Your Narrative Writing Your Narration Essay Keep Your Verb Tense Consistent Use Narrative Time for Emphasis Use Transitional Words to Clarify Narrative Sequence Use Dialogue to Bring Your Narrative to Life Revising and Editing Your Narration Essay Share Your Draft with Others Question Your Own Work While Revising and Editing Malcolm X, Coming to an Awareness of Language Annie Dillard, From An American Childhood Barry Winston, Stranger Than True David P. Bardeen, Not Close Enough for Comfort *Vernon E. Jordon Jr., Vernon Can Read! Writing Suggestions for Narration
What is Description? Description in Written Texts Using Description as a Writing Strategy Using Description across the Disciplines
Sample Student Essay Using Description as a Writing Strategy *Jim Tassé, Trailcheck (student essay)
Suggestions for Using Description as a Writing Strategy Planning Your Description Essay Determine a Purpose Use Description in the Service of an Idea Organizing Your Description Essay Create a Dominant Impression Organize Your Details to Create a Vivid Picture Revising and Editing Your Description Essay Show, Don't Tell: Use Specific Nouns and Action Verbs Question Your Own Work While Revising and Editing Questions for Revising and Editing: Description Cherokee Paul McDonald, A View from the Bridge
*Stan Badgett, Rock Dust
Pat Mora, Remembering Lobo
Robert Ramirez, The Barrio
Maya Angelou, Sister Flowers
Writing Suggestions for Description
What is Illustration?
Illustration in Written Texts Using Illustration as a Writing Strategy Using Illustration across the Disciplines Sample Student Essay Using Illustration as a Writing Strategy *Paula Kersch, Weight Management: More than a Matter of Good Looks (student essay) Suggestions for Using Illustration as a Writing Strategy Planning Your Illustration Essay Focus on Your Thesis or Main Idea Gather More Examples Than You Can Use Choose Relevant Examples Be Sure Your Examples Are Representative Organizing Your Illustration Essay Sequence Your Examples Logically Use Transitions Revising and Editing Your Illustration Essay Share Your Work with Others Question Your Own Work While Revising and Editing Questions for Revising and Editing: Illustration Natalie Goldberg, Be Specific
Mitch Albom, If You Had One Day with Someone Who's Gone
Deborah Tannen, How to Give Orders Like a Man
*Mike Rose, Blue Collar Brilliance
*Alice Walker, In Full Bloom
Writing Suggestions for Illustration
7 Process Analysis
What is Process Analysis? Process Analysis in Written Texts Using Process Analysis as a Writing Strategy Directional Process Analysis Informational Process Analysis Evaluative Process Analysis Using Process Analysis across the Disciplines Sample Student Essay Using Process Analysis as a Writing Strategy Shoshanna Lew, How (Not) to Be Selected for Jury Duty (student essay) Suggestions for Using Process Analysis as a Writing Strategy Planning Your Process Analysis Essay Know the Process You Are Writing About Have a Clear Purpose Organizing Your Process Analysis Essay Organize the Process into Steps Use Transitions to Link the Steps Revising and Editing Your Process Analysis Essay Energize Your Writing: Use the Active voice and Strong Action Verbs Use Consistent Verb Tense Share Your Drafts with Others Question Your Own Work While Revising and Editing Questions for Revising and Editing: Process Analysis Mortimer Adler, How to Mark a Book
Paul Roberts, How to Say Nothing in 500 Words
*Michael Pollan, Eating Industrial Meat
*Tiffany Sharples, Young Love
Nikki Giovanni, Campus Racism 101
Writing Suggestions for Process Analysis
8 Comparison and Contrast
What are Comparison and Contrast? Comparison and Contrast in Written Texts Using Comparison and Contrast as a Writing Strategy Using Comparison and Contrast across the Disciplines Sample Student Essay Using Comparison and Contrast as a Writing Strategy Barbara Bowman, Guns and Cameras (student essay) Suggestions for Using Comparison and Contrast as a Writing Strategy
Planning Your Comparison and Contrast Essay Compare Subjects from the Same Class Determine Your Purpose, and Focus on it Formulate a Thesis Statement Choose the Points of Comparison Organizing and Writing Your Comparison and Contrast Essay Choose an Organizational Pattern That Fits Your Material Use Parallel Constructions for Emphasis Revising and Editing Your Comparison and Contrast Essay Share Your Drafts with Others Question Your Own Work While Revising and Editing Questions for Revising and Editing: Comparison and Contrast
*Kim Hoang, Chinese in New York, American in Beijing *Bharati Mukherjee, Two Ways to Belong in America
*Malcolm Jones, Who Was More Important: Lincoln or Darwin?
