9780071490238

Synthetic Fuels Handbook Properties, Process, and Performance

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780071490238

  • ISBN10:

    007149023X

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2008-06-30
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education
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Supplemental Materials

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Summary

With costly oil prices, here is a timely guide on synthetic fuels Synthetic Fuels Handbookeducates you in the different properties, processes, and performance characteristics of synthetic energy sources. This comprehensive guide provides a thorough description and discussion of the concepts, systems, and technology involved in the production of these fuels on both an industrial and individual scale.

Author Biography

James G. Speight, Ph.D., D.Sc., Senior Fuels Consultant is a process chemist with more than 35 years of experience in theproperties and refining of petroleum, natural gas, heavy oil, bitumen,coal, and oil shale. He is the founding editor of Petroleum Science andTechnology and Energy Sources, Part B.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Fuel Sourcesp. 1
Conventional Fuel Sourcesp. 4
Nonconventional Fuel Sourcesp. 5
Tar Sand Bitumenp. 6
Coalp. 8
Oil Shalep. 10
Natural Gasp. 14
Gas Hydratesp. 16
Biomassp. 16
Bioalcoholp. 18
Synthetic Fuelsp. 19
Production of Synthetic Fuelsp. 22
Thermal Decompositionp. 22
Gasificationp. 23
The Fischer-Tropsch Processp. 24
Bioprocessesp. 25
Natural Gasp. 27
Historyp. 27
Formation and Occurrencep. 28
Conventional Gasp. 31
Associated Gasp. 31
Nonassociated Gasp. 32
Liquefied Natural Gasp. 32
Unconventional Gasp. 33
Coalbed Methanep. 33
Gas Hydratesp. 34
Shale Gasp. 35
Compositionp. 35
Propertiesp. 37
Densityp. 37
Heat of Combustion (Energy Content)p. 40
Volatility, Flammability, and Explosive Propertiesp. 40
Environmental Propertiesp. 43
Gas Processingp. 44
Olamine Processesp. 45
Physical Solvent Processesp. 47
Metal Oxide Processesp. 49
Methanol-Based Processesp. 51
Carbonate-Washing and Water-Washing Processesp. 52
Sulfur Recovery Processesp. 55
Hydrogenation and Hydrolysis Processesp. 57
Usesp. 57
Fuels from Petroleum and Heavy Oilp. 63
Historyp. 63
Petroleum Recoveryp. 66
Petroleum Refiningp. 67
Dewatering and Desaltingp. 67
Distillationp. 68
Thermal Processesp. 70
Catalytic Processesp. 74
Hydroprocessesp. 77
Reforming Processesp. 80
Isomerization Processesp. 82
Alkylation Processesp. 83
Polymerization Processesp. 84
Deasphaltingp. 85
Dewaxingp. 86
Heavy Oil Refiningp. 88
Petroleum Products and Fuelsp. 90
Gaseous Fuelsp. 90
Liquid Fuelsp. 92
Solid Fuelsp. 100
Fuels from Tar Sand Bitumenp. 103
Occurrence and Reservesp. 104
Canadap. 105
United Statesp. 105
Venezuelap. 107
Other Countriesp. 107
Structure and Properties of Tar Sandp. 108
Mineralogyp. 109
Propertiesp. 109
Chemical and Physical Properties of Tar Sand Bitumenp. 110
Compositionp. 112
Propertiesp. 114
Mining Technologyp. 115
Bitumen Recoveryp. 116
The Hot Water Processp. 116
In Situ Processesp. 117
Upgrading, Refining, and Fuel Productionp. 120
Primary Conversionp. 122
Secondary Upgradingp. 124
Other Processesp. 124
Hydrogen Productionp. 125
Synthetic Crude Oilp. 125
The Futurep. 126
Fuels from Coalp. 131
Occurrence and Reservesp. 131
Formation and Typesp. 134
Coal Formationp. 134
Coal Typesp. 135
Mining and Preparationp. 137
Surface Miningp. 138
Underground Miningp. 139
Mine Safety and Environment Effectsp. 139
Coal Preparationp. 141
Usesp. 141
Gaseous Fuelsp. 145
Gasifiersp. 146
Gaseous Productsp. 148
Physicochemical Aspectsp. 150
Gasification Processesp. 153
