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What is included with this book?
Introduction | |
Surveying | |
Geomatics | |
Famous Surveyors | |
Early History of Surveying | |
Plane Surveys | |
Geodetic Surveys | |
Types of Surveys | |
Modern Surveying Equipment | |
Use of Old Surveying Equipment | |
Maintenance of Equipment | |
Importance of Surveying | |
Safety | |
Liability Insurance | |
Opportunities in Surveying | |
Introduction to Measurements | |
Measurement | |
Necessity for Accurate Surveys | |
Accuracy and Precision | |
Errors and Mistakes | |
Sources of Errors | |
Systematic and Accidental or Random Errors | |
Discussion of Accidental or Random Errors | |
Occurrence of Accidental or Random Errors | |
Probability Curve | |
Propagation of Accidental or Random Errors | |
Significant Figures | |
Field Notes | |
Electronically Recorded Notes | |
Office Work and Digital Computers | |
Planning | |
Distance Measurement | |
Introduction | |
Pacing | |
Odometers and Measuring Wheels | |
Tachymetry | |
Taping or Chaining | |
Electronic Distance Measurements | |
Global Positioning System | |
Summary of Measurement Methods | |
Equipment Required for Taping | |
Taping Over Level Ground | |
Taping Along Sloping Ground or Over Underbrush | |
Review of Some Trigonometry | |
Distance Corrections | |
Introduction | |
Types of Corrections | |
Incorrect Tape Length or Standardization Error | |
Temperature Variations | |
Slope Corrections | |
Sag and Tension Corrections | |
Combined Taping Corrections | |
Common Mistakes Made In Taping | |
Errors In Taping | |
Magnitude of Errors | |
Suggestions for Good Taping | |
Taping Precision | |
Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments (EDMs) | |
Introduction | |
Basic Terms | |
Types of EDMs | |
Phase Shift EDMs | |
Timed Pulse EDMs | |
Setting Up, Leveling, and Centering EDMs | |
Necessary Steps for Measuring Distances with EDMs | |
Errors in EDM Measurements | |
Calibration of EDM Equipment | |
Accuracies of EDMs | |
Computation of Horizontal Distances from Slope Distances | |
Training of Personnel | |
Summary of Comments on EDMs | |
Introduction to Leveling | |
Importance of Leveling | |
Basic Definitions | |
Reference Elevations or Datums | |
First-, Second-, and Third-Order Surveys | |
Methods of Leveling | |
The Level | |
Types of Levels | |
Level Rods | |
Setting up the Level | |
Sensitivity of Bubble Tubes | |
Care of Equipment | |
Differential Leveling | |
Theory of Spirit Leveling | |
Definitions | |
Differential Leveling Described | |
Earth's Curvature and Atmospheric Refraction | |
Verniers | |
Level Rod Targets | |
Common Leveling Mistakes | |
Leveling Errors | |
Suggestions for Good Leveling | |
Comments On Telescope Readings | |
Precision of Differential Leveling | |
Hand Signals | |
Leveling, Continued | |
Adjustments of Level Circuits | |
Precise Leveling | |
Profile Leveling | |
Profiles | |
Cross Sections | |
Nonclosed Leveling Routes | |
Angles and Directions | |
Meridians | |
Units for Measuring Angles | |
Azimuths | |
Bearings | |
The Compass | |
Variations In Magnetic Declination | |
Direction Arrow Convention | |
Local Attraction | |
Reading Bearings With a Compass | |
Detecting Local Attraction | |
Traverse Angle Definitions | |
Traverse Computations | |
Magnetic Declination Problems | |
Measuring Angle and Directions With Total Stations | |
Transits and Theodolites (Obsolete) | |
Introduction to Total Stations | |
Types of Total Stations | |
Disadvantages of Total Stations | |
Advantages of Total Stations | |
Parts of Total Stations | |
Surveying With Total Stations | |
Setting Up the Total Station | |
Sighting the Instrument | |
Measuring Horizontal Angles | |
Closing the Horizon | |
Measuring Angles By Repetition | |
Direction Method for Measuring Horizontal Angles | |
Measuring Zenith Angles | |
Use of Data Collectors With Total Stations | |
Care of Instruments | |
Miscellaneous Angle Discussion | |
Common Errors In Angle Measurement | |
Common Mistakes In Measuring Angles | |
Angle-Distance Relationships | |
Traversing | |
Older Methods of Traversing | |
Modern Traversing With Total Stations | |
Intersection of Two Lines | |
Measuring An Angle Where The Instrument Cannot Be Set Up | |
Prolonging a Straight Line By Double Centering | |
Establishing Points On a Straight Line Between Two Given Points | |
Cleaning Surveying Equipment | |
Traverse Adjustment and Area Computation | |
Introduction | |
Computations | |
Methods of Calculating Areas | |
Traverse Adjustment Overview | |
Balancing Angles | |
Latitudes and Departures | |
Error of Closure | |
Balancing Latitudes and Departures | |
Double Meridian Distances | |
Double Parallel Distances | |
Rectangular Coordinates | |
Areas Computed By Coordinates | |
