9780071508582

Switch-Mode Power Supplies : Spice Simulations and Practical Designs

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  • ISBN13:

    9780071508582

  • ISBN10:

    0071508589

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Package
  • Copyright: 2/4/2008
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional
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Summary

Learn about the latest SPICe solutions This is a collection of SPICE solutions to the most difficult problem facing power supply designers: creating smaller and more heat-efficient power supplies in shorter design cycles. This invaluable resource provides practical models and easily customizable solutions.

Author Biography

Chrisophe Basso is a technical engineer at ONSemdiconductor (formerly Motorola Semiconductor) and a frequentcontributor to EDN Magazine.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. xiii
Prefacep. xv
Nomenclaturep. xvii
Introduction to Power Conversionp. 1
"Do You Really Need to Simulate?"p. 1
What You Will Find in the Following Pagesp. 2
What You Will Not Find in This Bookp. 3
Converting Power with Resistorsp. 3
Associating Resistorsp. 3
A Closed-Loop Systemp. 5
Deriving Useful Equations with the Linear Regulatorp. 7
A Practical Working Examplep. 10
Building a Simple Generic Linear Regulatorp. 14
Conclusion on Linear Regulatorsp. 17
Converting Power with Switchesp. 18
A Filter Is Neededp. 19
Current in the Inductance, Continuous or Discontinuous?p. 21
Charge and Flux Balancep. 25
Energy Storagep. 27
The Duty Cycle Factoryp. 27
Voltage-Mode Operationp. 27
Current-Mode Operationp. 29
The Buck Converterp. 30
On-Time Eventp. 30
Off-Time Eventp. 31
Buck Waveforms-CCMp. 31
Buck Waveforms-DCMp. 34
Buck Transition Point DCM-CCMp. 37
Buck CCM Output Ripple Voltage Calculationp. 39
Now with the ESRp. 41
Buck Ripple, the Numerical Applicationp. 41
The Boost Converterp. 42
On-Time Eventp. 43
Off-Time Eventp. 44
Boost Waveforms-CCMp. 44
Boost Waveforms-DCMp. 47
Boost Transition Point DCM-CCMp. 50
Boost CCM Output Ripple Voltage Calculationsp. 51
Now with the ESRp. 54
Boost Ripple, the Numerical Applicationp. 54
The Buck-Boost Converterp. 55
On-Time Eventp. 56
Off-Time Eventp. 56
Buck-Boost Waveforms-CCMp. 57
Buck-Boost Waveforms-DCMp. 59
Buck-Boost Transition Point DCM-CCMp. 63
Buck-Boost CCM Output Ripple Voltage Calculationp. 64
Now with the ESRp. 65
Buck-Boost Ripple, the Numerical Applicationp. 65
Input Filteringp. 66
The RLC Filterp. 67
A More Comprehensive Representationp. 70
Creating a Simple Closed-Loop Current Source with SPICEp. 71
Understanding Overlapping Impedancesp. 72
Damping the Filterp. 76
Calculating the Required Attenuationp. 79
Fundamental Frequency Evaluationp. 80
Selecting the Right Cutoff Frequencyp. 82
What I Should Retain from Chap. 1p. 85
Referencesp. 85
A RLC Transfer Functionp. 86
The Capacitor Equivalent Modelp. 89
Power Supply Classification by Topologiesp. 93
Small-Signal Modelingp. 95
State-Space Averagingp. 98
SSA at Work for the Buck Converter-First Stepp. 100
The DC Transformerp. 102
Large-Signal Simulationsp. 105
SSA at Work for the Buck Converter, the Linearization-Second Stepp. 106
SSA at Work for the Buck Converter, the Small-Signal Model-Final Stepp. 108
The PWM Switch Model-the Voltage-Mode Casep. 111
Back to the Good Old Bipolarsp. 112
An Invariant Internal Architecturep. 113
Waveform Averagingp. 114
Terminal Currentsp. 116
Terminal Voltagesp. 117
A Transformer Representationp. 117
Large-Signal Simulationsp. 118
A More Complex Representationp. 121
A Small-Signal Modelp. 123
Helping with Simulationp. 128
Discontinuous Mode Modelp. 129
Deriving the d[subscript 2] Variablep. 132
Clamping Sourcesp. 132
Encapsulating the Modelp. 134
The PWM Modulator Gainp. 138
Testing the Modelp. 142
Mode Transitionp. 143
