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Supplement: Introductory Chemistry Essentials - Introductory Chemistry 1/e,9780131119031
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Supplement: Introductory Chemistry Essentials - Introductory Chemistry 1/e

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Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780131119031

ISBN10:
0131119036
Format:
Nonspecific Binding
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Pearson (Manual)
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Table of Contents

Preface xxi
The Chemical World
1(10)
Soda Pop Fizz
1(2)
Chemicals Compose Ordinary Things
3(1)
All Things are Made of Atoms and Molecules
4(1)
The Scientific Method: How Chemists Think
5(2)
Everyday Chemistry Combustion and the Scientific Method
6(1)
A Beginning Chemist: How to Succeed
7(4)
Chapter in Review
8(1)
Key Terms
8(1)
Exercises
9(2)
Measurement and Problem Solving
11(44)
Measuring Global Temperatures
11(1)
Scientific Notation: Writing Big and Small Numbers
12(2)
Significant Figures: Writing Numbers to Reflect Precision
14(4)
Counting Significant Figures
15(1)
Exact Numbers
16(1)
Chemistry in the Media The COBE Satellite and Very Precise Measurements that Illuminate our Cosmic Past
17(1)
Significant Figures in Calculations
18(4)
Multiplication and Division
18(1)
Rounding
18(1)
Addition and Subtraction
19(1)
Calculations Involving Both Multiplication/Division and Addition/Subtraction
20(2)
The Basic Units of Measurement
22(3)
The Standard Units
23(1)
Prefix Multipliers
24(1)
Derived Units
25(1)
Converting From One Unit to Another
25(3)
Solving Multistep Conversion Problems
28(3)
Units Raised to a Power
31(2)
Density
33(4)
Calculating Density
34(1)
Density as a Conversion Factor
35(1)
Everyday Chemistry Density, Cholesterol, and Heart Disease
36(1)
Numerical Problem Solving Strategies and the Solution Map
37(18)
Chapter in Review
39(5)
Key Terms
44(1)
Exercises
44(11)
Matter and Energy
55(36)
In Your Room
55(1)
What Is Matter?
56(1)
Classifying Matter According to Its State: Solid, Liquid, and Gas
57(1)
Classifying Matter According to Its Composition: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures
58(3)
How We Tell Matter Apart: Physical and Chemical Properties
61(2)
How Matter Changes: Physical and Chemical Changes
63(1)
The Conservation of Mass: There Is No New Matter
64(1)
Energy
65(3)
Units of Energy
66(1)
Chemistry in the Media Perpetual Motion
66(2)
Temperature: Random Molecular and Atomic Motion
68(3)
Temperature Changes: Heat Capacity
71(2)
Everyday Chemistry Coolers, Camping, and The Heat Capacity of Water
73(1)
Energy and Heat Capacity Calculations
73(18)
Chapter in Review
76(6)
Key Terms
82(1)
Exercises
82(9)
Atoms and Elements
91(36)
Experiencing Atoms at Tiburon
91(1)
Not to Cut: The Atomic Theory
92(1)
Everyday Chemistry Atoms and Humans
93(1)
The Nuclear Atom
93(4)
Everyday Chemistry Solid Matter?
96(1)
The Properties of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
97(1)
Elements: Defined by Their Numbers of Protons
98(3)
Looking for Patterns: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table
101(5)
Ions: Losing and Gaining Electrons
106(2)
Ions and The Periodic Table
107(1)
Isotopes: When the Number of Neutrons Varies
108(5)
Chemistry in the Environment Radioactive Isotopes at Hanford, Washington
112(1)
Atomic Mass
113(14)
Chapter in Review
114(3)
Key Terms
117(1)
Exercises
117(10)
Molecules and Compounds
127(36)
Sugar and Salt
127(1)
Compounds Display Constant Composition
128(2)
Chemical Formulas: How to Represent Compounds
130(2)
A Molecular View of Elements and Compounds
132(1)
Atomic Elements
132(1)
Molecular Elements
132(1)
Molecular Compounds
133(1)
Ionic Compounds
134(1)
Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds
135(1)
Nomenclature: Naming Compounds
136(1)
Naming Ionic Compounds
136(6)
Naming Type I Binary Ionic Compounds
137(1)
Naming Type II Binary Ionic Compounds
138(2)
Naming Ionic Compounds Containing a Polyatomic Ion
140(1)
Everyday Chemistry Polyatomic Ions
141(1)
Naming Molecular Compounds
142(1)
Naming Acids
143(3)
Naming Binary Acids
144(1)
Naming Oxyacids
144(1)
Chemistry in the Environment Acid Rain
145(1)
Nomenclature Summary
146(2)
Ionic Compounds
146(1)
Molecular Compounds
147(1)
Acids
147(1)
Formula Mass: The Mass of a Molecule or Formula Unit
148(15)
Chapter in Review
149(4)
Key Terms
153(1)
Exercises
153(10)
Chemical Composition
163(40)
How Much Sodium?
