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Teaching Elementary Physical Education : Strategies for the Classroom Teacher,9780805328349
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Teaching Elementary Physical Education : Strategies for the Classroom Teacher

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780805328349

ISBN10:
0805328343
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/18/2005
Publisher(s):
Benjamin Cummings
List Price: $85.80

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Summary

Teaching Elementary Physical Education: Strategies for the Classroom Teachergives elementary education teachers the tools and strategies they need to teach physical education using a skills-based approach. Designed for the non-physical education teacher, the book provides a shorter, more focused presentation of how and what to teach in physical education.Introduction to Elementary Physical Education, Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment, Motor Skills to Children, The Daily Physical Education Lesson Plan, Strategies for Instruction, Strategies for Assessing Student Work, Managing a Physical Education Class: Protocols, Rules, and Accountability Systems, Managing Equipment, Space, and Time, Strategies for Managing Behavior During a Physical Education Lesson, Creating a Physically Safe Learning Environment, Strategies for Teaching Locomotor and Nonlocomotor Skills, Strategies for Teaching Manipulative Skills, Strategies for Teaching Games, Strategies for Teaching Rhythmic Movement, Strategies for Promoting Physical Activity and Fitness, Strategies for Complementing Classroom Work.For all readers interested in teaching elementary physical education.

Author Biography

Ellen H. Martin is an assistant professor at Columbus State University in the Department of Teacher Education. Peter Hastie is currently a professor at Auburn University in the Department of Health and Human Performance.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
About the Authors 1(1)
UNIT I THE WORLD OF CHILDHOOD PHYSICAL EDUCATION
2(56)
Introduction to Elementary Physical Education
5(22)
What Are the Benefits of Physical Activity?
6(5)
Health Benefits
7(2)
Cognitive Benefits
9(1)
Social Benefits
10(1)
Emotional Benefits
10(1)
The Shared Mission of All Teachers
11(1)
The Unique Mission of Physical Educators
11(4)
The Role of the Physical Education Teacher in the Elementary School
15(1)
The Teacher's Impact on Children's Perceptions of Physical Education
16(2)
How Physical Education Is Changing
18(1)
Effective Teaching in the Physical Education Setting
19(5)
Creating a Positive Learning Environment
19(1)
Being a Good Communicator
20(1)
Being a Knowledgeable Practitioner
21(1)
Providing Meaningful Feedback
22(1)
Creating Stimulating Learning Tasks
22(1)
Being Concerned with Student Achievement
23(1)
What Classroom Teachers Bring to Physical Education
24(1)
Final Words
24(3)
Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment
27(14)
What Inclusion Means in Physical Education
28(1)
Noninclusion Causes Feelings of Social Isolation
29(1)
The Four S's: Safe, Successful, Satisfying, and Skill-Appropriate
30(2)
Including Children's Religious and Cultural Values
32(2)
Including Children Who Are Severely Overweight
34(1)
Including Girls and Boys Equally
35(1)
Including Students with Disabilities
36(4)
Final Words
40(1)
Teaching Motor Skills to Children
41(17)
Expect Wide Variations in Childhood Motor Skills
42(1)
Children Develop Motor Skills Progressively
43(3)
Physical and Psychological Readiness
43(1)
Sequential Development
44(1)
Cumulative Development
44(1)
Directional Development
45(1)