The PWM Switch Model-the Current-Mode Casep. 145
Current-Mode Instabilitiesp. 146
Preventing Instabilitiesp. 151
The Current-Mode Model in CCMp. 153
Upgrading the Modelp. 158
The Current-Mode Model in DCMp. 161
Deriving the Duty Cycles d[subscript 1] and d[subscript 2]p. 163
Building the DCM Modelp. 165
Testing the Modelp. 168
Buck DCM, Instability in DCp. 172
Checking the Model in CCMp. 172
The PWM Switch Model-Parasitic Elements Effectsp. 175
A Variable Resistorp. 179
Ohmic Losses, Voltage Drops: The VM Casep. 180
Ohmic Losses, Voltage Drops: The CM Casep. 182
Testing the Lossy Model in Current Modep. 183
Convergence Issues with the CM Modelp. 186
PWM Switch Model in Borderline Conductionp. 187
Borderline Conduction-the Voltage-Mode Casep. 187
Testing the Voltage-Mode BCM Modelp. 191
Borderline Conduction-the Current-Mode Casep. 194
Testing the Current-Mode BCM Modelp. 198
The PWM Switch Model-a Collection of Circuitsp. 202
The Buckp. 203
The Tapped Buckp. 204
The Forwardp. 205
The Buck-Boostp. 206
The Flybackp. 207
The Boostp. 208
The Tapped Boostp. 208
The Nonisolated SEPICp. 209
The Isolated SEPICp. 210
The Nonisolated Cuk Converterp. 211
The Isolated Cuk Converterp. 212
Other Averaged Modelsp. 213
Ridley Modelsp. 213
Small-Signal Current-Mode Modelsp. 213
Ridley Models at Workp. 214
CoPEC Modelsp. 216
CoPEC Models at Workp. 218
Ben-Yaakov Modelsp. 220
What I Should Retain from Chap. 2p. 224
Referencesp. 224
Basic Transfer Functions for Convertersp. 225
Buckp. 226
Boostp. 229
Buck-Boostp. 231
Referencesp. 235
Poles, Zeros, and Complex Plane-a Simple Introductionp. 235
Referencesp. 240
Feedback and Control Loopsp. 241
Observation Pointsp. 243
Stability Criteriap. 247
Phase Margin and Transient Responsep. 248
Choosing the Crossover Frequencyp. 249
Shaping the Compensation Loopp. 250
The Passive Polep. 250
The Passive Zerop. 251
Right Half-Plane Zerop. 253
Type 1 Amplifier-Active Integratorp. 255
Type 2 Amplifier-Zero-Pole Pairp. 256
Type 2a-Origin Pole Plus a Zerop. 258
Type 2b-Proportional Plus a Polep. 259
Type 3-Origin Pole Plus Two Coincident Zero-Pole Pairsp. 261
Selecting the Right Amplifier Typep. 262
An Easy Stabilization Tool-the k Factorp. 263
Type 1 Derivationp. 264
Type 2 Derivationp. 264
Type 3 Derivationp. 266
Stabilizing a Voltage-Mode Buck Converter with the k Factorp. 267
Conditional Stabilityp. 270
Independent Pole-Zero Placementp. 272
Crossing Over Right at the Selected Frequencyp. 273
The k Factor Versus Manual Pole-Zero Placementp. 275
Stabilizing a Current-Mode Buck Converter with the k Factorp. 280
The Current-Mode Model and Transient Stepsp. 286
Feedback with the TL431p. 286
A Type 2 Amplifier Design Example with the TL431p. 291
A Type 3 Amplifier with the TL431p. 292
Biasing the TL431p. 298
The Resistive Dividerp. 303
The Optocouplerp. 304
A Simplified Modelp. 305
Extracting the Polep. 306
Accounting for the Polep. 308
Shunt Regulatorsp. 312
SPICE Model of the Shunt Regulatorp. 313
Quickly Stabilizing a Converter Using the Shunt Regulatorp. 314
Small-Signal Responses with PSIM and SIMPLISp. 316
What I Should Retain from Chap. 3p. 322
Referencesp. 322
Automated Pole-Zero Placementp. 323
A TL431 Spice Modelp. 326
A Behavioral TL431 Spice Modelp. 326
Cathode Current Versus Cathode Voltagep. 328
Output Impedancep. 329
Open-Loop Gainp. 330
Transient Testp. 331
Model Netlistp. 331
Type 2 Manual Pole-Zero Placementp. 332
Understanding the Virtual Ground in Closed-Loop Systemsp. 335
Numerical Examplep. 336
Loop Gain Is Unchangedp. 337
Basic Blocks and Generic Switched Modelsp. 341
Generic Models for Faster Simulationsp. 341
In-Line Equationsp. 341
Operational Amplifiersp. 343
A More Realistic Modelp. 344
A UC384X Error Amplifierp. 345
Sources with a Given Fan-Outp. 348
Voltage-Adjustable Passive Elementsp. 349
The Resistorp. 350