163(1)
Counting Nails by the Pound
164(1)
Counting Atoms by the Gram
165(5)
Converting Between Moles and Number of Atoms
166(1)
Converting Between Grams and Moles
167(2)
Converting Between Grams and Number of Atoms
169(1)
Counting Molecules by the Gram
170(2)
Chemical Formulas as Conversion Factors
172(5)
Converting between Moles of a Compound and Moles of a Constituent Element
173(1)
Converting between Grams of a Compound and Grams of a Constituent Element
174(2)
Chemistry in the Environment Chlorine in Chlorofluorocarbons
176(1)
Mass Percent Composition of Compounds
177(2)
Mass Percent Composition from a Chemical Formula
179(2)
Chemistry and Health Fluoridation of Drinking Water
180(1)
Calculating Empirical Formulas for Compounds
181(4)
Calculating an Empirical Formula from Experimental Data
183(2)
Calculating Molecular Formulas for Compounds
185(18)
Chapter in Review
187(6)
Key Terms
193(1)
Exercises
193(10)
Chemical Reactions
203(44)
Kindergarten Volcanoes, Automobiles, and Laundry Detergents
203(2)
Evidence of a Chemical Reaction
205(2)
The Chemical Equation
207(2)
How to Write Balanced Chemical Equations
209(3)
Aqueous Solutions and Solubility: Compounds Dissolved in Water
212(3)
Solubility
213(2)
Precipitation Reactions: Reactions in Aqueous Solution That Form a Solid
215(4)
Predicting Precipitation Reactions
216(3)
Writing Chemical Equations for Reactions in Solution: Molecular, Complete Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations
219(6)
Acid-Base and Gas Evolution Reactions
221(1)
Acid-Base Reactions
221(1)
Gas-Evolution Reactions
221(3)
Chemistry and Health Neutralizing Excess Stomach Acid
224(1)
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
225(2)
Combustion Reactions
226(1)
Classifying Chemical Reactions
227(20)
Classifying Chemical Reactions by What Atoms Do
227(4)
Classification Flow Chart
231(1)
Chemistry in the Environment The Reactions Involved in Ozone Depletion
232(1)
Chapter in Review
232(5)
Key Terms
237(1)
Exercises
237(10)
Quantities in Chemical Reactions
247(30)
Global Warming: Too Much CO2
247(1)
Making Pancakes: Relationships Among Ingredients
248(4)
Making Molecules: Mole-to-Mole Conversions
250(1)
Chemistry in the Media The Controversy Over Oxygenated Fuels
251(1)
Making Molecules: Mass-to-Mass Conversions
252(4)
More Pancakes: Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield
256(3)
Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield From Initial Masses of Reactants
259(18)
Everyday Chemistry
Bunsen Burners
264(1)
Chapter in Review
264(3)
Key Terms
267(1)
Exercises
267(10)
Electrons in Atoms and the Periodic Table
277(42)
Blimps, Balloons, and Models for the Atom
277(2)
Light: Electromagnetic Radiation
279(1)
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
280(4)
Chemistry and Health Radiation Treatment for Cancer
282(2)
The Bohr Model: Atoms with Orbits
284(3)
The Quantum-Mechanical Model: Atoms with Orbitals
287(1)
Baseball Paths and Electron Probability Maps
287(1)
From Orbits to Orbitals
288(1)
Quantum-Mechanical Orbitals
288(9)
Electron Configurations: How Electrons Occupy Orbitals
290(2)
Chemistry and Health Magnetic Resonance Imaging
292(5)
Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table
297(3)
Valence Electrons
297(3)
The Explanatory Power of the Quantum-Mechanical Model
300(2)
Periodic Trends: Ionization Energy, Atomic Size, and Metallic Character
302(17)
Ionization Energy
302(2)
Atomic Size
304(2)
Metallic Character
306(2)
Chapter in Review
308(3)
Key Terms
311(1)
Exercises
311(8)
Chemical Bonding
319(36)
Bonding Models and AIDS Drugs
319(1)
Representing Valence Electrons with Dots
320(1)
Lewis Structures for Ionic Compounds: Electrons Transferred
321(2)
Covalent Lewis Structures: Electrons Shared
323(2)
Double and Triple Bonds
324(1)
Writing Lewis Structures for Covalent Compounds
325(4)
Writing Lewis Structures for Polyatomic Ions
327(1)
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
328(1)
