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Surveying : Principles and Applications,9780130227331
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Surveying : Principles and Applications

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780130227331

ISBN10:
0130227331
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

For freshman-junior level courses in surveying, including photogrammetry and hydrographic surveying. This text presents a clear discussion of surveying principles, and applications for mapping and engineering surveys. It has a good selection of problems that illuminate and reinforce concepts as well as provide up-to-date information on the latest technological innovations. Real-world emphasis is key to the continued success of this text and the success a student has in understanding surveying concepts. So real world is this text that graduates often arrive for their first day of work carrying it. Suitable for construction, civil technology, civil engineering programs, and general surveying programs.

Table of Contents

PART I SURVEYING PRINCIPLES 1(322)
Basics of Surveying
2(22)
Surveying Defined
2(1)
Types of Surveys
2(1)
Classes of Surveys
3(2)
Definitions
5(1)
Surveying Instrumentation
5(1)
Survey Geographic Reference
5(1)
Survey Grid Reference
6(2)
Survey Legal Reference
8(1)
Survey Vertical Reference
9(1)
Distance Measurement
9(2)
Units of Measurement
11(2)
Location Methods
13(1)
Accuracy and Precision
13(1)
Errors
14(1)
Mistakes
15(1)
Accuracy Ratio
15(1)
Stationing
16(1)
Field Notes
16(2)
Field Management
18(1)
Evolution of Surveying
19(5)
Tape Measurements
24(31)
Methods of Linear Measurement
24(1)
Types of Measurement
24(2)
Gunter's Chain
26(1)
Fiberglass Tapes
26(1)
Steel Tapes
27(3)
Standard Conditions for Use of Steel Tapes
30(1)
Taping Accessories
30(4)
Taping Methods
34(3)
Taping Corrections
37(1)
Slope Corrections
38(3)
Erroneous Tape Length Corrections
41(1)
Temperature Corrections
42(1)
Tension and Sag Corrections
43(4)
Random Errors Associated with Systematic Taping Errors
47(2)
Random Taping Errors
49(1)
Techniques for Ordinary Taping Precision
50(1)
Mistakes in Taping
51(4)
Problems
52(3)
Leveling
55(49)
Definitions
55(1)
Theory of Differential Leveling
55(2)
Curvature and Refraction
57(2)
Dumpy Level
59(3)
Tilting Level
62(3)
Automatic Level
65(2)
Precise Level
67(1)
Digital Level
67(2)
Leveling Rods
69(1)
Rod levels
69(3)
Leveling Operations Definitions
72(1)
Leveling Procedure
73(2)
Leveling Operations
75(3)
Signals
78(1)
Benchmark Leveling (Vertical Control Surveys)
78(1)
Profile and Cross-Section Leveling
79(5)
Reciprocal Leveling
84(1)
Peg Test
84(3)
Three-Wire Leveling
87(1)
Trigonometric Leveling
88(2)
Level Loop Adjustments
90(1)
Suggestions for Rod Work
91(1)
Suggestions for Instrument Work
92(1)
Mistakes in Leveling
92(12)
Problems
93(11)
Angles and Directions
104(23)
General
104(1)
Reference Directions for Vertical Angles
104(1)
Meridians
104(2)
Horizontal Angles
106(1)
Azimuths
107(1)
Bearings
107(2)
Relationship Between Bearings and Azimuths
109(1)
Reverse Directions
110(1)
Azimuth Computations
110(6)
Bearing Computations
116(1)
Comments on Bearings and Azimuths
117(3)
Magnetic Direction
120(7)
Problems
126(1)
Transits/Theodolites
127(35)
Introduction
127(2)
Repeating Optical Theodolites
129(2)
Theodolite Setup
131(2)
Angle Measurement with an Optical Theodolite
133(1)
Electronic Theodolites
133(5)
Direction Optical Theodolites
138(2)
Angles Measured with a Direction Theodolite
140(1)
Geometry of the Transit
141(1)
Adjustment of the Transit
142(4)