Suzanne Britt, Neat People vs. Sloppy People
Bruce Catton, Grant and Lee: A Study in Contrasts
Writing Suggestions for Comparison and Contrast
9 Division and Classification
What are Division and Classification? Division and Classification in Written Texts Using Division and Classification as a Writing Strategy Using Division and Classification across the Disciplines Sample Student Essay Using Division and Classification as a Writing Strategy Gerald Cleary, How Loud? How Good? How Much? How Pretty? (student essay) Suggestions for Using Division and Classification as a Writing Strategy Planning Your Division and Classification Essay Determine Your Purpose, and Focus on It Formulate a Thesis Statement Organizing and Writing Your Division and Classification Essay Establish Valid Categories State Your Conclusion Revising and Editing Your Division and Classification Essay Listen to What Your Classmates Have to Say Question Your Own Work While Revising and Editing Questions for Revising and Editing: Division and Classification Rosalind Wiseman, The Queen Bee and Her Court
*Jim Kitchens, The Psychology of Persuasive Messaging
Judith Viorst, The Truth about Lying
*Amy Rashap, The American Dream for Sale: Ethnic Images in Magazines
Martin Luther King Jr., The Ways of Meeting Oppression
Writing Suggestions for Division and Classification
What is Definition? Definition in Written Texts Using Definition as a Writing Strategy Using Definition across the Disciplines Sample Student Essay Using Definition as a Writing Strategy Howard Solomon, Jr., Best Friends (student essay) Suggestions for Using Definition as a Writing Strategy
Planning Your Definition Essay Determine Your Purpose Formulate a Thesis Statement Consider Your Audience Choose a Type of Definition That Fits Your Subject Organizing and Writing Your Definition Essay Develop an Organizational Plan Use Other Rhetorical Strategies to Support Your Definition Revising and Editing Your Definition Essay Share Your Drafts with Others Select Words That Accurately Denote and Connote What You Want to Say Use Specific and Concrete Words Question Your Own Work While Revising and Editing Questions for Revising and Editing: Definition Jo Goodwin Parker, What Is Poverty?
G. Anthony Gorry, Steal This MP3 File: What Is Theft?
*Deborah M. Roffman, What Does 'Boy Will Be Boys' Really Mean?
Sojourner Truth, Ain't I a Woman?
*David Brooks, The Odyssey Years
Writing Suggestions for Definition
11 Cause and Effect Analysis
What is Cause and Effect Analysis? Cause and Effect Analysis in Written Texts Using Cause and Effect Analysis as a Writing Strategy Using Cause and Effect Analysis across the Disciplines Sample Student Essay Using Cause and Effect Analysis as a Writing Strategy Kevin Cunningham, Gentrification (student essay) Suggestions for Using Cause and Effect Analysis as a Writing Strategy Planning Your Cause and Effect Analysis Establish Your Focus Determine Your Purpose Formulate a Thesis Statement Organizing and Writing Your Cause and Effect Analysis Avoid Oversimplification and Errors of Logic Use Other Rhetorical Strategies Revising and Editing Your Cause and Effect Analysis Select Words That Strike a Balanced Tone Share Your Draft with Others Question Your Own Work While Revising and Editing Questions for Revising and Editing: Cause and Effect Analysis Jon Katz, How Boys Become Men
*Jennie Yabroff, Here's Looking at You, Kids
Andrew Sullivan, iPod World: The End of Society?
