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Surveying : Principles and Applications,9780130995827
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Surveying : Principles and Applications

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780130995827

ISBN10:
0130995827
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
PRENTICE HALL

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Summary

This practical text presents a clear discussion of surveying principles and applications for mapping and engineering surveys. It has been extensively revised from the fifth edition and is now divided into three parts: Part 1 covers the basics of surveying principles; Part 2 introduces students to the latest in imaging techniques; and Part 3 covers practical approaches for applications in the engineering, hydrographic, and land surveying fields. The strength of this text is its real-world application, reflecting the author's many years of academic field experience. Some of the key features include: bull; bull;Numerous illustrations and examples to clarify and reinforce chapter topics bull;Updated isogonic charts bull;A new chapter on Geographic Information Systems bull;On-line and interactive techniques for computing grid/geographic coordinates, illustrated using NGS Tools bull;Introduction to the latest imaging techniques using multi-spectral scanning and LIDAR mapping bull;Expanded appendices with new glossary entries and a surveying and mapping website index

Table of Contents

PART I SURVEYING PRINCIPLES 1(418)
Basics of Surveying
3(22)
Surveying Defined
3(1)
Types of Surveys
3(1)
Classes of Surveys
4(2)
Definitions
6(1)
Surveying Instrumentation
6(1)
Survey Geographic Reference
7(1)
Survey Grid Reference
8(1)
Survey Legal Reference
8(2)
Survey Vertical Reference
10(2)
Distance Measurement
12(1)
Units of Measurement
12(1)
Location Methods
13(2)
Accuracy and Precision
15(1)
Accuracy Ratio
16(1)
Errors
16(1)
Mistakes
17(1)
Stationing
17(1)
Field Notes
18(1)
Field Management
19(1)
Evolution of Surveying
20(5)
Distance Measurement (Taping)
25(30)
Methods of Distance Determination
25(1)
Distance Measurement: General Background
25(2)
Tacheometry
27(1)
Gunter's Chain
28(1)
Taping
28(3)
Taping Accessories
31(3)
Taping Techniques
34(3)
Standard Conditions for the Use of Steel Tapes
37(1)
Taping Corrections: General Background
38(1)
Systematic Slope Corrections
38(3)
Erroneous Tape Length Corrections
41(1)
Temperature Corrections
42(1)
Invar Steel Tapes
43(1)
Tension and Sag Corrections
43(4)
Random Errors Associated with Systematic Taping Errors
47(2)
Random Taping Errors
49(1)
Techniques for Ordinary Taping Precision
49(2)
Mistakes in Taping
51(4)
Problems
52(3)
Leveling
55(45)
General Background
55(4)
Theory of Differential Leveling
59(1)
Curvature and Refraction
60(2)
Types of Surveying Levels
62(5)
Leveling Rods
67(1)
Definitions for Differential Leveling
68(3)
Techniques of Leveling
71(3)
Benchmark Leveling (Vertical Control Surveys)
74(2)
Profile and Cross-Section Leveling
76(6)
Reciprocal Leveling
82(1)
Peg Test
82(3)
Three-Wire Leveling
85(2)
Trigonometric Leveling
87(2)
Level Loop Adjustments
89(1)
Suggestions for Rod Work
90(1)
Suggestions For Instrument Work
90(1)
Mistakes in Leveling
91(9)
Problems
92(8)
Angles and Directions
100(20)
General Background
100(1)
Reference Directions for Vertical Angles
100(1)
Meridians
100(2)
Horizontal Angles
102(1)
Azimuths
103(1)
Bearings
103(2)
Relationships Between Bearings and Azimuths
105(1)
Reverse Directions
106(1)
Azimuth Computations
107(4)
Bearing Computations
111(2)
Comments on Bearings and Azimuths
113(1)
Magnetic Direction
113(7)
Problems
119(1)
Theodolites
120(26)
General Background
120(2)
Electronic Theodolites
122(3)
Theodolite Setup
125(2)
Repeating Optical Theodolites
127(3)
Angle Measurement with an Optical Theodolite
130(1)
Direction Optical Theodolites
131(1)
Angles Measured with a Direction Theodolite
132(2)
Geometry of the Theodolite
134(1)
Adjustment of the Theodolite
134(5)
Laying Off Angles
139(1)
Prolonging a Straight Line
140(1)
Bucking-In (Interlining)
141(1)
Intersection of Two Straight Lines
141(1)
Prolonging a Measured Line by Triangulation over an Obstacle
142(1)
Prolonging a Line past an Obstacle
143(3)
Traverse Surveys
146(45)
General Background
146(1)
Open Traverse
146(1)
Closed Traverse
147(1)
Balancing Angles
148(2)
Latitudes and Departures
150(1)
Computation of Latitudes and Departures
151(7)
Traverse Precision and Accuracy
158(1)
Traverse Adjustments
159(1)
Compass Rule Adjustment
160(2)
Effects of Traverse Adjustments on the Original Data
162(1)
Omitted Measurements
163(4)
Rectangular Coordinates of Traverse Stations
167(8)
Summary of Traverse Computations
175(2)
Area of a Closed Traverse by the Coordinate Method
177(3)
Geometry of Rectangular Coordinates
180(2)
Illustrative Problems in Rectangular Coordinates
182(9)
Problems
188(3)
Electronic Surveying Measurement
191(52)
General Background
191(1)
Principles of Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM)
192(4)
EDM Instrument Characteristics
196(1)
Prisms
196(1)
EDM Instrument Accuracies
197(2)
EDM Instrument Operation
199(2)
Geometry of EDM
201(3)
EDM without Reflecting Prisms
204(1)
Total Stations
205(6)
Total Station Field Techniques
211(6)
Field Procedures for Total Stations in Topographic Surveys
217(8)
Field-Generated Graphics
225(3)
Construction Layout Using Total Stations
228(4)
Motorized Total Stations
232(6)
Overview of Computerized Surveying Data Systems
238(5)
Questions
241(1)
Problems
241(2)
Topographic Surveying and Mapping
243(38)