The Engineers' Transit
146(2)
Circles and Verniers
148(3)
Telescope
151(1)
Leveling Head
152(1)
Plate Levels
152(1)
Transit Setup
152(1)
Measuring Angles by Repetition (Vernier Transit)
153(2)
Laying Off Angles
155(2)
Prolonging a Straight Line
157(1)
Interlining (Balancing In)
157(1)
Intersection of Two Straight Lines
158(1)
Prolonging a Measured Line by Triangulation over an Obstacle
158(1)
Prolonging a Line Past an Obstacle
159(3)
Transverse Surveys
162(51)
General
162(1)
Open Traverse
162(1)
Closed Traverse
163(1)
Balancing Angles
164(2)
Latitudes and Departures
166(2)
Computation of Latitudes and Departures to Determine the Error of Closure and the Accuracy of a Traverse: Example 6.1
168(6)
Traverse Precision and Accuracy
174(2)
Traverse Adjustments
176(1)
Compass Rule Adjustment
176(3)
Effects of Traverse Adjustments on the Original Data
179(1)
Omitted Measurements
180(3)
Rectangular Coordinates of Traverse Stations
183(5)
Geometry of Rectangular Coordinates
188(2)
Illustrative Problems in Rectangular Coordinates
190(11)
Area of a Closed Traverse by the Coordinate Method
201(3)
Area of a Closed Traverse by the Double Meridian Distance Method
204(5)
Summary of Traverse Computations
209(4)
Problems
210(3)
Topographic Surveys Using Traditional (Pre-electronic) Techniques
213(27)
General
213(1)
Scales and Precision
214(2)
Location by Right-Angle Offsets
216(1)
Cross Sections and Profiles
217(3)
Stadia Principles
220(2)
Inclined Stadia Measurements
222(4)
Examples of Stadia Measurements
226(3)
Precision of Stadia Measurements
229(1)
Stadia Field Practice
230(2)
Establishing Control by Stadia Methods
232(3)
Self-Reducing Stadia Theodolite
235(1)
Summary of Stadia Field Procedure: Conventional Instrument
236(4)
Problems
237(3)
Electronic Surveying Measurement
240(55)
General
240(2)
Principles of EDM Measurement (EDM)
242(3)
EDM Characteristics
245(1)
Prisms
245(2)
EDM Accuracies
247(1)
EDM Operation
247(4)
Geometry of EDM Measurements
251(3)
EDM Without Reflecting Prisms
254(2)
Total Stations
256(10)
Field Procedures for Total Stations in Topographic Surveys
266(10)
Construction Layout Using Total Stations
276(4)
Motorized Total Stations
280(4)
Overview of Computerized Surveying Data Systems
284(6)
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
290(1)
The New Information Utility
291(4)
Problems
293(2)
Survey Drafting and Computations
295(28)
General
295(1)
Maps and Plans
295(2)
Plotting
297(2)
Contours
299(7)
Summary of Contour Characteristics
306(1)
Profiles
307(2)
Cross Sections, End Areas, and Volumes
309(4)
Prismoidal Formula
313(1)
Construction Volumes
313(2)
Area Computations
315(1)
Area by Graphical Analysis
316(7)
Problems
319(4)
PART II SURVEYING APPLICATIONS 323(338)
Highway Curves
324(63)
Route Surveys
324(1)
Circular Curves: General
324(1)
Circular Curve Geometry
325(6)
Circular Curve Deflections
331(2)
Chord Calculations
333(1)
Metric Considerations
334(1)
Field Procedure
334(1)
Moving Up on the Curve
335(2)
Offset Curves
337(7)
Compound Circular Curves
344(1)
Reverse Curves
345(2)
Vertical Curves: General
347(1)
Geometric Properties of the Parabola
348(1)
Computation of the High or Low Point on a Vertical Curve
349(1)
Procedure for Computing a Vertical Curve
350(3)
Design Considerations
353(2)
Spiral Curves: General
355(1)
Spiral Curve Computations
356(9)
Spiral Layout Procedure Summary
365(7)
Approximate Solution for Spiral Problems
372(2)
Superelevation: General
374(1)
Superelevation Design
374(13)
Problems
383(4)
Control Surveys
387(63)
General
387(6)
Universal Transverse Mercator Grid System
