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Taking Sides : Clashing Views in Gender

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Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780078050305

ISBN10:
0078050308
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/14/2012
Publisher(s):
McGraw-Hill/Dushkin
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Summary

Taking Sidesvolumes present current controversial issues in a debate-style format designed to stimulate student interest and develop critical thinking skills. Each issue is thoughtfully framed with Learning Outcomes,an Issue Summary,an Introduction,and an Exploring the Issuesection featuring Critical Thinking and Reflection, Is There Common Ground?,and Additional Resources. Taking Sidesreaders also offer a Topic Guideand an annotated listing of Internet Referencesfor further consideration of the issues. An online Instructor's Resource Guide with testing material is available for each volume. Using Taking Sides in the Classroomis also an excellent instructor resource. Visit www.mhhe.com/takingsides for more details.

Table of Contents

TAKING SIDES: Clashing Views in Gender, Sixth Edition

Table of Contents


Clashing Views in Gender, Sixth Edition

Unit 1 Definitions and Cultural Boundaries: A Moving Target

Issue 1. Is Anatomy Destiny?
YES: Cornelieke van de Beek, Stephanie H. M. van Goozen, Jan K. Buitelaar, and Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis, from “Prenatal Sex Hormones (Maternal and Amniotic Fluid) and Gender-Related Play Behavior in 13-Month-Old Infant,” Archives of Sexual Behavior (2009)
NO: Vasanti Jadva, Melissa Hines, and Susan Golombok, from “Infants’ Preferences for Toys, Colors and Shapes: Sex Differences and Similarities,” Archives of Sexual Behavior (2009)
Cornelieke van de Beek and colleagues demonstrated that testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone levels measured during pregnancy are related to gender-related play in 13-month-old girls and boys and found clear sex differences in preferences for masculine and feminine toys. Vasanti Jadva, Melissa Hines, and Susan Golombok, using a preferential looking task, found sex similarities in infants’ preferences for shapes and colors and suggest that later gender-related patterns of toy preferences may be related to socialization or cognitive development factors rather than inborn differences.
Issue 2. Are Women and Men More Similar Than Different?
YES: Janet Shibley Hyde, from “New Directions in the Study of Gender Similarities and Differences,” Current Directions in Psychological Science (vol. 16, pp. 259–263, 2007)
NO: Marco Del Giudice, from “On the Real Magnitude of Psychological Sex Differences,” Evolutionary Psychology (vol. 7, pp. 264–279, 2009)
Janet Shibley Hyde makes the case that gender similarities are just as interesting and important to understand as are gender differences. By adopting a social structuralist perspective and considering gender as a social stimulus rather than a person variable, she uses meta-analyses to support the argument that women and men are more alike than different. Marco Del Giudice follows the assumptions of evolutionary theory to accept the premise that women and men are different. He argues that effect sizes derived from meta-analyses underestimate the true magnitude of gender-related differences.
Issue 3. Is Sexual Orientation Innate?
YES: Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg, Curtis Dolezal, Susan W. Baker, and Maria I, from “Sexual Orientation in Women with Classical or Non-Classical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia as a Function of Degree of Prenatal Androgen Excess,” Archives of Sexual Behavior (vol. 37, no. 1, 2008)
NO: Lisa M. Diamond and Molly Butterworth, from “Questioning Gender and Sexual Identity: Dynamic Links over Time,” Sex Roles: A Journal of Research (vol. 59, 2008)
Clinical psychologist Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg and his colleagues report that sexual orientation is related to specific molecular genotypes in women with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), supporting a sexual-differentiation perspective involving the effects of prenatal androgens on the development of sexual orientation. Psychologist Lisa M. Diamond and her student Molly Butterworth use a feminist theoretical framework of intersectionality to analyze data from the experiences of individuals who claim neither an unambiguously female nor a male identity to demonstrate that sexual orientation, sexual identify, and gender identity are fluid and change over time.

