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Systems Analysis and Design Methods

by ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780073052335

ISBN10:
0073052337
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
11/22/2005
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
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Summary

Today's students want to practice the application of concepts. As with the previous editions of this book, the authors write to balance the coverage of concepts, tools, techniques, and their applications, and to provide the most examples of system analysis and design deliverables available in any book. The textbook also serves the reader as a professional reference for best current practices.

Table of Contents

Preface vi
PART ONE The Context of Systems Development Projects
3(154)
The Context of Systems Analysis and Design Methods
4(38)
Introduction
6(1)
A Framework for Systems Analysis and Design
6(1)
The Players---System Stakeholders
7(9)
Systems Owners
7(1)
Systems Users
7(3)
Systems Designers
10(1)
Systems Builders
10(1)
Systems Analysts
11(5)
External Service Providers
16(1)
The Project Manager
16(1)
Business Drivers for Today's Information Systems
16(6)
Globalization of the Economy
17(1)
Electronic Commerce and Business
18(1)
Security and Privacy
19(1)
Collaboration and Partnership
20(1)
Knowledge Asset Management
21(1)
Continuous Improvement and Total Quality Management
21(1)
Business Process Redesign
22(1)
Technology Drivers for Today's Information Systems
22(8)
Networks and the Internet
22(2)
Mobile and Wireless Technologies
24(1)
Object Technologies
25(1)
Collaborative Technologies
25(1)
Enterprise Applications
26(4)
A Simple System Development Process
30(12)
System Initiation
32(1)
System Analysis
32(1)
System Design
33(1)
System Implementation
33(1)
System Support and Continuous Improvement
33(9)
Information System Building Blocks
42(24)
Introduction
44(1)
The Product---Information Systems
44(2)
A Framework for Information Systems Architecture
46(12)
Knowledge Building Blocks
47(4)
Process Building Blocks
51(4)
Communications Building Blocks
55(3)
Network Technologies and the IS Building Blocks
58(8)
Information Systems Development
66(52)
Introduction
68(1)
The Process of Systems Development
68(8)
The Capability Maturity Model
69(1)
Life Cycle versus Methodology
70(2)
Underlying Principles for Systems Development
72(4)
A Systems Development Process
76(16)
Where Do Systems Development Projects Come From?
77(1)
The FAST Project Phases
77(11)
Cross Life-Cycle Activities
88(1)
Sequential versus Iterative Development
89(3)
Alternative Routes and Strategies
92(15)
The Model-Driven Development Strategy
94(4)
The Rapid Application Development Strategy
98(2)
The Commercial Application Package Implementation Strategy
100(4)
Hybrid Strategies
104(1)
System Maintenance
104(3)
Automated Tools and Technology
107(11)
Computer-Assisted Systems Engineering
108(1)
Application Development Environments
109(2)
Process and Project Managers
111(7)
Project Management
118(39)
Introduction
120(1)
What Is Project Management?
120(7)
The Causes of Failed Projects
121(2)
The Project Management Body of Knowledge
123(4)
The Project Management Life Cycle
127(30)
Activity 1---Negotiate Scope
130(1)
Activity 2---Identify Tasks
130(2)
Activity 3---Estimate Task Durations
132(2)
Activity 4---Specify Intertask Dependencies
134(2)
Activity 5---Assign Resources
136(3)
Activity 6---Direct the Team Effort
139(1)
Activity 7---Monitor and Control Progress
140(9)
Activity 8---Assess Project Results and Experiences
149(8)
PART TWO Systems Analysis Methods
157(286)
Systems Analysis
158(48)
Introduction
160(1)
What Is Systems Analysis?