General Background
243(1)
Maps and Plans
244(2)
Scales and Precision
246(1)
Plan Plotting
247(5)
Contours
252(4)
Summary of Contour Characteristics
256(3)
Topographic Surveys
259(5)
Cross Sections and Profiles
264(3)
Cross Sections, End Areas, and Volumes
267(2)
Prismoidal Formula
269(3)
Construction Volumes
272(1)
Area Computations
273(2)
Area by Graphical Analysis
275(6)
Problems
278(3)
Geographic Information Systems
281(30)
General Background
281(1)
The Evolution from Mapping to GISs
281(6)
Components of a GIS
287(1)
Data Capture
288(1)
Sources for GIS Data
288(1)
Georeferencing
289(1)
Database Management
290(1)
Metadata
291(1)
Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS)
291(2)
Data Analysis
293(1)
Spatial Entities or Features
293(1)
Typical Data Representation
293(2)
Spatial Data Models
295(2)
GIS Data Structures
297(3)
Topology
300(3)
Data Analysis Summary
303(4)
GIS Glossary
307(1)
Internet Websites
308(1)
Publications
309(2)
Questions
310(1)
Control Surveys
311(64)
General Background
311(6)
Plane Coordinate Grids
317(6)
Lambert Projection
323(1)
Transverse Mercator Projection
324(2)
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Grid System
326(5)
Use of Grid Coordinates
331(7)
Illustrative Examples
338(7)
Horizontal Control Techniques
345(3)
Project Control
348(8)
Control Survey Markers
356(3)
Direction of a Line by Observation on Polaris
359(4)
Time
363(2)
Polaris
365(1)
Procedure for Observing Polaris
365(4)
Computation Technique for Azimuth Determination
369(3)
Direction of a Line by Gyro-Theodolite
372(3)
Questions
373(1)
Problems
373(2)
Global Positioning Systems (GPSs)
375(44)
General Background
375(2)
Global Positioning
377(1)
Receivers
378(1)
Satellites
378(2)
Satellite Signals
380(2)
Position Measurements
382(10)
Errors
392(1)
Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS)
393(2)
Canadian Active Control System (ACS)
395(1)
Survey Planning
395(6)
GPS Field Procedures
401(5)
GPS Applications
406(4)
Vertical Positioning
410(4)
Conclusion
414(1)
GPS Glossary
414(3)
Recommended Readings and Related Websites
417(2)
Questions
418(1)
PART II REMOTE SENSING 419(66)
Remote Sensing
421(64)
Satellite Imagery
421(1)
General Background
421(2)
Techniques of Remote Sensing
423(1)
Electromagnetic Spectrum
423(3)
Selection of Radiation Sensors
426(1)
An Introduction to Image Analysis
427(5)
Classification
432(2)
Feature Extraction
434(1)
Ground- Truth or Accuracy Assessment
434(2)
Remote-Sensing Satellites
436(1)
Imaging Radar Satellites
437(3)
Satellite Imagery Versus Airborne Imagery
440(4)
Airborne Imagery
444(1)
General Background
444(1)
Aerial Camera Systems
444(3)
Photographic Scale
447(2)
Flying Heights and Altitude
449(1)
Relief (Radial) Displacement
450(1)
Flight Lines and Photograph Overlap
451(3)
Ground Control for Mapping
454(3)
Mosaics
457(2)
Stereoscopic Viewing and Parallax
459(5)
Photogrammetric Stereoscopic Plotting Techniques
464(6)
Airborne Digital Imagery
470(1)
Orthophotos
471(3)
Lidar Mapping
474(3)
Aerial Surveying and Photogrammetric Mapping
477(2)
Aerial Photography Interpretation
479(1)
Applications of Air Photo Interpretation for the Engineer and the Surveyor
480(1)
Remote-Sensing Internet Websites
481(1)
Additional Reading
482(3)
Questions
482(1)
Problems
483(2)
PART III SURVEYING APPLICATIONS 485(188)
Highway Curves
487(61)
Route Surveys
487(1)
Circular Curves: General Background
487(1)
Circular Curve Geometry
488(6)
Circular Curve Deflections
494(2)
Chord Calculations
496(1)
Metric Considerations
497(1)
Field Procedure
497(1)
Moving up on the Curve
498(2)
Offset Curves
500(7)
Compound Circular Curves
507(1)
Reverse Curves
507(2)
Vertical Curves: General Background
509(2)
Geometric Properties of the Parabola
511(1)
Computation of the High or Low Point on a Vertical Curve
512(1)
Procedure for Computing a Vertical Curve
513(3)
Design Considerations
516(1)
Spiral Curves: General Background
517(1)
Spiral Curve Computations
518(9)
Spiral Layout Procedure Summary
527(6)
Approximate Solution for Spiral Problems
533(2)
Superelevation: General Background
535(1)
Superelevation Design
535(13)
Questions
545(1)
Problems
545(3)
Construction Surveys
548(49)
General Background
548(2)
Accuracy and Mistakes
550(1)
Construction Control
550(2)
Measurement for Interim and Final Payments
552(1)
Final Measurements for As-Built Drawings
552(1)
Municipal Roads Construction
552(14)
Highway Construction
566(10)
Sewer and Tunnel Construction
576(14)
Culvert Construction
590(1)
Building Construction
590(1)
Other Construction Surveys
591(3)
Construction Survey Specifications
594(3)
Questions
595(1)
Problems
595(2)
Land Surveying
597(45)
General Background
597(3)
Public Land Surveys (North America)
600(20)
Property Conveyance
620(6)
Rural Land Surveys
626(8)
Urban Land Surveys
634(6)
Cadastral Surveying
640(2)
Problems
640(2)
Hydrographic Surveys
642(31)
General Background
642(1)
Objectives of Hydrographic Mapping and Electronic Charting
643(1)
Planning
644(1)
Survey Vessels
644(1)
Vertical Control: Depth and Tidal Measurements
645(4)
Position-Fixing Techniques
649(16)
Sounding Plan
665(2)
Horizontal Control
667(2)
Processing and Presentation of Data
669(1)
Airborne Laser Bathymetry
669(4)
Problems
670(3)
Appendix A Random Errors 673(16)
Appendix B Trigonometric Definitions and Identities 689(4)
Appendix C Glossary 693(10)
Appendix D Answers to Selected Chapter Problems 703(6)
Appendix E Internet Websites 709(3)
Appendix F Examples of Current Geomatics Technology 712(1)
Appendix G Typical Field Projects 713(19)
Appendix H Four-Screw Surveying Instruments 732(13)
Index 745