Unit 2 From Ozzie and Harriet to My Two Dads: Gender in Childhood

Issue 4. Should Same-Sex Marriage Be Legal?
YES: Human Rights Campaign, from Answers to Questions about Marriage Equality (Human Rights Campaign, 2009)
NO: John Cornyn, from “In Defense of Marriage: The Amendment That Will Protect a Fundamental Institution,” National Review (July 2009)
The Human Rights Campaign (HRC), America’s largest gay and lesbian organization, explains why same-sex couples should be afforded the same legal right to marry as heterosexual couples. John Cornyn, U.S. senator from Texas, says a constitutional amendment is needed to define marriage as permissible only between a man and a woman. Senator Cornyn contends that the traditional institution of marriage needs to be protected from activist courts that would seek to redefine it.
Issue 5. Does Parents’ Sexual Orientation Affect Their Children’s Psychological Outcomes?
YES: Walter R. Schumm, from “Children of Homosexuals More Apt to Be Homosexuals? A Reply to Morrison and to Cameron Based on an Examination of Multiple Sources of Data,” Journal of Biosocial Sciences (vol. 42, pp. 721–742, 2010)
NO: Paige Averett, Blace Nalavany, and Scott Ryan, from “An Evaluation of Gay/Lesbian and Heterosexual Adoption,” Adoption Quarterly (vol. 12, pp. 129–151, 2009)
Walter R. Schumm examined data from several sources and concluded that there is evidence for the intergenerational transfer of sexual orientation, especially for female parents or female children, but the pathways for such an effect are not well understood. Paige Averett, Blace Nalavany, and Scott Ryan found evidence that the sexual orientation of adoptive parents had no relation to the likelihood that their children would have behavioral problems. They studied internalizing and externalizing problems, and did not consider the sexual orientation of the child a problem.
Issue 6. Are Fathers Necessary for Children’s Well-Being?
YES: Natasha J. Cabrera, Jacqueline D. Shannon, and Catherine Tamis-LeMonda, from “Fathers’ Influence on Their Children’s Cognitive and Emotional Development: From Toddlers to Pre-K,” Applied Developmental Science (2007)
NO: Jane Waldfogel, Terry-Ann Craigie, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, from “Fragile Families and Child Well-Being,” The Future of Children (vol. 20, pp. 87–112, 2010)
Professor of human development Natasha J. Cabrera reports that father engagement has positive effects on children’s cognition and language, as well as their social and emotional development. Jane Waldfogel, Terry-Ann Craigie, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, in a detailed analysis of various family structures, find that family instability has a negative effect on children’s cognitive and health outcomes, regardless of structure, meaning that children with single or cohabiting parents are not necessarily at risk.
Issue 7. Should Parents Be Allowed to Choose the Sex of Their Children?
YES: Z. O. Merhi and L. Pal, from “Gender ‘Tailored’ Conceptions: Should the Option of Embryo Gender Selection Be Available to Infertile Couples Undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technology?” Journal of Medical Ethics (2008)
NO: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Ethics, from “Sex Selection,” Opinion No. 360, Obstetrics and Gynecology (2007)
Physicians Z. O. Merhi and L. Pal discuss the conditions under which selection of the sex of a child does not breach any ethical considerations in family planning among infertile couples. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Committee on Ethics supports the practice of offering patients procedures for the purpose of preventing serious sex-linked genetic diseases, but opposes sex selection for personal and family reasons.

