This classic market leading text in instructional leadership and supervision continues to challenge the conventional purposes, practices, structure, and language of supervision. The text's emphases on school culture, teachers as adult learners, developmental leadership, democratic education, and collegial supervision have helped redefine the meaning of supervision and instructional leadership for both scholars and practitioners. This Sixth Edition continues the book's trend-setting tradition by placing instructional leadership and school improvement within a community and societal context; providing new examples of direct assistance, professional development, and action research; and presenting an entire new chapter, Supervision for What? Democracy and the Good School. Building on the success of previous editions, the Sixth Edition addresses hot issues such as school improvement, constructivist teaching, professional development, Chaos Theory, and state-mandated standards. This is a resource that students purchase, use in class, and reference throughout their careers as education leaders.
All chapters conclude with “Exercises,” “References,” and “Suggested Readings.”
1. SuperVision for Successful Schools.
SuperVision: A New Name for a New Paradigm.
Supervisory Glue as a Metaphor for Success.
Who Is Responsible for SuperVision?
Organization of This Book.
Supervision and Moral Purpose.
2. The Norm: Why Schools Are as They Are.
The Work Environment or Culture of Schools.
The Legacy of the One-Room Schoolhouse.
Blaming the Victim and Structural Strain.
Viewing School Culture in the Context of the Larger Culture.
To Qualify, Summarize, and Propose.
3. The Exception: What Schools Can Be.
Background to School Effectiveness Studies.
Early Effective Schools Research.
The Second Wave of Effective Schools Research.
Context Studies in Effective Schools Research.
Has Effective Schools Research Outlived Its Usefulness?
The Legacy of Effective Schools Research.
From Effective Schools to School Improvement.
A Cause Beyond Oneself.
Connecting School Improvement to the Local Community and Larger Society.
What to Do with Successful Schools Research: Some Propositions.
4. Adult and Teacher Development within the Context of the School: Clues for Supervisory Practice.
Adults as Learners.
Adult and Teacher Development.
Developmental Theories of Motivation and Teacher Development.
Development: Ebb and Flow.
Influences on Teacher Development.
5. Reflections on Schools, Teaching, and Supervision.
Effective Teaching Research: A Historical Perspective.
Cautions Concerning Effective Teaching Research.
The Coast of Britain.
Effective and Good Schools: The Same?
Changing Views: New Emphasis on Constructivist Teaching and Learning.
Instructional Improvement and Effective Teaching.
Beliefs about Education.
Supervisory Platform as Related to Educational Philosophy.
Checking Your Own Educational Philosophy and Supervisory Beliefs.
What Does Your Belief Mean in Terms of Supervisor and Teacher Responsibility?
The Authors' Supervisory Platform.
Summary, Conclusions, and Propositions.
III. Interpersonal Skills.
6. Supervisory Behavior Continuum: Know Thyself.
Outcomes of Conference.
Valid Assessment of Self.
Comparing Self-Perceptions with Other Perceptions.
Summary, Conclusions, and Preview.
7. Developmental Supervision: An Introduction.
Case Study One.
Case Study Two.
Case Study Three.
Case Study Four.
Summary and a Look Ahead.
8. Directive Control Behaviors.
Directive Continum of Behaviors.
A History of Overreliance on Control.
Issues in Directive Control.
When to Use Directive Control Behaviors.
Moving from Directive Control toward Directive Informational Behaviors.
9. Directive Informational Behaviors.
Directive Continum of Behaviors.
Comparing Directive Control and Directive Informational Statements.
Issues in the Directive Informational Approach.
When to Use Directive Informational Behaviors.
Moving from Directive Informational toward Collaborative Behaviors.
10. Collaborative Behaviors.
Collaborative Continum of Behaviors.
Collaborative Behaviors with Groups.
Issues in Collaborative Supervision.
When to Use Collaborative Behaviors.
Moving from Collaborative toward Nondirective Behaviors.
Collaboration and Cooperation.
11. Nondirective Behaviors.
Nondirective Continum of Behaviors.
Initiating Nondirective Supervision.
Nondirective, Not Laissez Faire, Supervision.