393(2)
Modified Transverse Mercator Grid System
395(3)
State Plane Coordinate Grid Systems
398(1)
Lambert Projection
398(2)
Computations for the Lambert Projection
400(1)
Computations for the Transverse Mercator Secant Projection
401(1)
Use of Grid Coordinates
402(9)
Examples
411(6)
Horizontal Control Techniques
417(4)
Project Control
421(8)
Control Survey Markers
429(3)
Direction of a Line by Observation on Polaris
432(5)
Time
437(3)
Polaris
440(1)
Procedure for Observing Polaris
440(5)
Computation Techniques for Azimuth Determination---Tabular Solution: Example 11.5
445(2)
Direction of a Line by Gyrotheodolite
447(3)
Problems
449(1)
Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
450(40)
Background
450(2)
Global Positioning
452(1)
Receivers
453(4)
Satellites
457(2)
Satellite Signals
459(1)
Position Measurements
460(7)
Errors
467(1)
Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS)
468(1)
Canadian Active Control System (ACS)
469(1)
Survey Planning
470(5)
GPS Field Procedures
475(5)
GPS Applications
480(2)
Vertical Positioning
482(5)
Conclusion
487(3)
Construction Surveys
490(56)
General
490(1)
Accuracy and Mistakes
490(1)
Construction Control
490(1)
Measurement for Interim and Final Payments
491(1)
Final Measurements for As-Built Drawings
491(1)
Municipal Roads Construction
492(14)
Highway Construction
506(9)
Sewer and Tunnel Construction
515(14)
Bridge Construction
529(11)
Building Construction
540(3)
Other Construction Surveys
543(3)
Problems
545(1)
Land Surveying
546(45)
General
546(3)
Public Land Surveys
549(20)
Property Conveyance
569(6)
Rural Land Surveys
575(9)
Urban Land Surveys
584(5)
Cadastral Surveying
589(2)
Problems
589(2)
Hydrographic Surveys
591(30)
General
591(1)
Objectives of Hydrographic Mapping and Electronic Charting
592(1)
Planning
592(1)
Survey Vessels
593(1)
Vertical Control: Depth and Tidal Measurements
593(4)
Position-Fixing Techniques
597(17)
Sounding Plan
614(2)
Horizontal Control
616(1)
Processing and Presentation of Data
617(4)
Problems
619(2)
Photogrammetry
621(40)
Introduction
621(1)
Camera Systems
621(6)
Photographic Scale
627(3)
Flying Heights and Altitude
630(1)
Relief (Radial) Displacement
631(1)
Flight Lines and Photograph Overlap
632(3)
Ground Control for Mapping
635(3)
Mosaics
638(2)
Stereoscopic Viewing and Parallax
640(6)
Photogrammetric Stereoscopic Plotting Techniques
646(7)
Orthophotos
653(3)
Photogrammetric Mapping: Advantages and Disadvantages
656(1)
Application of Air Photo Interpretation for the Engineer and the Surveyor
657(4)
Problems
660(1)
Appendix A: Random Errors and Survey Specifications 661(29)
A.1 Random Errors
661(2)
A.2 Probability Curve
663(1)
A.3 Most Probable Value
664(1)
A.4 Standard Error
665(1)
A.5 Measures of Precision
666(1)
A.6 Illustrative Problem
667(1)
A.7 Propagation of Errors
668(2)
A.8 Weighted Observations
670(3)
A.9 Principle of Least Squares
673(1)
A.10 Two-Dimensional Errors
673(5)
A.11 Specifications for Horizontal Control Surveys: Canada
678(3)
A.12 Specifications for Traditional Horizontal Control Surveys: United States
681(1)
A.13 Vertical Control
681(1)
A.14 Modern Control Specifications
681(1)
A.15 Minimum Standards and Specifications for Land Title Surveys
681(8)
A.16 Computation of Positional Uncertainty
689(1)
Appendix B: Trigonometric Definitions and Identities 690(4)
Appendix C: Glossary 694(7)
Appendix D: Answers to Selected Chapter Problems 701(6)
Appendix E: Surveying and Mapping Internet Websites 707(2)
Appendix F: Examples of Emerging Technology 709(2)
Index 711


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