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Teaching in the Elementary School : A Reflective Action Approach,9780132696180
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Teaching in the Elementary School : A Reflective Action Approach

by ; ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780132696180

ISBN10:
0132696185
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/26/2012
Publisher(s):
Pearson

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Summary

What are the behaviors or actions that teachers take to create high quality original curricula and programs for their students? The authors have searched out the most creative and adventurous teachers they could find and have weaved their real-life stories into the text. The text shows how teachers can inspire their students while still meeting the federal, state, and local guidelines and testing standards required in today's classrooms. Chapter One begins with a new, updated Reflected Action in Teaching Model designed for teachers who are planning with standards in mind. Each chapter then begins with a new case of how a teacher has tackled a problem in this standards-based environment applying this model. Both hands-on and practical, the text also addresses how to incorporate technology in the classroom, empowering students to resolve conflicts, and preventing bullying. In this sixth edition of Teaching in the Elementary Schoolthe reflective action model is explained and illustrated through new and expanded engaging case studies and classroom examples that illustrate how chapter concepts can be applied to the classroom. Readers will also find valuable coverage of differentiated instruction and collaboration. In addition, beginning teachers will find practical rubrics to help assess their continuing growth in such areas as classroom management, clarity and pacing of instruction, use of voice and body language, and much more! The real-life examples will encourage new teachers to be as reflective, creative, and independent as possible in today's teaching world.

Author Biography

Adrienne Herrell received her Ph.D. from Florida State University in early childhood educa-tion/early literacy. She retired from California State University, Fresno, where she was a profes-sor in the department of Literacy and Early Education. She taught classes in early literacy and teaching second-language learners before she retired and moved back to Florida in 2004. Adri-enne recently retired again from Florida State University.
Adrienne is author or co-author of 15 other books published by Pearson including the most re-cent: Fifty Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners (4th ed.) with Michael Jordan; Reflective Planning, Teaching and Evaluation K–12 with Judy Eby and Michael Jordan, and Thirty-Five Classroom Management Strategies: Promoting Learning and Building Community with Michael Jordan. Adrienne taught for 23 years in public schools in Florida but considers rais-ing five sons to be her most challenging and valuable life experience.

Michael Jordan has also recently retired from California State University, Fresno, where he was an associate professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction and taught classes in curriculum, classroom management, and social foundations. He has taught primary grades through high school in Georgia, Alabama, Florida, and California. Dr. Jordan is also an actor, musician, and former B-52 pilot. His work in live theatre is dedicated to providing access to the arts to children and youth. He and Dr. Herrell incorporate many dramatic reenactment strategies into their joint  research working with English learners. This is Dr. Jordan’s ninth book for Pearson.

 

Judy Eby began her teaching career at a Head Start program in Coronado, California. She has been a classroom teacher, a gifted program coordinator, a teacher educator (DePaul University, University of San Diego, and San Diego State University), and a mentor teacher in the Beginning Teacher Support Academy with the San Diego Unified School District. In 1983, she wrote a mas-ter’s thesis on gifted behavior and published two articles on that subject in Educational Leader-ship in 1983 and 1984. One of those articles caught the attention of Benjamin S. Bloom, who corresponded with Judy and wrote, “I think you are on the right track.”
This led to the opportunity to attain her Ph.D. at Northwestern University with Bloom as her dissertation chairman and advisor. In 1986, she wrote her Ph.D. dissertation on gifted behavior as a developmental process rather than an innate and unchanging trait. Essentially, she asked the question, “What are the behaviors that people use to originate and create high-quality original products in the talent area of their choice?” The 10 behaviors that she found to be correlated with this type of success are perceptiveness, active interaction with the environment, reflectiveness, persistence, independence, goal orientation, originality, productivity, self-evaluation, and com-munication of findings.
She published the Gifted Behavior Index and her first book, A Thoughtful Overview of Gifted Education, in 1990.
Turning her attention to teacher education as a professor of education at DePaul University in Chicago, Judy reinterpreted her construct of gifted behavior in terms of teacher education, and called this related construct “reflective actions in teaching.” This time she asked the question, “What are the behaviors or actions that teachers use to create high-quality original school curric-ula and programs to meet the needs of their students?” The answers to this question are contained in this textbook as a model and operational definition of reflective action teaching. Essentially, the process includes the same 10 gifted behaviors she had studied earlier, although they have been transformed into language that teachers can recognize and use to discuss issues related to their profession.
Judy has actively used her own research to make decisions about her own life choices. She feels that using reflective action has benefited her in her marriage, raising her children, friend-ships, and leisure and volunteer activities. She participates in children’s literacy programs on both sides of the San Diego-Tijuana border. Her most treasured project is the Tecolote Centro de Comunidad, a children’s center in Tijuana, where she has created a children’s library for the community. She also participates in before- and after-school programs on both sides of the bor-der.