Teaching Motor Skills in Physical Education
46(8)
Classifying Motor Skills
46(3)
Developing Logical Skill Progressions
49(1)
Progression Trees as Logical Progressions
50(4)
Appropriate Content for Elementary Physical Education
54(2)
Movement Concepts
54(1)
Fundamental Motor Skills (Skill Themes)
54(2)
Final Words
56(2)
UNIT II INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING PHYSICAL EDUCATION
58(82)
The Daily Physical Education Lesson Plan
61(20)
Qualities of Effective Planners
62(2)
Patience
62(1)
Flexibility
63(1)
Persistence
63(1)
Self-Knowledge
64(1)
Physical Education Lesson Plans Are Valuable Documents
64(1)
Addressing State Requirements or National Standards
64(2)
The Daily Physical Education Lesson Plan
66(9)
The Lesson's Focus
66(2)
Preparations for the Lesson
68(1)
Content Progression
69(3)
Ending the Lesson
72(3)
Lesson Plan Formats
75(4)
Scripted Formats
75(1)
Column Lesson Plans
75(4)
Final Words
79(2)
Strategies for Instruction
81(24)
The Importance of Effective Communication
82(1)
Strategies for Structuring a Lesson
83(1)
Begin Class with an Instant Activity
84(2)
Presenting the Instant Activity
84(1)
The Benefits of Instant Activities
84(2)
Creating Your Own Instant Activities
86(1)
Beginning a Lesson
86(3)
How to Introduce the Day's Lesson
87(1)
Scaffolding: Building a Foundation for Present and Future Skills
87(1)
Designing a Set Induction
88(1)
The Body of the Lesson
89(1)
Visual Demonstration
90(1)
Questioning and Problem Solving
90(5)
Framing Questions
91(1)
Effective Strategies for Receiving Responses
92(2)
Wait Time
94(1)
Types of Questions
95(2)
Know-Want-Learn (K-W-L)
95(1)
Convergent Problem Solving
95(1)
Divergent Problem Solving
96(1)
Checking for Understanding
97(2)
Strategies for Checking for Understanding
97(2)
Lack of Response to Checks for Understanding
99(1)
Monitoring Student Work
99(4)
Move around the Gymnasium
100(1)
Provide Students with Feedback
100(1)
Individualizing Instruction
101(2)
Wrapping Up the Lesson
103(1)
Final Words
103(2)
Strategies for Assessing Student Work
105(35)
A Case for Assessment in Physical Education
106(2)
Types of Assessment
108(1)
Alternative Assessment
109(1)
The Assessment Road Map
110(1)
Step One: Determining Student Outcomes
111(5)
Step Two: Assessment Tools
116(13)
Observational Assessments
116(8)
Other Forms of Assessment
124(5)
Step Three: Evaluating Student Progress
129(5)
Rubrics
129(3)
Student Portfolios
132(2)
Step Four: Grading
134(4)
The Right Time to Assess
138(1)
Final Words
138(2)
UNIT III MANAGING THE DELIVERY OF THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION LESSON
140(58)
Managing a Physical Education Class: Protocols, Rules, and Accountability Systems
143(11)
Tasks as Objects of Management
144(1)
Protocols as Management Tools
145(1)
Applying Rules
146(1)
Accountability in Physical Education
146(6)
Accountability Systems
147(1)
Levels of Accountability
147(2)
Formal and Informal Accountability
149(1)
Active Supervision
149(3)
Final Words
152(2)
Managing Equipment, Space, and Time
154(17)
Managing Equipment
156(3)
Transporting Equipment
156(2)
Distributing Equipment to Children
158(1)
Returning Equipment
159(1)
Managing Space
159(2)
Personal Space
159(1)
General Space
160(1)
Managing Time
161(2)
Stopping Work, Gaining Attention, and Dealing with Equipment
161(2)
Protocols for Resuming Work
163(1)
Signal for Gathering
163(1)
Using Stations as a Way of Managing Space, Equipment, and Time
163(6)
Advantages of Stations
164(1)
Designing Stations
165(2)
Rotating Students among Stations
167(1)
The Teacher's Role during Station Work
168(1)
When to Avoid Using Stations
168(1)
Final Words
169(2)
Strategies for Managing Behavior during the Physical Education Lesson