Resonance: Equivalent Lewis Structures for the Same Molecule
329(2)
Chemistry in the Environment The Lewis Structure of Ozone
331(1)
Predicting the Shapes of Molecules
331(5)
Representing Molecular Geometries on Paper
335(1)
Electronegativity and Polarity: Why Oil and Water Don't Mix
336(19)
Polar Bonds and Polar Molecules
339(3)
Everyday Chemistry How Soap Works
342(1)
Chapter in Review
342(3)
Key Terms
345(1)
Exercises
346(9)
Gases
355(52)
Extralong Straws
355(2)
Kinetic Molecular Theory: A Model for Gases
357(2)
Pressure: The Result of Constant Molecular Collisions
359(4)
Pressure Units
360(2)
Pressure Unit Conversions
362(1)
Everyday Chemistry Airplane Cabin Pressurization
363(1)
Boyle's Law: Pressure and Volume
363(6)
Everyday Chemistry Extralong Snorkels
368(1)
Charles's Law: Volume and Temperature
369(4)
The Combined Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature
373(2)
Avogadro's Law: Volume and Moles
375(1)
The Ideal Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, Temperature and Moles
376(7)
Molar Mass of a Gas from the Ideal Gas Law
380(3)
Mixtures of Gases: Why Deep Sea Divers Breathe a Mixture of Helium and Oxygen
383(5)
Deep Sea Diving and Partial Pressure
385(2)
Collecting Gases Over Water
387(1)
Gases in Chemical Reactions
388(19)
Molar Volume at Standard Temperature and Pressure
390(2)
Chemistry in the Environment Air Pollution
392(1)
Chapter in Review
393(5)
Key Terms
398(1)
Exercises
398(9)
Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces
407(36)
Interactions Between Molecules
407(1)
Properties of Solids and Liquids
408(2)
Properties of Liquids
408(1)
Properties of Solids
409(1)
Intermolecular Forces in Action: Surface Tension and Viscosity
410(1)
Surface Tension
410(1)
Viscosity
411(1)
Evaporation and Condensation
411(6)
Everyday Chemistry Why Are Water Drops Spherical?
412(2)
Boiling
414(1)
Energetics of Evaporation and Condensation
414(1)
Heat of Vaporization
415(2)
Melting, Freezing, and Sublimation
417(3)
Energetics of Melting and Freezing
417(1)
Heat of Fusion
418(1)
Sublimation
419(1)
Types of Intermolecular Forces: Dispersion, Dipole-Dipole, and Hydrogen Bonding
420(8)
Dispersion Force
420(2)
Dipole--Dipole Force
422(2)
Chemistry and Health Hydrogen Bonding in DNA
424(1)
Hydrogen Bonding
425(3)
Types of Crystalline Solids: Molecular, Ionic, and Atomic
428(2)
Molecular Solids
428(1)
Ionic Solids
428(1)
Atomic Solids
429(1)
Water: A Remarkable Molecule
430(13)
Chemistry in the Environment Water Pollution
431(1)
Chapter in Review
432(3)
Key Terms
435(1)
Exercises
436(7)
Solutions
443(40)
Tragedy in Cameroon
443(1)
Solutions: Homogenous Mixtures
444(1)
Solutions of Solids Dissolved in Water: How to Make Rock Candy
445(3)
Solubility and Saturation
445(2)
Electrolyte Solutions: Dissolved Ionic Solids
447(1)
How Solubility Varies with Temperature
447(1)
Rock Candy
448(1)
Solutions of Gases in Water: How Soda Pop Gets Its Fizz
448(2)
Specifying Solution Concentration: Mass Percent
450(5)
Mass Percent
450(2)
Chemistry in the Environment The Dirty Dozen
452(1)
Using Mass Percent in Calculations
453(2)
Specifying Solution Concentration: Molarity
455(4)
Using Molarity in Calculations
457(2)
Solution Dilution
459(2)
Solution Stoichiometry
461(2)
Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation: Making Water Freeze Colder and Boil Hotter
463(5)
Freezing Point Depression
464(2)
Everyday Chemistry Antifreeze in Frogs
466(2)
Osmosis: Why Drinking Saltwater Causes Dehydration
468(15)
Chemistry and Health Solutions in Medicine
469(1)
Chapter in Review
469(5)
Key Terms
474(1)
Exercises
475(8)
Acids and Bases
483(44)
Sour Patch Kids and International Spy Movies
483(1)
Acids: Properties and Examples
484(2)
Bases: Properties and Examples
486(2)
Molecular Definitions of Acids and Bases
488(3)
Arrhenius Definition
488(1)
The Brønsted-Lowry Definition
489(2)
The Reactions of Acids and Bases
491(4)
Neutralization Reactions
491(1)
Acid Reactions
492(2)
Base Reactions
494(1)
Everyday Chemistry What Is in My Antacid?
