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Surveying : Principles and Applications,9780131188624
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Surveying : Principles and Applications

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780131188624

ISBN10:
0131188623
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2009
Publisher(s):
Pearson College Div

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Summary

For freshman-junior level Civil Engineering courses in surveying/geomatics, including photogrammetry and hydrographic surveying. This text presents a clear discussion of surveying principles, and applications for mapping and engineering surveys. It has a good selection of problems that illuminate and reinforce concepts, as well as providing up-to-date information on the latest technological innovations. Real-world emphasis is key to the continued success of this text and the success a student has in understanding surveying concepts. So real world is this text that graduates often arrive for their first day of work carrying it. Suitable for construction, civil technology, civil engineering programs, and general surveying programs. INSTRUCTOR RESOURCES: Instructor Manual with Powerpoint (Contains over 300 Slides)

Table of Contents

PART I SURVEYING PRINCIPLES
1(436)
Basics of Surveying
3(22)
Surveying Defined
3(1)
Types of Surveys
3(1)
Classes of Surveys
4(2)
Definitions
6(1)
Surveying Instrumentation
6(2)
Overview of a Modern Surveying Data System--The Science of Geomatics
8(6)
Survey Geographic Reference
14(2)
Survey Grid Reference
16(1)
Survey Legal Reference
16(1)
Survey Vertical Reference
16(1)
Distance Measurement
16(1)
Units of Measurement
17(1)
Location Methods
18(1)
Accuracy and Precision
19(1)
Accuracy Ratio
20(1)
Errors
20(1)
Mistakes
21(1)
Stationing
21(1)
Field Notes
22(1)
Field Management
23(2)
Questions
24(1)
Distance Measurement
25(44)
Methods of Distance Determination
25(1)
Distance Measuring Techniques
25(2)
Other Indirect Measuring Techniques
27(1)
Gunter's Chain
27(1)
Taping
28(2)
Taping Accessories
30(4)
Taping Techniques
34(3)
Standard Conditions for the Use of Steel Tapes
37(1)
Taping Corrections: General Background
37(1)
Systematic Slope Corrections
37(3)
Erroneous Tape Length Corrections
40(1)
Temperature Corrections
41(1)
Invar Steel Tapes
42(1)
Tension and Sag Corrections
42(4)
Random Errors Associated with Systematic Taping Errors
46(2)
Random Taping Errors
48(1)
Techniques for Ordinary Taping Precision
49(1)
Mistakes in Taping
50(1)
Electronic Distance Measurement
51(1)
Electronic Angle Measurement
51(2)
Principles of Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM)
53(3)
EDM Instrument Characteristics
56(1)
Prisms
56(1)
EDM Instrument Accuracies
57(2)
EDM Instrument Operation
59(2)
Geometry of EDM
61(3)
EDM Instruments Without Reflecting Prisms
64(5)
Questions
65(1)
Problems
66(3)
Leveling
69(44)
General Background
69(4)
Theory of Differential Leveling
73(1)
Curvature and Refraction
74(2)
Types of Surveying Levels
76(6)
Leveling Rods
82(2)
Definitions for Differential Leveling
84(1)
Techniques of Leveling
85(3)
Benchmark Leveling (Vertical Control Surveys)
88(4)
Profile and Cross-Section Leveling
92(4)
Reciprocal Leveling
96(2)
Peg Test
98(1)
Three-Wire Leveling
99(2)
Trigonometric Leveling
101(2)
Level Loop Adjustments
103(1)
Suggestions for Rod Work
104(1)
Suggestions for Instrument Work
104(1)
Mistakes in Leveling
105(8)
Problems
106(7)
Angles and Directions
113(20)
General Background
113(1)
Reference Directions for Vertical Angles
113(1)
Meridians
113(2)
Horizontal Angles
115(2)
Azimuths
117(1)
Bearings
117(1)
Relationships Between Bearings and Azimuths
118(1)
Reverse Directions
119(1)
Azimuth Computations
120(4)
Bearing Computations
124(2)
Comments on Bearings and Azimuths
126(1)
Magnetic Direction
126(7)