160(1)
Systems Analysis Approaches
161(6)
Model-Driven Analysis Approaches
161(2)
Accelerated Systems Analysis Approaches
163(2)
Requirements Discovery Methods
165(1)
Business Process Redesign Methods
166(1)
FAST Systems Analysis Strategies
166(1)
The Scope Definition Phase
167(7)
Task 1.1---Identify Baseline Problems and Opportunities
169(3)
Task 1.2---Negotiate Baseline Scope
172(1)
Task 1.3---Assess Baseline Project Worthiness
173(1)
Task 1.4---Develop Baseline Schedule and Budget
173(1)
Task 1.5---Communicate the Project Plan
173(1)
The Problem Analysis Phase
174(11)
Task 2.1---Understand the Problem Domain
175(5)
Task 2.2---Analyze Problems and Opportunities
180(1)
Task 2.3---Analyze Business Processes
180(2)
Task 2.4---Establish System Improvement Objectives
182(1)
Task 2.5---Update or Refine the Project Plan
183(1)
Task 2.6---Communicate Findings and Recommendations
183(2)
The Requirements Analysis Phase
185(4)
Task 3.1---Identify and Express System Requirements
185(3)
Task 3.2---Prioritize System Requirements
188(1)
Task 3.3---Update or Refine the Project Plan
188(1)
Task 3.4---Communicate the Requirements Statement
189(1)
Ongoing Requirements Management
189(1)
The Logical Design Phase
189(3)
Task 4.1a---Structure Functional Requirements
191(1)
Task 4.1b---Prototype Functional Requirements (alternative)
192(1)
Task 4.2---Validate Functional Requirements
192(1)
Task 4.3---Define Acceptance Test Cases
192(1)
The Decision Analysis Phase
192(14)
Task 5.1---Identify Candidate Solutions
194(1)
Task 5.2---Analyze Candidate Solutions
195(2)
Task 5.3---Compare Candidate Solutions
197(1)
Task 5.4---Update the Project Plan
197(1)
Task 5.5---Recommend a System Solution
197(9)
Fact-Finding Techniques for Requirements Discovery
206(36)
Introduction
208(1)
An Introduction to Requirements Discovery
208(2)
The Process of Requirements Discovery
210(5)
Problem Discovery and Analysis
210(2)
Requirements Discovery
212(1)
Documenting and Analyzing Requirements
212(2)
Requirements Management
214(1)
Fact-Finding Techniques
215(19)
Sampling of Existing Documentation, Forms, and Files
215(2)
Research and Site Visits
217(1)
Observation of the Work Environment
218(2)
Questionnaires
220(2)
Interviews
222(2)
How to Conduct an Interview
224(4)
Discovery Prototyping
228(1)
Joint Requirements Planning
229(5)
A Fact-Finding Strategy
234(8)
Modeling System Requirements With Use Cases
242(26)
Introduction
244(1)
An Introduction to Use-Case Modeling
244(2)
System Concepts for Use-Case Modeling
246(5)
Use Cases
246(1)
Actors
247(1)
Relationships
248(3)
The Process of Requirements Use-Case Modeling
251(9)
Step 1: Identify Business Actors
251(1)
Step 2: Identify Business Requirements Use Cases
252(2)
Step 3: Construct Use-Case Model Diagram
254(2)
Step 4: Document Business Requirements Use-Case Narratives
256(4)
Use Cases and Project Management
260(8)
Ranking and Evaluating Use Cases
260(1)
Identifying Use-Case Dependencies
261(7)
Data Modeling and Analysis
268(46)
Introduction
270(1)
What Is Data Modeling?
270(1)
System Concepts for Data Modeling
271(12)
Entities
271(1)
Attributes
272(2)
Relationships
274(9)
The Process of Logical Data Modeling
283(5)
Strategic Data Modeling
283(2)
Data Modeling during Systems Analysis
285(1)
Looking Ahead to Systems Design
286(1)
Automated Tools for Data Modeling
286(2)
How to Construct Data Models
288(10)
Entity Discovery
289(1)
The Context Data Model
290(2)
The Key-Based Data Model
292(3)
Generalized Hierarchies
295(1)
The Fully Attributed Data Model
295(3)
Analyzing the Data Model
298(8)
What Is a Good Data Model?
