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Teaching American English Pronunciation

by ;
ISBN13:

9780194328159

ISBN10:
0194328155
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/4/1992
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press, USA

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Summary

This is a comprehensive introduction to teaching the pronunciation of North American English. It includes an illustrated description of the sound system of English, ideas for overcoming pronunciation problems specific to fifteen different languages, and a variety of approaches and techniquesfor use in the classroom.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Introduction: Preliminary considerations in the teaching of pronunciation xv
Biological factors xv
Socio-cultural factors xvi
Personality factors xvi
The role of the native language xvii
Setting realistic goals xviii
PART ONE: The sound system of English
Spelling and pronunciation
The English spelling system
3(1)
Sound-spelling correspondences
4(2)
Spelling in other languages
6(1)
The phonetic alphabet
6(2)
Exercises
8(3)
Individual sounds of English
How speech sounds are made
11(1)
Consonants and vowels
12(1)
The description of English consonants
12(1)
Place of articulation
12(6)
Manner of articulation
18(6)
Voicing
24(2)
Summary
26(3)
The description of English vowels
28(1)
Tongue height
29(1)
Frontness/backness of tongue
30(1)
Tenseness/laxness
31(1)
Lip rounding
32(1)
Phonetic symbols for vowels
32(2)
Complex vowels (diphthongs)
34(1)
The vowel /er/
34(1)
The consonant /h/
35(1)
Semi-vowels (glides)
35(1)
Exercises
35(4)
English sounds in context
Positional variation
39(1)
Contrastive sounds of English
39(1)
Non-contrastive sounds of English
40(5)
Implications for teaching
45(2)
Conclusion
47(1)
Grammatical endings
47(1)
The regular past tense
47(2)
The plural, possessive, and third person singular
49(2)
Grammatical endings in the pronunciation classroom
51(1)
Exercises
51(2)
The shape of English words
Syllable types
53(1)
Consonant clusters
54(6)
Exercises
60(3)
Word stress and vowel reduction
What is stress?
63(1)
Schwa
63(3)
Major and minor stress
66(1)
Placement of word stress
67(4)
Exercises
71(2)
Connected Speech
Rhythm, sentence stress, and intonation
73(1)
The stress-timed rhythm of English
73(1)
Placement of stress in sentences
74(2)
Intonation
76(5)
Modifications of sounds in connected speech
81(1)
The pronunciation of function words
81(3)
Linking
84(2)
Deletion of consonants
86(1)
Assimilation
87(2)
Summary
89(1)
Exercises
89(4)
PART TWO: The identification and correction of specific pronunciation problems
Introduction
93(2)
Common pronunciation problems
English vowels
95(6)
English consonants
101(5)
Stress, rhythm, and intonation
106(5)
Problems of selected language groups
Arabic
111(3)
Chinese
114(5)
Farsi
119(2)
French
121(2)
German
123(2)
Greek
125(3)
Hindi and Punjabi
128(4)
Italian
132(2)
Japanese
134(4)
Korean
138(4)
Polish
142(3)
Portuguese
145(4)
Spanish
149(4)
Vietnamese
153(8)
PART THREE: Classroom activities
Introduction
161(2)
A communicative approach to pronunciation teaching
Introduction
163(2)
Consonants and vowels
165(3)
Connected speech
168(1)
Suprasegmentals
169(1)
Monitoring
170(1)
Conclusion
171(2)
Pronunciation syllabus design: a question of focus
The zoom principle
173(1)
Assessing learner variables
173(1)
Collection of speech samples
174(1)
Diagnosis of speech samples
175(3)
From diagnosis to syllabus design
178(3)
Monitoring progress
181(1)
Appendix: Student diagnostic profile
182(3)
Suprasegmentals in the pronunciation class: setting priorities
Introduction
185(1)
Stress/unstress
186(2)
Stress and rhythm
188(1)
Major sentence stress
189(3)
Intonation
192(2)
Linking and pausing
194(1)
Palatalization
195(1)
Conclusion
196(1)
Pronunciation-based listening exercises for the multi-level class
Introduction
197(2)
Minimal pairs
199(2)
Stress assignment
201(1)
Function words
202(2)
Intonation
204(1)
Conclusion
205(2)
Teaching pronunciation: an inventory of techniques
Introduction
207(1)
Individual sounds
207(1)
Minimal pairs
207(2)
Visual aids
209(3)
Stress, rhythm, and intonation
210(2)
Developing fluency
212(2)
Conclusion
214(1)
Developing self-correcting and self-monitoring strategies
Introduction
215(1)
Self-correction
216(2)
Self-monitoring
218(1)
Conclusion
219(2)
Developing natural and confident speech: drama techniques in the pronunciation class
Introduction
221(1)
Articulation
222(2)
Pitch, volume, and rate
224(2)
Variety
226(1)
Conclusion
227(2)
Unintelligibility and the ESL learner
Introduction
229(3)
The receiver
232(2)
The sender
234(2)
Conclusion
236(1)
Glossary 237(4)
Further reading 241(5)
Bibliography 246(4)
Contributors 250(2)
Index 252


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