171(15)
General Rules for Physical Education Settings
172(7)
Rule 1: Listen and Follow Directions
173(1)
Rule 2: Be Respectful of Others
174(4)
Rule 3: Take Care of Equipment
178(1)
Rule 4: Work Safely in Your Environment
179(1)
Protocols for Ending Physical Education Lessons
179(2)
Lining Up
180(1)
Consequences of Breaking Behavioral Rules and Protocols
181(3)
A Cardinal Rule of Behavior for Teachers: Never Use Exercise as Punishment
184(1)
Final Words
184(2)
Creating a Physically Safe Learning Environment
186(12)
Guiding Principles of Physical Education Safety
187(6)
Facility Safety
187(1)
Equipment Safety
188(1)
Instructional Practices That Promote Safety
189(2)
Supervision
191(1)
Footwear
191(2)
Responding to Accidents and Injuries
193(1)
Learning a Child's Medical History
194(1)
Responsible Playground Supervision
194(2)
Final Words
196(2)
UNIT IV SELECTING PHYSICAL EDUCATION CONTENT
198(196)
Locomotor and Nonlocomotor Skills
201(46)
What Are Locomotor Skills?
202(1)
What Are Nonlocomotor Skills?
203(1)
Motor Skill Progression Trees
203(2)
Chasing, Fleeing, and Dodging
205(8)
Teaching Chasing, Fleeing, and Dodging
205(1)
Sample Learning Tasks for Chasing, Fleeing, and Dodging
206(7)
Jumping and Landing
213(8)
Teaching Jumping and Landing
213(1)
Sample Learning Tasks for Jumping and Landing
214(7)
How to Teach Nonlocomotor Skills
221(3)
Balancing
224(13)
Teaching Balancing
224(1)
Sample Learning Tasks for Balancing
225(12)
Combining Locomotor and Nonlocomotor Skills---Gymnastics
237(1)
Is Equipment Necessary to Teach Gymnastics?
238(1)
Equipment Safety Issues during Gymnastics Lessons
238(1)
How to Teach Educational Gymnastics
239(4)
Designing Movement Problems
239(2)
The Necessity of Spotting
241(1)
Sequences as Advanced Movement Problems
241(1)
Peer Evaluation
242(1)
Progression through the Grade Levels
243(2)
Final Words
245(2)
Manipulative Skills
247(84)
Throwing and Catching
249(17)
Sample Learning Tasks for Throwing
249(9)
Sample Learning Tasks for Catching
258(8)
Kicking and Punting
266(18)
Sample Learning Tasks for Kicking
267(9)
Sample Learning Tasks for Punting
276(8)
Dribbling with the Hands and Feet
284(19)
Sample Learning Tasks for Dribbling with the Hand
285(8)
Sample Learning Tasks for Dribbling with the Feet
293(10)
Volleying
303(8)
Sample Learning Tasks for Volleying
303(8)
Striking with Rackets and Paddles
311(9)
Sample Learning Tasks for Striking with Rackets and Paddles
311(9)
Striking with Long-Handled Implements
320(9)
Sample Learning Tasks for Striking with Long-Handled Implements
320(9)
Final Words
329(2)
Strategies for Teaching Games
331(33)
The Place of Games in the Physical Education Curriculum
333(1)
Criteria for Selecting Suitable Games for Elementary School Children
333(5)
Criterion 1: The Game Should Contribute to Motor Skill Development
334(1)
Criterion 2: The Game Must Be Physically and Emotionally Safe
334(1)
Criterion 3: The Game Should Not Be Based on Player Elimination
335(1)
Criterion 4: The Game Should Give Students Frequent Turns to Play
335(1)
Criterion 5: Structure the Games so Children Feel Challenged
336(1)
Modifying Games to Make Them Appropriate for Children
336(1)
An ``Obvious'' Conclusion: Adult Games Are Not Suitable for Children
337(1)
When Are Elementary School Children Ready to Play Games?
338(1)
Child-Designed Games
339(3)
Getting the Game-Design Process Started
339(1)
Game Focus
340(1)
The OKs of Child-Designed Games
341(1)
Getting Organized for Teaching Games
342(8)
Presenting a Game to Students
343(7)
Minitournaments
350(10)
Phase 1: Getting Ready to Play
352(4)
Phase 2: Practice Competition
356(3)
Phase 3: Competition Games