Unit 3 Does Gender Disrupt Relationships? The Dark Side of Getting Along

Issue 8. Are Gendered Patterns of Communication Related to Power Differentials?
YES: Nancy Henley and Cheris Kramarae, from “Gender, Power, and Miscommunication.” In Susan Erlich (ed.), Language and Gender (New York: Routledge, pp. 133–154, 2008)
NO: Daniel N. Maltz and Ruth A. Borker, from “A Cultural Approach to Male–Female Miscommunication.” In Susan Erlich (ed.), Language and Gender (New York: Routledge, pp. 75–93, 2008)
Nancy Henley and Cheris Kramarae, adopting a social contextual approach, suggest that patterns of communication are due to inequalities and are multi-determined. Daniel Maltz and Ruth Borker adopt a cultural differences approach and suggest that men and women, by virtue of their sex, live in different cultures.
Issue 9. Do Nice Guys Finish Last?
YES: Peter Jonason, Norman P. Li, Gregory D. Webster, and David P. Schmitt, from “The Dark Triad: Facilitating a Short-Term Mating Strategy in Men,” European Journal of Personality (2009)
NO: Adrian Furnham, from “Sex Differences in Mate Selection Preferences,” Personality and Individual Differences (2009)
Psychologist Peter Jonason, taking an evolutionary perspective, demonstrates that the “dark triad” of attributes (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) promotes a reproductively adaptive strategy, especially for short-term mating behaviors. Psychologist Adrian Furnham found consistent sex differences that revealed women’s preference for “nice guys,” that is, those who were intelligent, stable, conscientious, better educated, with good social skills and political and religious compatibility.
Issue 10. Gender Symmetry: Do Women and Men Commit Equal Levels of Violence Against Intimate Partners?
YES: Murray A. Straus and Ignacio L. Ramirez, from “Gender Symmetry in Prevalence, Severity, and Chronicity of Physical Aggression Against Dating Partners by University Students in Mexico and USA,” Aggressive Behavior (vol. 33, 2007)
NO: Christopher T. Allen, Suzanne C. Swan, and Chitra Raghaven, from “Gender Symmetry, Sexism, and Intimate Partner Violence,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence (vol. 24, 2008)
Murray A. Straus and his colleague Ignacio L. Ramirez argue that women are just as likely to commit physical aggression against dating partners as are men, suggesting that gender symmetry exists in different cultural contexts. On the other hand, social psychologists Christopher T. Allen, Suzanne C. Swan, and Chitra Raghaven argue that women’s use of aggression does not equate to gender symmetry. Rather, cultural context, motives, and history of trauma must be considered.
Issue 11. Does Pornography Reduce the Incidence of Rape?
YES: Anthony D’Amato, from “Porn Up, Rape Down,” Northwestern University School of Law, Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper Series ( June 23, 2006)
NO: Judith Reisman, from “Pornography’s Link to Rape,” WorldnetDaily.com ( July 29, 2006)
Professor of law Anthony D’Amato highlights statistics from the most recent National Crime Victimization Survey that demonstrate a correlation between the increased consumption of pornography over the years with the decreased incidence of rape. Some people, he argues, watch pornography in order to push any desire to rape out of their minds, and thus have no further desire to go out and actually do it. Judith Reisman, president of the Institute for Media Education, asserts that sex criminals imitate what they see depicted in the media, providing examples of serial rapists and killers who had large stores of pornography in their possession, and research in which approximately 33 percent of rapists said that they had viewed pornography immediately prior to at least one of their rapes.