Problems
131(2)
Theodolites
133(27)
General Background
133(2)
Electronic Theodolites
135(3)
Theodolite Setup
138(2)
Repeating Optical Theodolites
140(3)
Angle Measurement with an Optical Theodolite
143(1)
Direction Optical Theodolites
144(1)
Angles Measured with a Direction Theodolite
145(2)
Geometry of the Theodolite and the Total Station
147(1)
Adjustment of the Theodolite and the Total Station
147(4)
Laying Off Angles
151(2)
Prolonging a Straight Line
153(1)
Bucking-In
154(1)
Intersection of Two Straight Lines
155(1)
Prolonging a Measured Line by Triangulation over an Obstacle
156(1)
Prolonging a Line past an Obstacle
156(4)
Questions
159(1)
Traverse Surveys and Computations
160(45)
General Background
160(1)
Open Traverse
160(2)
Closed Traverse
162(1)
Balancing Angles
163(1)
Latitudes and Departures
163(2)
Computation of Latitudes and Departures
165(7)
Traverse Precision and Accuracy
172(2)
Traverse Adjustments
174(1)
Compass Rule Adjustment
174(3)
Effects of Traverse Adjustments on the Original Data
177(1)
Omitted Measurements
177(4)
Rectangular Coordinates of Traverse Stations
181(9)
Summary of Traverse Computations
190(1)
Area of a Closed Traverse by the Coordinate Method
191(3)
Geometry of Rectangular Coordinates
194(1)
Illustrative Problems in Rectangular Coordinates
195(10)
Problems
202(3)
Total Stations
205(40)
General Background
205(1)
Characteristics of Total Stations
205(7)
Total Station Field Techniques
212(7)
Summary of Typical Total Station Characteristics
219(1)
Field Procedures for Total Stations in Topographic Surveys
220(7)
Field-Generated Graphics
227(4)
Construction Layout Using Total Stations
231(5)
Motorized Total Stations
236(5)
Summary of Modern Total Station Characteristics
241(1)
Handheld Total Stations
242(3)
Questions
244(1)
Topographic Surveying and Mapping
245(40)
General Background
245(1)
Maps and Plans
246(2)
Scales and Precision
248(1)
Plan Plotting
249(7)
Contours
256(5)
Summary of Contour Characteristics
261(2)
Topographic Surveys
263(4)
Cross Sections and Profiles
267(3)
Cross Sections, End Areas, and Volumes
270(5)
Prismoidal Formula
275(1)
Construction Volumes
275(2)
Area Computations
277(2)
Area by Graphical Analysis
279(6)
Problems
281(4)
Geographic Information Systems
285(34)
The Evolution from Mapping to Geographic Information Systems (GISs)
285(8)
Components of a GIS
293(1)
Sources for GIS Data
294(1)
Georeferencing
295(1)
Database Management
296(1)
Metadata
297(1)
Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS)
298(1)
Spatial Entities or Features
299(2)
Typical Data Representation
301(1)
Spatial Data Models
302(1)
GIS Data Structures
303(4)
Topology
307(3)
Data Analysis Summary
310(5)
GIS Glossary
315(1)
Internet Web Sites
316(1)
Publications
317(2)
Questions
318(1)
Control Surveys
319(68)
General Background
319(9)
Plane Coordinate Grids
328(6)
Lambert Projection
334(1)
Transverse Mercator Projection
335(1)
Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Grid System
336(8)
Use of Grid Coordinates
344(8)
Illustrative Examples
352(6)
Horizontal Control Techniques
358(3)
Project Control
361(8)
Control Survey Markers
369(3)
Direction of a Line by Observation on Polaris
372(4)
Time
376(2)
Polaris
378(1)
Procedure for Observing Polaris
378(4)
Computation Technique for Azimuth Determination--Tabular Solution
382(1)
Direction of a Line by Gyrotheodolite
383(4)
Questions
385(1)
Problems
386(1)
Global Positioning Systems
387(50)
Introduction
387(3)
Global Satellite Positioning
390(1)
Receivers
391(2)
Satellite Constellations
393(5)
GPS Satellite Signals
398(1)
Position Measurements
399(8)
Errors
407(1)
Continuously Operating Reference Station
408(2)
Canadian Active Control System (ACS)
410(1)
Survey Planning
410(6)
GPS Field Procedures
416(6)
GPS Applications
422(5)
Vertical Positioning
427(5)
Conclusion
432(1)
GPS Glossary
432(2)