The Capacitorp. 351
The Inductorp. 353
A Hysteresis Switchp. 355
An Undervoltage Lockout Blockp. 358
Leading Edge Blankingp. 359
Comparator with Hysteresisp. 361
Logic Gatesp. 362
Transformersp. 364
A Simple Saturable Core Modelp. 366
Multioutput Transformersp. 372
Astable Generatorp. 372
A Voltage-Controlled Oscillatorp. 374
A Voltage-Controlled Oscillator Featuring Dead Time Controlp. 377
Generic Controllersp. 377
Current-Mode Controllersp. 378
Current-Mode Model with a Buckp. 380
Current-Mode Instabilitiesp. 381
The Voltage-Mode Modelp. 382
The Duty Cycle Generationp. 382
A Quick Example with a Forward Converterp. 384
Dead Time Generationp. 387
List of Generic Modelsp. 387
Convergence Optionsp. 388
What I Should Retain from Chap. 4p. 391
Referencesp. 392
An Incomplete Review of the Terminology Used in Magnetic Designsp. 392
Introductionp. 392
Field Definitionp. 393
Permeabilityp. 393
Founding Lawsp. 396
Inductancep. 396
Avoiding Saturationp. 397
Referencesp. 398
Feeding Transformer Models with Physical Valuesp. 398
Understanding the Equivalent Inductor Modelp. 398
Determining the Physical Values of the Two-Winding T Modelp. 400
The Three-Winding T Modelp. 401
Referencesp. 405
Simulations and Practical Designs of Nonisolated Convertersp. 407
The Buck Converterp. 407
A 12 V, 4 A Voltage-Mode Buck from a 28 V Sourcep. 407
Ac Analysisp. 410
Transient Analysisp. 413
The Power Switchp. 417
The Diodep. 418
Output Ripple and Transient Responsep. 419
Input Ripplep. 421
A 5 V, 10 A Current-Mode Buck from a Car Batteryp. 425
Ac Analysisp. 426
Transient Analysisp. 429
A Synchronous Buck Converterp. 433
A Low-Cost Floating Buck Converterp. 434
Component Constraints for the Buck Converterp. 439
The Boost Converterp. 441
A Voltage-Mode 48 V, 2 A Boost from a Car Batteryp. 441
Ac Analysisp. 444
Transient Analysisp. 449
A Current-Mode 5 V, 1 A Boost from a Li-Ion Batteryp. 452
Ac Analysisp. 454
Transient Analysisp. 459
Input Filterp. 460
Component Constraints for the Boost Converterp. 465
The Buck-Boost Converterp. 465
A Voltage-Mode 12 V, 2 A Buck-Boost Converter Powered from a Car Batteryp. 465
Ac Analysisp. 468
Transient Analysisp. 474
A Discontinuous Current-Mode 12 V, 2 A Buck-Boost Converter Operating from a Car Batteryp. 476
Ac Analysisp. 479
Transient Analysisp. 483
Component Constraints for the Buck-Boost Converterp. 486
Referencesp. 486
The Boost in Discontinuous Mode, Design Equationsp. 487
Input Currentp. 487
Output Ripple Voltagep. 489
Simulations and Practical Designs of Off-Line Converters-The Front Endp. 491
The Rectifier Bridgep. 491
Capacitor Selectionp. 493
Diode Conduction Timep. 495
Rms Current in the Capacitorp. 496
Current in the Diodesp. 498
Input Power Factorp. 498
A 100 W Rectifier Operated on Universal Mainsp. 499
Hold-Up Timep. 501
Waveforms and Line Impedancep. 502
In-Rush Currentp. 506
Voltage Doublerp. 508
Power Factor Correctionp. 510
Definition of Power Factorp. 512
Nonsinusoidal Signalsp. 512
A Link to the Distortionp. 514
Why Power Factor Correction?p. 515
Harmonic Limitsp. 517
A Need for Storagep. 518
Passive PFCp. 520
Improving the Harmonic Contentp. 524
The Valley-Fill Passive Correctorp. 526
Active Power Factor Correctionp. 527
Different Techniquesp. 528
Constant On-Time Borderline Operationp. 529
Frequency Variations in BCMp. 531
Averaged Modeling of the BCM Boostp. 532
Fixed-Frequency Average Current-Mode Controlp. 535
Shaping the Currentp. 540
Fixed-Frequency Peak Current-Mode Controlp. 543
Compensating the Peak Current-Mode Control PFCp. 544
Average Modeling of the Peak Current-Mode PFCp. 546
Hysteretic Power Factor Correctionp. 549
Fixed-Frequency DCM Boostp. 550
Flyback Converterp. 555
Testing the Flyback PFCp. 559
Designing a BCM Boost PFCp. 559
Average Simulationsp. 567
Reducing the Simulation Timep. 570
Cycle-by-Cycle Simulationp. 571