298(1)
Data Analysis
299(1)
Normalization Example
299(7)
Mapping Data Requirements to Locations
306(8)
Process Modeling
314(54)
Introduction
316(1)
An Introduction to Process Modeling
316(3)
System Concepts for Process Modeling
319(15)
External Agents
319(1)
Data Stores
319(2)
Process Concepts
321(4)
Data Flows
325(9)
The Process of Logical Process Modeling
334(4)
Strategic Systems Planning
334(1)
Process Modeling for Business Process Redesign
334(1)
Process Modeling during Systems Analysis
335(2)
Looking Ahead to Systems Design
337(1)
Fact-Finding and Information Gathering for Process Modeling
337(1)
Computer-Aided Systems Engineering (CASE) for Process Modeling
337(1)
How to Construct Process Models
338(21)
The Context Data Flow Diagram
338(1)
The Functional Decomposition Diagram
339(2)
The Event-Response or Use-Case List
341(1)
Event Decomposition Diagrams
342(3)
Event Diagrams
345(2)
The System Diagram(s)
347(2)
Primitive Diagrams
349(1)
Completing the Specification
349(10)
Synchronizing of System Models
359(9)
Data and Process Model Synchronization
359(1)
Process Distribution
360(8)
Object-Oriented Analysis and Modeling Using the UML
368(44)
An Introduction to Object-Oriented Modeling
370(1)
History of Object Modeling
370(1)
System Concepts for Object Modeling
371(10)
Objects, Attributes, Methods, and Encapsulation
371(2)
Classes, Generalization, and Specialization
373(3)
Object/Class Relationships
376(2)
Messages and Message Sending
378(2)
Polymorphism
380(1)
The UML Diagrams
381(2)
The Process of Object Modeling
383(29)
Modeling the Functional Description of the System
383(1)
Constructing the Analysis Use-Case Model
383(7)
Modeling the Use-Case Activities
390(4)
Guidelines for Constructing Activity Diagrams
394(1)
Drawing System Sequence Diagrams
394(1)
Guidelines for Constructing System Sequence Diagrams
395(1)
Finding and Identifying the Business Objects
396(4)
Organizing the Objects and Identifying Their Relationships
400(12)
Feasibility Analysis and the System Proposal
412(31)
Introduction
414(1)
Feasibility Analysis and the System Proposal
414(3)
Feasibility Analysis---A Creeping Commitment Approach
414(2)
Systems Analysis---Scope Definition Checkpoint
416(1)
Systems Analysis---Problem Analysis Checkpoint
416(1)
Systems Design---Decision Analysis Checkpoint
416(1)
Six Tests for Feasibility
417(2)
Operational Feasibility
417(1)
Cultural (or Political) Feasibility
417(1)
Technical Feasibility
418(1)
Schedule Feasibility
418(1)
Economic Feasibility
419(1)
Legal Feasibility
419(1)
The Bottom Line
419(1)
Cost-Benefit Analysis Techniques
419(7)
How Much Will the System Cost?
419(1)
What Benefits Will the System Provide?
420(2)
Is the Proposed System Cost-Effective?
422(4)
Feasibility Analysis of Candidate Systems
426(5)
Candidate Systems Matrix
426(3)
Feasibility Analysis Matrix
429(2)
The System Proposal
431(12)
Written Report
431(2)
Formal Presentation
433(10)
PART THREE Systems Design Methods
443(238)
Systems Design
444(30)
Introduction
446(1)
What Is Systems Design?
446(1)
Systems Design Approaches
446(7)
Model-Driven Approaches
447(4)
Rapid Application Development
451(2)
FAST Systems Design Strategies
453(1)
Systems Design for In-House Development---The ``Build'' Solution
453(7)
Task 5.1---Design the Application Architecture
453(4)
Task 5.2---Design the System Database(s)
457(1)
Task 5.3---Design the System Interface
457(2)
Task 5.4---Package Design Specifications
459(1)
Task 5.5---Update the Project Plan
460(1)
Systems Design for Integrating Commercial Software---The ``Buy'' Solution
460(14)
Task 4.1---Research Technical Criteria and Options
462(1)
Task 4.2---Solicit Proposals or Quotes from Vendors
462(3)
Task 5A.1---Validate Vendor Claims and Performances
465(1)
Task 5A.2---Evaluate and Rank Vendor Proposals
465(1)
Task 5A.3---Award (or Let) Contract and Debrief Vendors
466(1)
Impact of Buy Decision on Remaining Life-Cycle Phases
466(8)
Application Architecture and Modeling
474(42)
Introduction
476(1)
Application Architecture
476(1)
Physical Data Flow Diagrams
477(6)
Physical Processes
477(4)
Physical Data Flows
481(1)
Physical External Agents
481(1)
Physical Data Stores
481(2)
Information Technology Architecture
483(19)
Distributed Systems
484(10)
Data Architectures---Distributed Relational Databases
494(1)
Interface Architectures---Inputs, Outputs, and Middleware
495(5)
Process Architectures---The Software Development Environment
500(2)
Application Architecture Strategies for Systems Design
502(1)
The Enterprise Application Architecture Strategy
502(1)
The Tactical Application Architecture Strategy
503(1)
Modeling the Application Architecture of an Information System
503(13)
Drawing Physical Data Flow Diagrams