Table of Contents

Chapter One


 

Reflective Action in Teaching   
Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
A View into the Classroom
Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
THE REFLECTIVE ACTION MODEL
Definitions of Reflective Thinking and Action   
The Reflective Practitioner
How to Develop as a Reflective Practitioner
REFELCTIVE ACTION BUILDS ON WITHITNESS   
Defining Withitness   
Reflective Action as It Relates to Withitness
 How to Improve Your Withitness
 A GRAPHIC MODEL OF REFLECTIVE ACTION IN TEACHING
 The Spiral Curriculum
 The Art of Teaching
 The Planning Process
STANDARDS THAT APPLY TO REFLECTIVE ACTION IN TEACHING
National Teaching Standards
REFLECTING ON YOUR ETHICS, BELIEFS, AND PRINCIPLES  
 Professional Organizations and Ethical Standards
Ethical Caring
INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM  
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY   
References


 

Chapter Two


 

Creating a Safe, Healthy, and Happy Classroom   
Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
A View into the Classroom
Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
Withitness, Observing Students to Learn from Them
PRACTICAL CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
Connectedness   
Strategies to Meet Students’ Needs   
Building a Cooperative Climate
PLANNING FOR THE FIRST DAY OF SCHOOL
Teaching Style
Classroom Management Strategies
Leadership Style
Monitoring Behavior
Teacher Body Language 
Proximity Control
Establishing Rules and Consequences 
How to Conduct a Rule-Setting Activity with your Class 
Using Positive Consequences and Rewards
Classroom Meetings   
How to Conduct a Class Meeting
ISSUES IN CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
 Economic and Social Differences May Cause Varied Expectations of Students
A System of Moral Discipline

Cheating by Students and Teachers

CONFRONTING SCHOOL BULLIES

 Effective Anti-Bullying Programs

 Teaching Students How to Resolve Conflicts
  Reflective Action Case Study: Teaching Language Arts Standards in Conjunction With a Conflict Resolution Unit

SCHEDULING TIME FOR ACTIVE LEARNING

 Daily and Weekly Schedules    
 Planning Time   

INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM  
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY   
References  
 

Chapter Three


 

Lesson Planning and Sequencing   
Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
A View into the Classroom
 Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
LESSON PLANNING
 Leaders in Lesson Planning
 Clarifying Educational Goals and Outcomes   
 Writing Useful and Appropriate Outcome Statements   
 Formats for Standards
WRITING OBJECTIVES TO FIT GOALS AND OUTCOME STATEMENTS   
Educational Objectives   
How to Write Behavioral Objectives
Levels of Objectives
Problem-Solving Objectives
Planning for Higher-Level Thinking   
PLANNING LESSONS FOR ACTIVE LEARNING   
Planning Assessments That Fit Your Lesson’s Objectives   
   Predicting Possible Outcomes of Your Lesson Plans   
   Adapting Activities for Differentiating Instruction
WRITING A WELL-ORGANIZED LESSON PLAN   
   Lesson Plan Models
   Special Consideration in Planning Problem-Solving Lessons
SEQUENCING OBJECTIVES IN SCHOOL SUBJECTS   
Sequencing Objectives in Mathematics   
Sequencing Objectives in Language Arts   
Sequencing Objectives in Science   
Sequencing Objectives in Social Studies   
SAMPLE LESSON PLANS   
Sample First-Grade Writing Lesson Plan   
Sample Science Lesson Plan   
Sample Social Studies Problem-Solving Lesson Plan
INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM  
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY   