The Follow-Boost Techniquep. 574
What I Should Retain from Chap. 6p. 575
Referencesp. 576
Simulations and Practical Designs of Flyback Convertersp. 579
An Isolated Buck-Boostp. 579
Flyback Waveforms, No Parasitic Elementsp. 583
Flyback Waveforms with Parasitic Elementsp. 586
Observing the Drain Signal, No Clamping Actionp. 588
Clamping the Drain Excursionp. 591
DCM, Looking for Valleysp. 597
Designing the Clamping Networkp. 599
The RCD Configurationp. 601
Selecting k[subscript c]p. 604
Curing the Leakage Ringingp. 605
Which Diode to Select?p. 609
Beware of Voltage Variationsp. 610
TVS Clampp. 612
Two-Switch Flybackp. 614
Active Clampp. 616
Design Examplep. 622
Simulation Circuitp. 625
Small-Signal Response of the Flyback Topologyp. 628
DCM Voltage Modep. 628
CCM Voltage Modep. 635
DCM Current Modep. 636
CCM Current Modep. 638
Practical Considerations about the Flybackp. 642
Start-Up of the Controllerp. 642
Start-Up Resistor Design Examplep. 644
Half-Wave Connectionp. 646
Good Riddance, Start-up Resistor!p. 648
High-Voltage Current Sourcep. 649
The Auxiliary Windingp. 651
Short-Circuit Protectionp. 653
Observing the Feedback Pinp. 654
Compensating the Propagation Delayp. 655
Sensing the Secondary Side Currentp. 660
Improving the Drive Capabilityp. 662
Overvoltage Protectionp. 663
Standby Power of Convertersp. 665
What Is Standby Power?p. 666
The Origins of Lossesp. 666
Skipping Unwanted Cyclesp. 667
Skipping Cycles with a UC384Xp. 669
Frequency Foldbackp. 670
A 20 W, Single-Output Power Supplyp. 670
A 90 W, Single-Output Power Supplyp. 687
A 35 W, Multioutput Power Supplyp. 706
Component Constraints for the Flyback Converterp. 725
What I Should Retain from Chap. 7p. 726
Referencesp. 727
Reading the Waveforms to Extract the Transformer Parametersp. 727
The Stressp. 729
Voltagep. 730
Currentp. 731
Transformer Design for the 90 W Adapterp. 732
Core Selectionp. 732
Determining the Primary and Secondary Turnsp. 733
Choosing the Primary and Secondary Wire Sizesp. 734
Choosing the Material, Based on the Desired Inductance, or Gapping the Core If Necessaryp. 735
Designs Using Intusoft Magnetic Designerp. 735
Simulations and Practical Designs of Forward Convertersp. 739
An Isolated Buck Converterp. 739
Need for a Complete Core Resetp. 742
Reset Solution 1, a Third Windingp. 746
Leakage Inductance and Overlapp. 752
Reset Solution 2, a Two-Switch Configurationp. 756
Two-Switch Forward and Half-Bridge Driverp. 760
Reset Solution 3, the Resonant Demagnetizationp. 762
Reset Solution 4, the RCD Clampp. 767
Reset Solution 5, the Active Clampp. 778
Synchronous Rectificationp. 796
Multioutput Forward Convertersp. 799
Magnetic Amplifiersp. 799
Synchronous Postregulationp. 804
Coupled Inductorsp. 806
Small-Signal Response of the Forward Converterp. 817
Voltage Modep. 817
Current Modep. 821
Multioutput Forwardp. 825
A Single-Output 12 V, 250 W Forward Design Examplep. 828
MOSFET Selectionp. 833
Installing a Snubberp. 835
Diode Selectionp. 838
Small-Signal Analysisp. 839
Transient Resultsp. 841
Short-Circuit Protectionp. 846
Component Constraints for the Forward Converterp. 849
What I Should Retain from Chap. 8p. 849
Referencesp. 850
Half-Bridge Drivers Using the Bootstrap Techniquep. 851
Impedance Reflectionsp. 855
Transformer and Inductor Designs for the 250 W Adapterp. 859
Transformer Variablesp. 859
Transformer Core Selectionp. 859
Determining the Primary and Secondary Turnsp. 860
Choosing the Primary and Secondary Wire Sizesp. 861
Gapping the Corep. 861
Designs Using Intusoft Magnetic Designerp. 862
Inductor Designp. 865
Core Selectionp. 866
Choosing the Wire Size and Checking the DC Resistive Lossp. 867
Checking the Core Lossp. 867
Estimating the Temperature Risep. 867
CD-ROM Contentp. 868
Conclusionp. 869
Indexp. 871
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