504(1)
Prerequisites
504(1)
The Network Architecture
505(1)
Data Distribution and Technology Assignments
506(1)
Process Distribution and Technology Assignments
507(3)
The Person/Machine Boundaries
510(6)
Database Design
516(32)
Introduction
518(1)
Conventional Files versus the Database
518(2)
The Pros and Cons of Conventional Files
518(2)
The Pros and Cons of Databases
520(1)
Database Concepts for the Systems Analyst
520(8)
Fields
521(1)
Records
521(1)
Files and Tables
522(1)
Databases
523(5)
Prerequisite for Database Design---Normalization
528(1)
Conventional File Design
529(1)
Modern Database Design
529(19)
Goals and Prerequisites to Database Design
530(1)
The Database Schema
530(5)
Data and Referential Integrity
535(3)
Roles
538(1)
Database Distribution and Replication
538(1)
Database Prototypes
539(1)
Database Capacity Planning
539(1)
Database Structure Generation
539(9)
Output Design and Prototyping
548(32)
Introduction
550(1)
Output Design Concepts and Guidelines
550(8)
Distribution and Audience of Outputs
550(3)
Implementation Methods for Outputs
553(5)
How to Design and Prototype Outputs
558(22)
Automated Tools for Output Design and Prototyping
558(1)
Output Design Guidelines
559(3)
The Output Design Process
562(8)
Web-Based Outputs and E-Business
570(10)
Input Design and Prototyping
580(32)
Introduction
582(1)
Input Design Concepts and Guidelines
582(8)
Data Capture, Data Entry, and Data Processing
582(3)
Input Methods and Implementation
585(2)
System User Issues for Input Design
587(2)
Internal Controls---Data Editing for Inputs
589(1)
GUI Controls for Input Design
590(8)
Common GUI Controls for Inputs
592(4)
Advanced Input Controls
596(2)
How to Design and Prototype Inputs
598(14)
Automated Tools for Input Design and Prototyping
598(1)
The Input Design Process
599(6)
Web-Based Inputs and E-Business
605(7)
User Interface Design
612(34)
Introduction
614(1)
User Interface Design Concepts and Guidelines
614(4)
Types of Computer Users
614(1)
Human Factors
615(1)
Human Engineering Guidelines
616(1)
Dialogue Tone and Terminology
617(1)
User Interface Technology
618(1)
Operating Systems and Web Browsers
618(1)
Display Monitor
618(1)
Keyboards and Pointers
619(1)
Graphical User Interface Styles and Considerations
619(14)
Windows and Frames
620(1)
Menu-Driven Interfaces
620(7)
Instruction-Driven Interfaces
627(2)
Question-Answer Dialogues
629(1)
Special Considerations for User Interface Design
629(4)
How to Design and Prototype a User Interface
633(13)
Automated Tools for User Interface Design and Prototyping
634(1)
The User Interface Design Process
635(11)
Object-Oriented Design and Modeling Using the UML
646(35)
Introduction
648(1)
The Design of an Object-Oriented System
648(3)
Entity Classes
648(1)
Interface Classes
648(1)
Control Classes
649(1)
Persistence Classes
649(1)
System Classes
649(1)
Design Relationships
650(1)
Attribute and Method Visibility
650(1)
Object Responsibilities
651(1)
The Process of Object Design
651(15)
Refining the Use-Case Model
651(5)
Modeling Class Interactions, Behaviors, and States That Support the Use-Case Scenario
656(9)
Updating the Object Model to Reflect the Implementation Environment
665(1)
Object Reusability and Design Patterns
666(2)
Design Patterns
668(3)
The Strategy Pattern
669(1)
The Adapter Pattern
670(1)
Object Frameworks and Components
671(1)
Additional UML Design and Implementation Diagrams
671(10)
PART FOUR Beyond Systems Analysis and Design
681(39)
Systems Construction and Implementation
682(18)
Introduction
684(1)
What Is Systems Construction and Implementation?
684(1)
The Construction Phase
684(5)
Task 6.1---Build and Test Networks (if Necessary)
684(3)
Task 6.2---Build and Test Databases
687(1)
Task 6.3---Install and Test New Software Packages (if Necessary)
687(1)
Task 6.4---Write and Test New Programs
688(1)
The Implementation Phase
689(11)
Task 7.1---Conduct System Test
689(1)
Task 7.2---Prepare Conversion Plan
689(3)
Task 7.3---Install Databases
692(1)
Task 7.4---Train Users
693(1)
Task 7.5---Convert to New System
694(6)
Systems Operations and Support
700(20)
Introduction
702(1)
The Context of Systems Operation and Support
702(4)
System Maintenance
706(3)
Task 8.1.1---Validate the Problem
706(1)
Task 8.1.2---Benchmark Program
707(1)
Task 8.1.3---Study and Debug the Program
708(1)
Task 8.1.4---Test the Program
709(1)
System Recovery
709(1)
Technical Support
710(1)
System Enhancement
710(4)
Task 8.4.1---Analyze Enhancement Request
712(1)
Task 8.4.2---Make the Quick Fix
712(1)
Task 8.4.3---Recover Existing Physical System
713(1)
System Obsolescence
714(6)
Photo Credits 720(1)
Glossary/Index 721


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