Unit 4 Is It a Man’s World? Math, Science, and the Cyber-World

Issue 12. Do Men Outperform Women in Mathematics?
YES: Paula Olszewski-Kubilius and Seon-Young Lee, from “Gender and Other Group Differences in Performance on Off-Level Tests: Changes in the 21st Century,” Gifted Child Quarterly (vol. 55, pp. 54–73, 2011)
NO: Sara M. Lindberg, Janet Shibley Hyde, Jennifer L. Petersen, and Marcia C. Linn, from “New Trends in Gender and Mathematics Performance: A Meta-Analysis,” Psychological Bulletin (vol. 136, pp. 1123–1135, 2010)
Paula Olszewski-Kubilius and Seon-Young Lee analyzed data from over 250,000 gifted students who took a variety of different tests and concluded that the ratio of talented math and science students remains at about 3 males:1 female. Sara Lindberg and colleagues use meta-analysis to analyze 242 studies of mathematics performance and concluded that there are no gender differences.
Issue 13. Is Gender Related to the Use of Computers?
YES: Tim Olds, Melissa Wake, George Patton, Kate Ridley, Elizabeth Waters, Joanne Williams, and Kylie Hesketh, from “How Do School-Day Activity Patterns Differ With Age and Gender Across Adolescence?” Journal of Adolescent Health (vol. 44, no. 1, 2009)
NO: Susan McKenney and Joke Voogt, from “Technology and Young Children: How 4–7 Year Olds Perceive Their Own Use of Computers,” Computers in Human Behavior (vol. 26, no. 4, 2010)
Tim Olds and his colleagues examined how much time adolescents spent in different activities during the school day and found that boys had higher levels of screen time, which included television, video games, and computer use, which peaked in the peripubertal years. Susan McKenney and Joke Voogt studied children’s use of technology both within and outside school settings and found no gender differences in young children’s perceptions of their own use of computers or in ability level.
Issue 14. Is Cyberbullying Related to Gender?
YES: Robin M. Kowalski, Susan P. Limber, and Patricia W. Agatston, from Cyberbullying: Bullying in the Digital Age (Blackwell Publishing, 2008)
NO: Kirk R. Williams and Nancy G. Guerra, from “Prevalence and Predictors of Internet Bullying,” Journal of Adolescent Health (2007)
Social psychologist Robin Kowalski, Susan Limber, a bullying prevention expert, and Patricia Agatston, a school counselor, provide an extensive review of what is known about gender and cyberbullying and conclude that there are sex differences in cyberbullying. Criminal justice expert Kirk Williams and psychologist Nancy Guerra found that boys were more likely to bully than girls, but there were no sex differences in cyberbullying.

Unit 5 From 9 to 5: Gender in the World of Work

Issue 15. Is the Gender Wage Gap Justified?
YES: J. R. Shackleton, from “Explaining the Overall Pay Gap,” in Should We Mind the Gap? Gender Pay Differentials and Public Policy (The Institute of Economic Affairs, 2008)
NO: Hilary M. Lips, from “The Gender Wage Gap: Debunking the Rationalizations,” Expert Advice for Working Women, http://www.womensmedia.com
John Shackleton, a professor of economics and dean of the Business School, University of East London, suggests that the gender gap is largely due to nondiscriminatory factors; most notable are those associated with compensation for the differential value associated with women’s choices due to lifestyle, preferences, attitudes, and expectations. Hilary Lips, a professor of psychology and the director of the Center for Gender Studies at Radford University, documents the continuing gender gap in wages and argues that a continuing undervaluing of women’s work, whatever it happens to be, due to stereotypes and prejudice maintains the wage gap. She argues that the language of “choice” is deceptive.
Issue 16. Has the Economic Recession Been Harder on Women’s Employment Than Men’s Employment?
YES: Government Equalities Office, from “The Economic Downturn—The Concerns and Experiences of Women and Families” (March 2009), http://www.ipsos-mori.com/researchpublications/researcharchive/2359/Impact-of-the-economic-downturn-on-women.aspx
NO: Teri Fritsma, from “Minnesota’s He-Cession: Are Men Bearing the Brunt of the Economic Downturn?” Minnesota Economic TRENDS (September 2009), http://www.positivelyminnesota.com/Data_Publications/Economic_Trends_Magazine/September_2009_Edition/Minnesota%27s_He-cession.aspx
The Government Equalities Office presents data suggesting that women are experiencing more challenges than men due to the economic recession. Teri Fritsma, in an analysis of data based on employment patterns in Minnesota, suggests that men are being more negatively affected by the recession than are women.
Issue 17. Do Social Policies Improve Gender Inequalities in the Workplace?
YES: Hilda Kahne and Zachary Mabel, from “Single Mothers and Other Low Earners: Policy Routes to Adequate Wages,” Poverty and Public Policy (vol. 2, no. 3, 2010)
NO: Hadas Mandel, from “Configurations of Gender Inequality: The Consequences of Ideology and Public Policy,” The British Journal of Sociology (vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 693–719, 2009)
In contrast, Hilda Kahne, professor emerita at Wheaton College in Massachusetts, and Zachary Mabel, research analyst with the Center for Education Policy Research at Harvard University, make the argument that incomplete education and few training programs, rather than gender discrimination, make it more difficult for low-age single mothers to raise their earnings. They advocate for policies that foster economic advancement. Hadas Mandel of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Tel Aviv University reviews extensive data from 14 countries and concludes that social policies have the counterintuitive impact of decreasing women’s opportunities for access to more desirable and powerful positions. His analyses show distinct profiles of gender inequality and their relations to ideology and public policy.
Issue 18. Are Barriers to Women’s Success as Leaders Due to Societal Obstacles?
YES: Alice H. Eagly and Linda L. Carli, from “Women and the Labyrinth of Leadership,” Harvard Business Review (pp. 1–11, September, 2007)
NO: Mark van Vugt and Anjana Ahuja, from Naturally Selected: The Evolutionary Science of Leadership (Harper Business, 2011)
Alice Eagly and Linda Carli contend that barriers exist for women at every stage of their career trajectories, resulting in, not a glass ceiling, but a labyrinth. Mark van Vugt and Anjana Ahuja assert that the division of labor by sex is rooted in biologically based differences between women and men. Evolutionarily based natural selection has led to inclinations that make women and men better suited for different types of jobs.