Recommended Readings and Related Web Sites
434(3)
Questions
436(1)
PART II REMOTE SENSING
437(70)
Satellite Imagery
439(27)
General Background
439(1)
Techniques of Remote Sensing
440(1)
Electromagnetic Spectrum
441(3)
Selection of Radiation Sensors
444(1)
An Introduction to Image Analysis
445(6)
Classification
451(1)
Feature Extraction
452(1)
Ground-Truth or Accuracy Assessment
452(2)
U.S. National Land-Cover Data (NLCD)
454(2)
Remote-Sensing Satellites
456(2)
Imaging Radar Satellites
458(5)
Satellite Imagery Versus Airborne Imagery
463(1)
Remote-Sensing Internet Web Sites
464(1)
Further Reading
465(1)
Questions
465(1)
Airborne Imagery
466(41)
General Background
466(1)
Aerial Camera Systems
466(3)
Photographic Scale
469(2)
Flying Heights and Altitude
471(1)
Relief (Radial) Displacement
472(2)
Flight Lines and Photograph Overlap
474(2)
Ground Control for Mapping
476(4)
Mosaics
480(1)
Stereoscopic Viewing and Parallax
481(6)
Photogrammetric Stereoscopic Plotting Techniques
487(6)
Airborne Digital Imagery
493(2)
Orthophotos
495(3)
Lidar Mapping
498(2)
Aerial Surveying and Photogrammetric Mapping
500(2)
Aerial Photography Interpretation
502(1)
Applications of Air Photo Interpretation for the Engineer and the Surveyor
503(1)
Airborne Imaging Web Sites
504(1)
Further Reading
504(3)
Questions
504(1)
Problems
505(2)
PART III SURVEYING APPLICATIONS
507(194)
Highway Curves
509(61)
Route Surveys
509(1)
Circular Curves: General Background
509(1)
Circular Curve Geometry
510(6)
Circular Curve Deflections
516(2)
Chord Calculations
518(1)
Metric Considerations
519(1)
Field Procedure
519(1)
Moving up on the Curve
520(2)
Offset Curves
522(7)
Compound Circular Curves
529(1)
Reverse Curves
529(2)
Vertical Curves: General Background
531(2)
Geometric Properties of the Parabola
533(1)
Computation of the High or Low Point on a Vertical Curve
534(1)
Procedure for Computing a Vertical Curve
535(3)
Design Considerations
538(1)
Spiral Curves: General Background
539(1)
Spiral Curve Computations
540(9)
Spiral Layout Procedure Summary
549(6)
Approximate Solution for Spiral Problems
555(2)
Superelevation: General Background
557(1)
Superelevation Design
557(13)
Questions
567(1)
Problems
567(3)
Construction Surveys
570(55)
General Background
570(1)
Grade
571(1)
Machine Guidance and Control
571(7)
Accuracy and Mistakes
578(1)
Construction Control
578(1)
Measurement for Interim and Final Payments
579(1)
Final Measurements for As-Built Drawings
579(1)
Municipal Roads Construction
579(14)
Highway Construction
593(11)
Sewer and Tunnel Construction
604(14)
Culvert Construction
618(1)
Building Construction
619(3)
Other Construction Surveys
622(1)
Construction Survey Specifications
623(2)
Questions
623(1)
Problems
623(2)
Land Surveys
625(46)
General Background
625(3)
Public Land Surveys (North America)
628(20)
Property Conveyance
648(6)
Rural Land Surveys
654(8)
Electronic Research for Resurveys
662(1)
Urban Land Surveys
663(6)
Cadastral Surveying
669(1)
Land Surveying Web Sites
669(2)
Problems
669(2)
Hydrographic Surveys
671(30)
General Background
671(1)
Objectives of Hydrographic Mapping and Electronic Charting
672(1)
Planning
673(1)
Survey Vessels
673(1)
Vertical Control: Depth and Tidal Measurements
674(4)
Position-Fixing Techniques
678(16)
Sounding Plan
694(2)
Horizontal Shore Control
696(1)
Processing and Presentation of Data
696(1)
Airborne Laser Bathymetry
697(4)
Problems
698(3)
PART IV APPENDIXES
701(88)
Appendix A Random Errors
703(16)
Appendix B Trigonometric Definitions and Identities
719(4)
Appendix C Glossary
723(10)
Appendix D Answers to Selected Chapter Problems
733(7)
Appendix E Internet Web Sites
740(3)
Appendix F Examples of Current Geomatics Technology
743(1)
Appendix G Typical Field Projects
744(19)
Appendix H Early Surveying
763(26)
Index 789


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