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Surveying, 5th Edition

by
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780471237587

ISBN10:
0471237582
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
10/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Wiley
List Price: $153.33

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This is the 5th edition with a publication date of 10/1/2003.
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Summary

This book provides a comprehensive coverage of the essential skills necessary in surveying and civil engineering. It covers measurements, distance corrections, leveling, angles, area computation, computer calculations, topographic surveying, electronic distance measuring instruments, and construction surveying. * Includes photos and diagrams, lists of useful addresses and degree programs, surveying tables and formulas. * Updated to include more coverage of GPS and GIS.

Table of Contents

Introduction
1(15)
Surveying
1(1)
Geomatics
1(1)
Famous Surveyors
2(1)
Early History of Surveying
2(3)
Plane Surveys
5(1)
Geodetic Surveys
6(1)
Types of Surveys
6(2)
Modern Surveying Equipment
8(2)
Use of Old Surveying Equipment
10(1)
Maintenance of Equipment
10(1)
Importance of Surveying
10(1)
Safety
11(1)
Liability Insurance
12(1)
Opportunities In Surveying
13(2)
Problems
13(2)
Introduction to Measurements
15(20)
Measurement
15(1)
Necessity for Accurate Surveys
15(1)
Accuracy and Precision
16(1)
Errors and Mistakes
17(1)
Sources of Errors
18(1)
Systematic and Accidental or Random Errors
18(1)
Discussion of Accidental or Random Errors
19(1)
Occurrence of Accidental or Random Errors
19(2)
Probability Curve
21(2)
Propagation of Accidental or Random Errors
23(4)
Significant Figures
27(1)
Field Notes
28(2)
Electronically Recorded Notes
30(2)
Office Work and Digital Computers
32(1)
Planning
32(3)
Problems
32(3)
Distance Measurement
35(30)
Introduction
35(2)
Pacing
37(1)
Odometers and Measuring Wheels
38(1)
Tachymetry
39(3)
Taping or Chaining
42(1)
Electronic Distance Measurements
43(1)
Global Positioning System
44(1)
Summary of Measurement Methods
44(1)
Equipment Required for Taping
45(4)
Taping Over Level Ground
49(2)
Taping Along Sloping Ground or Over Underbrush
51(5)
Review of Some Trigonometry
56(9)
Problems
61(4)
Distance Corrections
65(20)
Introduction
65(1)
Types of Corrections
65(1)
Incorrect Tape Length or Standardization Error
66(3)
Temperature Variations
69(1)
Slope Corrections
70(3)
Sag and Tension Corrections
73(2)
Combined Taping Corrections
75(1)
Common Mistakes Made In Taping
76(1)
Errors In Taping
76(2)
Magnitude of Errors
78(1)
Suggestions for Good Taping
79(1)
Taping Precision
80(5)
Problems
80(5)
Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments (EDMs)
85(18)
Introduction
85(1)
Basic Terms
86(1)
Types of EDMs
87(2)
Timed-Pulse Instruments
89(1)
Setting up, Leveling, and Centering EDMs
90(2)
Necessary Steps for Measuring Distances With EDMs
92(1)
Errors In EDM Measurements
93(2)
Calibration of EDM Equipment
95(2)
Accuracies of EDMs
97(1)
Computation of Horizontal Distances From Slope Distances
98(1)
Training of Personnel
99(1)
Summary Comments On EDMs
100(3)
Problems
100(3)
Introduction to Leveling
103(20)
Importance of Leveling
103(1)
Basic Definitions
103(1)
Reference Elevations or Datums
104(1)
First-, Second-, and Third-Order Surveys
105(2)
Methods of Leveling
107(1)
The Level
108(1)
Types of Levels
109(6)
Level Rods
115(2)
Setting up the Level
117(1)
Sensitivity of Bubble Tubes
118(1)
Care of Equipment
119(4)
Problems
121(2)
Differential Leveling
123(22)
Theory of Spirit Leveling
123(1)
Definitions
124(1)
Differential Leveling Described
125(1)
Earth's Curvature and Atmospheric Refraction
126(2)
Verniers
128(2)
Level Rod Targets
130(1)
Common Leveling Mistakes