Alternative Coordinate Method | |
Areas Within Irregular Boundaries | |
Computer Calculations and Omitted Measurements | |
Computers | |
Programs | |
Application of the Computer Program SURVEY | |
Computer Example | |
A Potential Warning: Danger In Computer Use | |
Omitted Measurements | |
Length and Bearing Of One Side Missing | |
Using Survey to Determine the Length and Bearing of a Missing Side | |
Example Radiation Problem | |
Computer Solution for Radiation Problem | |
Resection | |
Topographic Surveying | |
Introduction | |
Contours | |
Plotting of Topographic Maps | |
Summary of Contour Characteristics | |
Map Symbols | |
Completing the Map | |
Specifications for Topographic Maps | |
Methods of Obtaining Topography | |
Transit-Stadia Method of Mapping | |
Plane Table Surveys | |
Topographic Details Obtained With Total Stations | |
Selection of Points for Topographic Mapping | |
Profiles From Contour Maps | |
Checklist of Items to Be Included On a Topographic Map | |
The Global Positioning System (GPS) | |
Introduction | |
Monitoring Stations | |
Global Navigation Satellite System | |
Uses of GPS | |
Basic Theory | |
How Can the Travel Time of a Satellite Signal Be Measured? | |
Clock Bias | |
GPS Errors | |
Minimizing Errors Through Differential Correction | |
Receivers | |
HARN | |
CORS | |
OPUS | |
WAAS | |
GPS Signals | |
GPS Field Applications | |
Geoid and Ellipsoid | |
Field Applications | |
Static GPS Surveys | |
Kinematic GPS | |
Real-Time Kinematic Surveying | |
Virtual Reference Station | |
Dilution of Precision (DOP) | |
Planning | |
Example Problem | |
Network Adjustment | |
Carrier Phase GPS | |
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) | |
Introduction | |
What? A Definition of Geographic Information Systems | |
Who and Where? | |
Why GIS? | |
When? The Evolution of GIS | |
Thematic Layering | |
Levels of Use of a GIS | |
Uses of Geographic Information Systems | |
Objectives of a GIS | |
Applications of a GIS | |
GIS on the World Wide Web | |
Accuracy in a GIS | |
Control Surveying | |
Legal Concerns With GIS | |
GIS, Continued | |
Essential Elements of a GIS | |
Selected Data About Geographic Locations | |
GIS Software | |
GIS Hardware | |
Sources of GIS Data | |
Putting Data into the Computer | |
Preprocessing Existing Data | |
Data Management and Retrieval | |
Manipulation and Analysis | |
Product Generation | |
Coordinates and Map Projections | |
Raster GIS | |
Conclusion to GIS Discussion | |
Construction Surveying | |
Introduction | |
Work of the Construction Surveyor | |
Trade Unions | |
Property Survey from the Contractor's Viewpoint | |
Preliminary Surveys | |
Grade Stakes | |
Referencing Points for Construction | |
Building Layout | |
Base Lines (Layout Performed By Surveyors) | |
Radial Staking Methods | |
Batter Boards | |
Building Layout: Contractor Method | |
As-Built Surveys | |
Problems | |
Volumes | |
Introduction | |
Slopes and Slope Stakes | |
Borrow Pits | |
Cross Sections | |
Areas of Cross Sections | |
Computation of Earthwork Volumes | |
Mass Diagram | |
Accounting for Shrinkage and Swell | |
Volumes from Contour Maps | |
Volume Formulas for Geometric Shapes | |
Problems | |
Land Surveying or Property Surveying | |
Introduction | |
Title Transfer and Land Records | |
Common Lawntents 21-4 Monuments | |
Blazing Trees | |
The Land Surveyor: A Specialist | |
Monuments, Bearings, Distances, and Areas | |
Miscellaneous Terms Relating to Land Surveying | |
Resurveys | |
Metes and Bounds | |
The U.S. Public Lands Survey System | |
Early Days of the System | |
Outline of the System | |
Meander Lines | |
Witness Corners | |
Deed Descriptions of Land | |
Problems | |
Horizontal Curves | |
Introduction | |
Degree of Curvature and Radius of Curvature | |
Curve Equations | |
Deflection Angles | |
Selection and Staking Out of Curves | |
Computer Example | |
Field Procedure for Staking Out Curves | |
Circular Curves Using the SI System | |
Horizontal Curves Passing Through Certain Points | |
Spiral Curves | |
Problems | |
Vertical Curves | |
Introduction | |
Vertical Curve Calculations | |
Miscellaneous Items Relating to Vertical Curves | |
Unequal-Tangent Vertical Curves | |
Vertical Curve Passing Through a Specified Point | |
Parabolic Curve Equation | |
Computer Example | |
Roadway Crowns | |
Roadway Superelevation | |
Problems | p. xvi |
Surveying-the Profession | |
Surveying Licenses | |
Registration Requirements | |
Penalties for Practicing Surveying Without a License | |
Reasons for Becoming Registered | |
A Profession | |
Code of Ethics | |
To Be Classed as a Professional | |
Conclusion | |
Problems | |
Some Useful Addresses | |
Baccalaureate Degree Programs in Surveying | |
Some Useful Formulas | |
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