Issues with Nondirective Supervision.
When to Use Nondirective Behaviors.
Nondirective Supervision, Teacher Collaboration.
12. Developmental Supervision: Theory and Practice.
Rationale for Developmental Supervision.
Applying Developmental Supervision.
Not Algorithms, But Guideposts for Decisions.
IV. Technical Skills.
13. Assessing and Planning Skills.
Changing Time Allocations: Planning.
Assessing and Planning within the Organization.
Ways of Assessing Needs.
Analyzing Organizational Needs.
Models Combining Assessment and Planning.
Planning: To What Extent?
14. Observing Skills.
Formative Observation Instruments Are Not Summative Evaluation Instruments.
Ways of Describing.
Quantitative and Qualitative Instruments.
Tailored Observation Systems.
Types and Purposes of Observations.
Further Cautions When Using Observations.
15. Research and Evaluation Skills.
Alternative Approaches to Research and Evaluation.
Evaluating Specific Instructional Programs.
Key Decisions in the Evaluation Process.
Evidence of Program Outcomes.
Multiple Sources and Methods.
Overall Instructional Program Evaluation.
Other Considerations for Evaluation.
V. Tasks Of Supervision.
16. Direct Assistance to Teachers.
Comparing Clinical Supervision with Teacher Evaluation.
Integrating Clinical Supervision and Developmental Supervision.
Other Forms of Direct Assistance.
Establishing Procedures for Direct Assistance.
Developmental Considerations in Direct Assistance.
17. Group Development.
Dimensions of an Effective Group.
Group Member Roles.
Changing Group Leadership Style.
Applying Developmental Supervision of Groups.
Dealing with Dysfunctional Members.
Preparing for Group Meetings.
Procedures for Large-Group Involvement.
18. Professional Development.
Why the Need for Professional Development?
Characteristics of Successful Professional Development Programs.
Integrating Schoolwide, Group, and Individual Professional Development.
Alternative Professional Development Formats.
Examples of Effective Professional Development Programs.
Stages of Professional Development.
Matching Professional Development to Teacher Characteristics.
The Nuts and Bolts.
Teachers as Objects or Agents in Professional Development.
19. Curriculum Development.
Sources of Curriculum Development.
Curriculum Development as a Vehicle for Enhancing Collective Thinking About Instruction.
What Should Be the Purpose of the Curriculum?
What Should Be the Content of the Curriculum?
How Should the Curriculum Be Organized?
In What Format Should the Curriculum Be Written?
Curriculum Format as Reflective of Choice Given to Teachers.
Relationship of Curriculum Purpose, Content, Organization, and Format.
Levels of Teacher Involvement in Curriculum Development.
Integrating Curriculum Format with Developers and Levels of Development.
Matching Curriculum Development with Teacher Development.
20. Action Research: The School as the Center of Inquiry.
Action Research: The Concept.
How Is Action Research Conducted?
A Developmental Approach to Action Research.
Decisions about Action Research.
Action Research: Vehicle for a Cause beyond Oneself.
Examples of Action Research.
Action Research Leagues.
Shared Governance for Action Research.
Examples of Shared Governance for Schoolwide Action Research.
Suggestions for Action Research.
Conclusion: Focus, Structure, and Time for Development.
VI. Function of Supervision.
21. SuperVision, Change, and School Success.
Assumptions about Change.
Change from the Teacher's View.
Chaos Theory and Change.
Chaos Theory Applied to School Change.
Implications of Chaos Theory at the Classroom Level.
Creating a Culture for Change.
Changing the Conditions of Teaching.
The Role of SuperVision and Supervisor in School Improvement.
What Is School Success?
22. SuperVision for Democratic Education: Returning to Our Core.
Systemic Reform around Purpose.
The Good School and Moral Principles.
Using Supervision to Promote the Good School.
Appendix A: What Is Your Educational Philosophy?
Appendix B: Skill Practices Using Directive Control, Directive Informational, Collaborative, and Nondirective Approaches.
Appendix C: Assessing School-Based Supervisory Practices for Promoting Instructional Improvement.