Excerpts

This text has been extensively revised since the fifth edition. The text is now divided into three parts: Part I:Surveying Principlesincludes chapters on Basics of Surveying, Distance Measurement (Taping), Leveling, Angles and Directions, Theodolites, Traverse Surveys, Electronic Surveying Measurement, Topographic Surveying and Mapping, Geographic Information Systems, Control Surveys, and Global Positioning Systems (GPSs). Part II:Remote Sensing(Chapter 12) includes 29 sections on the topics of satellite imagery and airborne imagery. Part III:Surveying Applicationsincludes chapters on Highway Curves, Construction Surveys, Land Surveying, and Hydrographic Surveys. Part I continues the approach of covering the basics in clear, understandable language. Many illustrations and examples clarify and reinforce the chapter topics. Updated isogonic charts, epoch 2000, are included for North America and the entire globe. Geographic information systems (GISs) are now included as a separate chapter, and in Chapter 10, Control Surveys, on-line and interactive techniques for computing grid and geographic coordinates are illustrated using NGS tools ( www.ngs.noaa.gov/TOOLS/ ). Part II includes the topics of satellite imagery and airborne imagery. The sections on satellite imagery, cover techniques of remote sensing, multispectral scanning, image analysis, and ground-truthing, and brief descriptions of many of the internationally sponsored satellites presently used for earth-study purposes. The sections on airborne imagery cover the fundamentals of aerial surveying and photogrammetry and also introduce students to the latest in imaging techniques using lidar mapping techniques. Part III covers practical approaches for applications in the engineering, hydrographic, and land surveying fields. As with the earlier parts of the text, material here is presented in a clear and logical fashion, a style that reflects the many years of field experience accumulated by the authors. S. J. Glenn Bird (1933-1989), academic, land surveyor, photogrammetric engineer, and hydrographer, wrote for the first two editions sections covering land surveying, hydrographic surveying, and photogrammetry; his impact on the text is still evident. The appendixes have been expanded. New entries are included in the glossary and in the surveying and mapping website index. Four-screw instruments (dumpy level and engineer's transit) are covered in a separate appendix. Also new to this edition is an appendix describing field projects that accompany classroom work. These projects have been developed and refined over 25 years of college experience.


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