131(1)
Leveling Errors
132(3)
Suggestions for Good Leveling
135(1)
Comments On Telescope Readings
136(1)
Precision of Differential Leveling
136(1)
Hand Signals
137(8)
Problems
138(7)
Leveling, Continued
145(16)
Adjustments of Level Circuits
145(4)
Precise Leveling
149(3)
Profile Leveling
152(1)
Profiles
153(1)
Cross Sections
154(2)
Mistakes In Nonclosed Leveling Routes
156(5)
Problems
157(4)
Angles and Directions
161(20)
Meridians
161(1)
Units for Measuring Angles
162(1)
Azimuths
163(1)
Bearings
163(1)
The Compass
164(1)
Variations In Magnetic Declination
165(2)
Direction Arrow Convention
167(1)
Local Attraction
167(1)
Reading Bearings With a Compass
167(3)
Detecting Local Attraction
170(1)
Traverse Angle Definitions
170(1)
Traverse Computations
171(3)
Magnetic Declination Problems
174(7)
Problems
175(6)
Measuring Angle and Directions With Total Stations
181(18)
Transits and Theodolites (Obsolete)
181(1)
Introduction to Total Stations
182(1)
Types of Total Stations
183(3)
Disadvantages of Total Stations
186(1)
Parts of Total Stations
186(1)
Surveying With Total Stations
187(1)
Setting Up the Total Station
188(1)
Pointing the Instrument
189(1)
Measuring Horizontal Angles
190(1)
Closing the Horizon
191(1)
Measuring Angles By Repetition
191(3)
Direction Method for Measuring Horizontal Angles
194(1)
Measuring Zenith Angles
195(1)
Robotic Total Stations
196(1)
Use of Data Collectors With Total Stations
197(1)
Care of Instruments
197(2)
Problems
198(1)
Miscellaneous Angle Discussion
199(14)
Common Errors In Angle Measurement
199(2)
Common Mistakes In Measuring Angles
201(1)
Angle-Distance Relationships
201(1)
Traversing
202(1)
Older Methods of Traversing
203(1)
Modern Traversing With Total Stations
204(3)
Intersection of Two Lines
207(1)
Measuring An Angle Where The Instrument Cannot Be Set Up
208(1)
Prolonging a Straight Line By Double Centering
209(1)
Establishing Points On a Straight Line Between Two Given Points
210(1)
Cleaning Surveying Equipment
211(2)
Problems
211(2)
Traverse Adjustment and Area Computation
213(28)
Introduction
213(1)
Computations
213(1)
Methods of Calculating Areas
213(2)
Balancing Angles
215(1)
Latitudes and Departures
216(1)
Error of Closure
217(2)
Balancing Latitudes and Departures
219(2)
Double Meridian Distances
221(2)
Double Parallel Distances
223(1)
Rectangular Coordinates
223(3)
Areas Computed By Coordinates
226(1)
Alternative Coordinate Method
227(1)
Areas Within Irregular Boundaries
228(13)
Problems
234(7)
Computer Calculations and Omitted Measurements
241(16)
Computers
241(1)
Programs
241(1)
Application of the Computer Program SURVEY
242(1)
Computer Example
243(1)
A Potential Warning: Danger In Computer Use
244(1)
Omitted Measurements
245(1)
Length and Bearing Of One Side Missing
246(1)
Using Survey to Determine the Length and Bearing of a Missing Side
247(1)
Example Radiation Problem
248(3)
Computer Solution for Radiation Problem
251(1)
Resection
251(6)
Problems
252(5)
Topographic Surveying
257(20)
Introduction
257(1)
Contours
258(3)
Plotting of Topographic Maps
261(3)
Summary of Contour Characteristics
264(1)
Map Symbols
264(1)
Completing the Map
265(1)
Specifications for Topographic Maps
266(1)
Methods of Obtaining Topography
266(1)
Transit-Stadia Method of Mapping
267(4)
Plane Table Surveys
271(1)
Topographic Details Obtained With Total Stations
272(1)
Selection of Points for Topographic Mapping
273(1)
Profiles From Contour Maps
274(1)
Checklist of Items to Be Included On a Topographic Map
274(3)
Problems
275(2)
The Global Positioning System (GPS)
277(16)
Introduction
277(1)
Monitoring Stations
278(1)
Uses of GPS
279(2)
Basic Theory
281(2)
How Can the Travel Time of a Satellite Signal Be Measured?
283(2)
Clock Bias
285(1)
GPS Errors In Detail
286(1)
Minimizing Errors
287(1)