Unit 6 Gender and Sexuality: Double Standards?

Issue 19. Is There Something Wrong with the Content of Comprehensive Sex Education Curricula?
YES: The Administration for Children and Families (ACF), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), from “Review of Comprehensive Sex Education Curricula” (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2007)
NO: Elokin CaPece, from “Commentary on the Review of Comprehensive Sex Education Curricula (2007),” American Journal of Sexuality Education (vol. 3, no. 3, 2007)
The Administration for Children and Families, Department of Health and Human Services, presents their findings in a critical analysis of comprehensive sexuality education curricula. Elokin CaPece disputes the research methods used and the findings of the report, highlighting what she sees as bias in the overall findings.
Issue 20. Is “Gender Identity Disorder” an Appropriate Psychiatric Diagnosis?
YES: Mercedes Allen, from “Destigmatization versus Coverage and Access: The Medical Model of Transsexuality,” http://dentedbluemercedes.wordpress.com/2008/04/05/destigmatizationversus-coverage-and-access-the-medical-model-of-transsexuality/ (2008)
NO: Kelley Winters, from “GID Reform Advocates: Issues of GID Diagnosis for Transsexual Women and Men,” http://www.gidreform.org/GID30285a.pdf (2007)
Mercedes Allen recognizes the bias in the DSM’s classification of Gender Identity Disorder as a mental disorder but argues that changes run the risk of leaving the trans community at risk of losing medical care and treatment. Kelley Winters argues the inclusion of gender identity disorder in the DSM adds to the stigma faced by transpersons and that reclassification is necessary to adequately address the population’s health care needs.
Issue 21. Should Transgender Women Be Considered “Real” Women?
YES: Lisa Mottet and Justin Tanis, from Opening the Door to the Inclusion of Transgender People: The Nine Keys to Making Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Organizations Fully Transgender-Inclusive (The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force Policy Institute, 2008)
NO: Jaimie F. Veale, Dave E. Clarke, and Terri C. Lomax, from “Sexuality of Male-to-Female Transsexuals” Archives of Sexual Behavior (2008)
Lisa Mottet and Justin Tanis argue for recognizing diversity in all aspects of people’s lives and reject efforts to categorize on the basis of rigid definitions. Jaimie Veale along with university faculty compared the sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals to biological females and found a number of differences that distinguish the groups in terms of patterns of sexual attraction to males.


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