Underground Gasificationp. 156
The Futurep. 157
Liquid Fuelsp. 157
Physicochemical Aspectsp. 158
Liquefaction Processesp. 159
Productsp. 161
The Futurep. 162
Solid Fuelsp. 163
Cokep. 163
Charcoalp. 164
Environmental Aspects of Coal Utilizationp. 164
Clean Coal Technologiesp. 165
Fuels from Oil Shalep. 169
Originp. 172
Historyp. 173
Occurrence and Developmentp. 174
Australiap. 175
Brazilp. 176
Canadap. 176
Chinap. 177
Estoniap. 177
Germanyp. 178
Israelp. 178
Jordanp. 178
Moroccop. 179
Russian Federationp. 179
Thailandp. 179
United Statesp. 179
Liquid Fuelsp. 181
Thermal Decomposition of Oil Shalep. 181
Mining and Retortingp. 182
In Situ Technologiesp. 184
Refining Shale Oilp. 186
The Futurep. 192
Fuels from Synthesis Gasp. 197
Gasification of Coalp. 198
Chemistryp. 199
Processesp. 201
Gasifiersp. 202
Gasification of Petroleum Fractionsp. 203
Chemistryp. 204
Processesp. 206
Steam-methane Reformingp. 209
Gasification of Other Feedstocksp. 212
Fischer-Tropschp. 213
Fuels from Biomassp. 221
Biomass Fuelsp. 223
Feedstock Typesp. 224
Feedstock Propertiesp. 227
The Chemistry of Biomassp. 228
Processesp. 231
Process Typesp. 231
Environmental Issuesp. 240
Fuels from Biomassp. 241
Gaseous Fuelsp. 242
Liquid Fuelsp. 244
Solid Fuelsp. 248
Biofuels from Synthesis Gasp. 249
Usesp. 250
A Biorefineryp. 251
Bioconversionp. 252
Thermal Conversionp. 254
Greenhouse Gas Productionp. 257
Other Aspectsp. 257
The Futurep. 259
Fuels from Cropsp. 265
Energy Cropsp. 266
Short Rotation Coppicep. 267
Miscanthusp. 267
Reed Canary Grassp. 268
Cordgrassp. 268
Switchgrassp. 268
Reed Plantsp. 269
Jerusalem Artichokep. 269
Sorghump. 269
Hempp. 270
Processesp. 270
Direct Combustionp. 270
Gasificationp. 272
Pyrolysisp. 274
Anaerobic Digestionp. 275
Ethanolp. 278
Ethanol Productionp. 279
Other Alcoholsp. 281
Methanolp. 281
Propanol and Butanolp. 282
Biodieselp. 282
Feedstocks for Biodieselp. 283
Transesterification (Alcoholysis)p. 284
Catalytic Transesterificationp. 284
Noncatalytic Supercritical Methanol Transesterificationp. 286
Effect of Reaction Parameters on Conversion Yieldp. 287
Propertiesp. 288
Technical Standardsp. 289
Usesp. 289
Hydrocarbonsp. 290
Fuels from Woodp. 297
Historyp. 297
Composition and Propertiesp. 301
Energy from Woodp. 304
Fuels From Woodp. 306
Gaseous Fuelsp. 307
Liquid Fuelsp. 310
Solid Fuelsp. 313
Fuels from Domestic and Industrial Wastep. 323
Industrial and Domestic Wastep. 325
Effects of Wastep. 326
Fuels from Waste Incinerationp. 328
Gaseous Fuelsp. 332
Chemistryp. 333
Reactorsp. 333
Liquid Fuelsp. 334
Hydrocarbon Fuelsp. 335
Biodieselp. 336
Ethanolp. 338
Other Alcoholsp. 339
Solid Fuelsp. 340
Briquette Manufacturep. 341
Bagasse Briquettesp. 342
Sawdust Briquettesp. 342
Urban Waste Briquettesp. 342
The Futurep. 342
Landfill Gasp. 345
Landfill Classificationp. 346
Landfill Gasp. 347
Biogas and Other Gasesp. 351
Biogasp. 351
Renewable Natural Gasp. 352
Gober Gasp. 352
Formation of Landfill Gasp. 353
Organic Reactionsp. 355
Inorganic Reactionsp. 356
Landfill Leachatep. 356
Landfill Gas Monitoringp. 357
Landfill Miningp. 358
Gas Migrationp. 359
Diffusion (Uniform Concentrationp. 360
Pressurep. 360
Permeabilityp. 360
Other Factors Affecting Gas Migrationp. 361
Bioreactorsp. 362
Gasification of Landfill Wastep. 363
Power Generationp. 364
Definition and Properties of Fuels and Feedstocks from Different Sourcesp. 367
Comparison of the Properties of Gaseous Fuels from Different Sourcesp. 377
Comparison of the Properties of Liquid Fuels from Different Sourcesp. 381
Comparison of the Properties of Solid Fuels from Different Sourcesp. 389
Glossaryp. 393
Indexp. 403
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