Point Positioning and Relative Positioning
288(1)
Receivers
289(1)
HARN
290(1)
CORS
290(1)
GPS Signals
291(1)
GPS On the World Wide Web
291(2)
Problems
291(2)
GPS Field Applications
293(12)
Geoid and Ellipsoid
293(1)
Field Applications
294(1)
Static GPS Surveys
295(1)
Kinematic Surveying
296(1)
Dilution of Precision (DOP)
296(2)
Planning
298(1)
Example Problem
299(3)
Differencing
302(3)
Problems
304(1)
Introduction to Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
305(14)
Definition of Geographic Information Systems
305(2)
Why GIS?
307(1)
Evolution of GIS
308(1)
Thematic Layering
309(2)
Levels of Use of a GIS
311(1)
Uses of Geographic Information Systems
311(1)
Objectives of a GIS
312(1)
Advantages of a GIS
312(2)
Land Information Systems (LIS)
314(1)
Accuracy in a GIS
315(1)
Control Surveying
316(1)
Legal Concerns With GIS
316(3)
Problems
317(2)
GIS, Continued
319(14)
Essential Elements of a GIS
319(1)
Data Acquisition
319(1)
Preprocessing
320(1)
Data Management
320(1)
Manipulation and Analysis
321(1)
Product Generation
322(1)
Putting Data Into the Computer
322(1)
Spatial Data Models
322(5)
Geographical Data
327(1)
Coordinates and Map Projections
328(1)
Conclusion to GIS Discussion
329(4)
Problems
331(2)
Construction Surveying
333(14)
Introduction
333(1)
Work of the Construction Surveyor
333(2)
Trade Unions
335(1)
Property Survey from the Contractor's Viewpoint
335(1)
Preliminary Surveys
336(1)
Grade Stakes
337(1)
Referencing Points for Construction
337(2)
Building Layout
339(1)
Base Lines (Layout Performed By Surveyors)
340(2)
Radial Staking Methods
342(1)
Batter Boards
342(2)
Building Layout: Contractor Method
344(1)
As-Built Surveys
345(2)
Problems
345(2)
Volumes
347(18)
Introduction
347(1)
Slopes and Slope Stakes
347(2)
Borrow Pits
349(2)
Cross Sections
351(1)
Areas of Cross Sections
352(2)
Computation of Earthwork Volumes
354(4)
Mass Diagram
358(1)
Volumes From Contour Maps
359(1)
Volume Formulas for Geometric Shapes
360(5)
Problems
361(4)
Land Surveying or Property Surveying
365(18)
Introduction
365(1)
Title Transfer and Land Records
365(1)
Common Law
366(1)
Monuments
367(1)
Blazing Trees
368(1)
The Land Surveyor: A Specialist
368(1)
Monuments, Bearings, Distances, and Areas
369(1)
Miscellaneous Terms Relating to Land Surveying
370(3)
Resurveys
373(1)
Metes and Bounds
374(2)
The U.S. Public Lands Survey System
376(1)
Early Days of the System
377(1)
Outline of the System
378(3)
Meander Lines
381(1)
Witness Corners
381(1)
Deed Descriptions of Land
381(2)
Problems
381(2)
Horizontal Curves
383(24)
Introduction
383(2)
Degree of Curvature and Radius of Curvature
385(1)
Curve Equations
386(2)
Deflection Angles
388(1)
Selection and Staking Out of Curves
389(2)
Computer Example
391(1)
Field Procedure for Staking Out Curves
392(3)
Circular Curves Using the SI System
395(1)
Horizontal Curves Passing Through Certain Points
396(2)
Spiral Curves
398(9)
Problems
404(3)
Vertical Curves
407(16)
Introduction
407(1)
Vertical Curve Calculations
408(3)
Miscellaneous Items Relating to Vertical Curves
411(1)
Unequal-Tangent Vertical Curves
412(3)
Vertical Curve Passing Through a Certain Point
415(1)
Parabolic Equation
416(1)
Computer Example
417(1)
Crowns
418(1)
Superelevation
418(5)
Problems
420(3)
Surveying---the Profession
423(6)
Surveying Licenses
423(1)
Registration Requirements
423(1)
Penalties for Practicing Surveying Without a License
424(1)
Reasons for Becoming Registered
425(1)
A Profession
425(1)
Code of Ethics
426(2)
To Be Classed as a Professional
428(1)
Conclusion
428(1)
Problems
428(1)
Appendix A Some Useful Addresses 429(2)
Appendix B Baccalaureate Degree Programs in Surveying 431(2)
Appendix C Some Useful Formulas 433(2)
Appendix D Transits and Theodolites 435(10)
Glossary 445(6)
Index 451


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