359(1)
Final Words
360(4)
Strategies for Teaching Rhythmic Movement
364(30)
The Place of Rhythmic Movement in the Physical Education Curriculum
365(1)
The Progression Tree for Teaching Rhythmic Movement to Students
366(2)
Developing Basic Rhythm Skills
368(6)
Establishing a Four-Count Beat for Children to Follow
368(1)
Adding an Accent
369(1)
Actions in Self-Space to Rhythm
370(1)
Locomotor Movements to a Rhythm
370(2)
Adding Props
372(1)
Repeat the Above Steps with Music
373(1)
Expanding Rhythm Skills
374(2)
Moving Rhythmically to a Three-Count Beat
374(1)
Moving to One-Half Counts
374(1)
Revisiting Expanding Rhythms with Music
375(1)
Mastering Rhythm Skills
376(15)
Line Dancing
376(7)
Tinikling
383(1)
Folk Dancing
384(4)
Creating Student-Designed Rhythmic Movement Dances
388(1)
Rhythmic Dance Scripts
389(1)
Performing in Front of Others
390(1)
Final Words
391(3)
UNIT V PROMOTING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY THROUGHOUT THE SCHOOL DAY
394(61)
Strategies for Promoting Physical Activity and Fitness
397(34)
How Do We Define Physical Activity and Fitness?
399(1)
Physical Activity: How Much Do Children Get and How Much Do They Need?
400(2)
The Physical Activity Pyramid
401(1)
Fostering High Activity Levels during the Physical Education Class
402(3)
Incorporate Instant Activities
403(1)
Provide Activities for Students Who Are Waiting Their Turn
403(1)
Intersperse Activity-Oriented Tasks between Skill-Development Tasks
403(1)
Use Pedometers to Promote Awareness of Activity Levels
404(1)
Exercise for Students with Special Needs
405(1)
Project Positive Messages about Physical Activity and Fitness
405(1)
Stick to Your Physical Education Schedule
405(1)
Present Physical Education Lessons with Enthusiasm and Praise
406(1)
Promoting Cardiovascular Fitness
406(6)
Jump Rope
406(3)
Running
409(1)
Games That Promote Cardiovascular Fitness
410(1)
Cardiovascular Fitness Ideas for Students with Special Needs
411(1)
Promoting Muscular Strength and Endurance
412(9)
Developing Arm Strength and Endurance
412(5)
Developing Leg Strength and Endurance
417(1)
Developing Abdominal Strength and Endurance
418(1)
Muscle of the Week
418(1)
Muscular Strength and Endurance Ideas for Students with Special Needs
419(2)
Promoting Flexibility Through Stretching
421(4)
Stretching as the Key to Developing Flexibility
422(1)
Appropriate and Inappropriate Stretches for Children
422(2)
Games and Other Activities That Promote Flexibility
424(1)
Flexibility Ideas for Children with Special Needs
425(1)
Prompt Children to be Active Out-of-School and during Recess
425(1)
Fitness Testing and Its Role in Physical Education
425(4)
The Role of Fitness Testing
426(1)
Fitness Tests and Health Standards
427(1)
Administration of Fitness Tests
427(2)
Final Words
429(2)
Interdisciplinary Strategies for Physical Education
431(24)
Levels of Curriculum Integration
433(1)
Devising Your Own Cross-Disciplinary Topics
434(1)
Interdisciplinary Examples: Linking Physical Education Content to Other Subjects
434(11)
Linking Physical Education Content to Math Lessons
436(2)
Linking Physical Education Content to the Language Arts
438(3)
Linking Physical Education Content to the Study of Science
441(1)
Linking Physical Education Content to Social Studies
442(3)
Applying Classroom Study Topics to Physical Education Lessons
445(8)
Math Content in a Physical Education Lesson
446(1)
Language Arts Content in a Physical Education Lesson
447(2)
Science Content in a Physical Education Lesson
449(2)
Social Studies Content in a Physical Education Lesson
451(2)
Final Words
453(2)
Glossary 455(3)
Index 458(9)
Credits 467


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