494(1)
Acid--Base Titration: A Way to Quantify the Amount of Acid or Base in a Solution
495(2)
Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
497(6)
Strong Acids
497(1)
Weak Acids
498(3)
Strong Bases
501(1)
Weak Bases
502(1)
Water: Acid and Base in One
503(3)
The pH Scale: A Way to Express Acidity and Basicity
506(3)
Calculating pH from [H3O+]
506(2)
Calculating [H3O+] from pH
508(1)
Chemistry and Health Ulcers
509(1)
Buffers: Solutions That Resist pH Change
509(2)
Chemistry and Health The Danger of Antifreeze
511(1)
Acid Rain: An Environmental Problem Related to Fossil Fuel Combustion
511(16)
Acid Rain Damage
512(1)
Acid Rain Legislation
512(2)
Chapter in Review
514(5)
Key Terms
519(1)
Exercises
519(8)
Chemical Equilibrium
527(46)
Life: Controlled Disequilibrium
527(1)
The Rate of a Chemical Reaction
528(4)
Collision Theory
528(2)
How Concentration Affects the Rate of a Reaction
530(1)
How Temperature Affects the Rate of a Reaction
530(2)
The Idea of Dynamic Chemical Equilibrium
532(3)
The Equilibrium Constant: A Measure of How Far a Reaction Goes
535(3)
Writing Equilibrium Expressions for Chemical Reactions
536(1)
The Significance of the Equilibrium Constant
537(1)
Heterogeneous Equilibria: The Equilibrium Expression for Reactions Involving a Solid or a Liquid
538(1)
Calculating and Using Equilibrium Constants
539(4)
Calculating Equilibrium Constants
539(2)
Using Equilibrium Constants in Calculations
541(2)
Disturbing a Reaction at Equilibrium: Le Chatelier's Principle
543(2)
The Effect of a Concentration Change on Equilibrium
545(3)
Chemistry and Health How a Developing Fetus Gets Oxygen From Its Mother
547(1)
The Effect of a Volume Change on Equilibrium
548(2)
The Effect of a Temperature Change on Equilibrium
550(2)
Solubility-Product Constant
552(3)
Using Ksp to Determine Molar Solubility
553(1)
Everyday Chemistry Hard Water
554(1)
The Path of a Reaction and the Effect of a Catalyst
555(18)
How Activation Energies Affect Reaction Rates
556(1)
Catalysts Lower the Activation Energy
557(2)
Enzymes: Biological Catalysts
559(1)
Chapter in Review
560(4)
Key Terms
564(1)
Exercises
564(9)
Oxidation and Reduction
573(36)
The End of the Internal Combustion Engine?
573(1)
Oxidation and Reduction: Some Definitions
574(3)
Oxidation States: Electron Bookkeeping
577(5)
Everyday Chemistry The Bleaching of Hair
581(1)
Balancing Redox Equations
582(3)
The Activity Series: Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions
585(4)
Predicting Whether a Metal Will Dissolve in Acid
588(1)
Batteries: Using Chemistry to Generate Electricity
589(5)
Dry-Cell Batteries
592(1)
Lead-Acid Storage Batteries
592(1)
Fuel Cells
593(1)
Everyday Chemistry The Fuel Cell Breathalyzer
594(1)
Electrolysis: Using Electricity to Do Chemistry
594(2)
Corrosion: Undesirable Redox Reactions
596(13)
Chapter in Review
597(3)
Key Terms
600(1)
Exercises
600(9)
Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry
609
Diagnosing Appendicitis
609(2)
The Discovery of Radioactivity
611(1)
Types of Radioactivity: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Decay
612(7)
Alpha (α) Radiation
613(2)
Beta (β) Radiation
615(2)
Gamma (γ) Radiation
617(1)
Positron Emission
617(2)
Detecting Radioactivity
619(1)
Natural Radioactivity and Half-Life
619(4)
A Natural Radioactive Decay Series
621(1)
Chemistry and Health Environmental Radon
622(1)
Radiocarbon Dating: Using Radioactivity to Measure the Age of Fossils and Other Artifacts
623(2)
Chemistry in the Media The Shroud of Turin
624(1)
The Discovery of Fission and the Atomic Bomb
625(2)
Nuclear Power: Using Fission to Generate Electricity
627(1)
Nuclear Fusion: The Power of the Sun
628(1)
The Effects of Radiation on Life
629(1)
Acute Radiation Damage
629(1)
Increased Cancer Risk
630(1)
Genetic Defects
630(1)
Measuring Radiation Exposure
630(1)
Radioactivity in Medicine
630
Isotope Scanning
631(1)
Radiotherapy
631(1)
Chapter in Review
632(3)
Key Terms
635(1)
Exercises
635
Appendix 1 Physical Constants, Conversion Factors, and Geometric Formulas 1(2)
Appendix 2 Solubility Rules for Ionic Compounds 3(1)
Appendix 3 Mathematics Review 4(6)
Appendix 4 Glossary 10(12)
Appendix 5 Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises 22
Photo Credits 1(1)
Index 1


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