Carl M. Cannon, The Real Computer Virus
*Michael Jonas, The Downside of Diversity
Writing Suggestions for Cause and Effect Analysis
What is Argumentation? Argument in Written Texts Using Argumentation as a Writing Strategy Using Argumentation across the Disciplines Sample Student Essay Using Argumentation as a Writing Strategy Mark Jackson, The Liberal Arts: A Practical View (student essay)
Suggestions for Using Argumentation as a Writing Strategy
Planning Your Argumentation Essay Determine Your Thesis or Proposition Consider Your Audience Gather Supporting Evidence Organizing and Writing Your Argumentation Essay Choose an Organizational Pattern Consider Refutations to Your Argument Use Other Rhetorical Strategies Conclude Forcefully Revising and Editing Your Argumentation Essay Avoid Faulty Reasoning Share Your Draft with Others Question Your Own Work While Revising and Editing Questions for Revising and Editing: Argumentation Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence
Richard Lederer, The Case for Short Words
Martin Luther King Jr., I Have a Dream
*Steven Pinker, In Defense of Dangerous Ideas
*Barbara Ehrenreich, This Land Is Their Land: How the Rich Confiscate Natural Beauty from the Public
*Argument Trio: On Blogging *Andrew Sullivan, Why I Blog *Andrew Keen, Web 2.0 *Matt Welch, Blogworld and Its Gravity: The New Amateur Journalists Weigh In *Argument Roundtable: Alpha Wives: The Trend and the Truth *Stephanie Coontz, Women Finally Start to Catch Up *Claudia Goldin, The Benefits of the Breadwinning Wife *Ralph Richard Banks, The Marriage Decline *Andrew J. Cherlin, The Housewife Anomaly *Janet Reibstein, It's About Respect *Kathleen Gerson, No Role Reversals *Barbara Dafoe Whitehead, Separate and Unequal Mating Markets Writing Suggestions for Argumentation
13 Combining Strategies
What Does it Mean to Combine Strategies? Combining Strategies in Written Texts Sample Student Essay Using a Combination of Strategies
Tara E. Ketch, Kids, You Can't Read That Book! (student essay) Suggestions for Using a Combination of Strategies in an Essay Planning Your Combined Strategies Essay Determine Your Purpose Formulate a Thesis Statement Organizing Your Combined Strategies Essay Determine Your Dominant Strategy Determine Your Supporting Strategies Revising and Editing Your Combined Strategies Essay Listen to What Your Classmates Have to Say Question Your Own Work While Revising and Editing Questions for Revising and Editing: Combining Strategies Lars Eighner, On Dumpster Diving
*Doris Lessing, On Not Winning the Nobel Prize
George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant
Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal
Writing Suggestions for Combining Strategies
*14 Writing with Sources
What Does It Mean to Write with Sources? Writing with Sources
Using Direct Quotation Integrating Borrowed Material into Your Text Avoiding Plagiarism Using Quotation Marks for Language Borrowed Directly Using Your Own Words and Word Order When Summarizing and Paraphrasing Sample Student Essay Using Library and Internet Sources *Christine Olson, Distortions in the Media (student essay)
*Lily Huang, The Case of the Disappearing Rabit *Ed Yong, East Meets West: How the Brain Unites Us All
*Jake Jamieson, The English-Only Movement: Can America Proscribe Language With a Clear Conscience? (student essay)
15 A Brief Guide to Researching and Documenting Essays
Establishing a Realistic Schedule Finding and Using Sources Conducting Keyword Searches
Using Subject Directories to Define and Develop Your Research Topic Evaluating Your Sources Analyzing Your Sources Developing a Working Bibliography Taking Notes Documenting Sources In-Text Citations Periodical Print Publications: Journals, Magazines, and Newspapers Nonperiodical Print Publications: Books, Brochures, and Pamphlets Web Publications Online Scholarly Journals Periodical Publications in an Online Database Nonperiodical Web Publications Additional Common Sources
16 Editing for Grammar, Punctuation, and Sentence Style
Run-Ons: Fused Sentences and Comma Splices Sentence Fragments Comma Faults Subject-Verb Agreement Unclear Pronoun References Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers Faulty Parallelism Weak Nouns and Verbs Shifts in Verb Tense, Mood, and Voice Wordiness Sentence Variety