References   


 

Chapter Four


 

Planning Curriculum Units  
Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
 A View into the Classroom
 Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
 What is the Role of Education?
HOW SCHOOL CURRICULA ARE PLANNED   
National Standards and Federal Mandates   
The Discussion about National Curriculum Standards
State Standards Are the Basis for Curriculum Planning   
Other Influences That Affect Curriculum Development   
Evaluation and Use of Textbooks   
PLANNING THEMATIC UNITS TO FIT YOUR CURRICULUM   
Backward Mapping: Building Units Based on State Standards
Deciding on Unit Topics   
Creating  a Curriculum Unit Using Reflective Actions   
SEQUENCING LEARNING EXPERIENCES   
DESIGNING THE CURRICULUM TO REFLECT MULTICULTURAL VALUES   
Planning Curriculum for a Multicultural, Bilingual Classroom   
Time Lines That Fit Your Goals and Outcome Statements   
Collaborative Long-Term Planning   
EXAMPLES OF LONG-TERM CURRICULUM PLANNING   
Language Arts Planning for the Primary Grades   
EXAMPLES OF THEMATIC UNITS   
A Multidisciplinary Primary Unit   
Fourth-Grade Social Studies/Literature Unit   
An Upper Elementary Mathematics Unit   
A Science Unit at Eagle Bluff Environmental Education Park 
INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM  
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY   
References   

 

Chapter Five
 

Differentiating Instruction
 Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
A View into the Classroom
Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
Starting the School Year
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND THE CLASSROOM TEACHER
 Language Scaffolding   
The Stages in Language Acquisition   
Optimal Levels of Instruction 
FIVE FACTORS IN DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION FOR DIVERSE STUDENTS  
ADDRESSING THE NEEDS OF ALL STUDENTS  
 Addressing the Needs of Gifted Students
 Addressing the Needs of Exceptional Education Students
 Addressing the Needs of Students Who are Not Working at Grade Level
 How to Plan for a Variety of Learning Styles
 Interactive Goal Setting
BUILDING SELF-ESTEEM AND INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
 The Enhancing Effects of Success
 Classrooms as Communities       
USING ASSESSMENT DEVICES TO IDENTIFY STUDENT NEEDS   
Interpreting Data from Students’ Cumulative Files   
Avoiding Student Labels
Using Pretests to Diagnose Student Needs
Placement and Grouping Decisions   
Performance Sampling   
INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM  
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY   
References 

  

Chapter Six


 

Using Teaching Strategies that Engage Students in Active, Authentic Learning   
 Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
 A View into the Classroom
 Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
 Authentic Learning
RETRIEVAL PROCESS
 Schema Theory   
 Advance Organizers   
 Differentiated Instructional Strategies FOR Authentic Learning
Acceleration Strategies
PRESENTATION SKILLS THAT INCREASE CLARITY AND MOTIVATION   
 Getting Students’ Attention   
 Enthusiasm   
 Clarity   
 Smooth Transitions   
 Timing   
 Variation   
 Interaction   
 Closure   
Active, Authentic Learning Experiences
SYSTEMATIC CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION   
 How to Provide Direct Instruction of New Knowledge and Skills   
 Teacher Modeling and Demonstration   
 Structuring Tasks for Success  
Matching Learning Styles and Teaching Styles   
    Learning Experiences Designed for Multiple Intelligences    
INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM  
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY   
References   

 

 

Chapter Seven

Developing a Repertoire of Teaching Strategies
 Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
 A View into the Classroom
 Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
EXAMPLES OF TEACHING STRATEGIES IN ACTION   
 Discovery Learning   
 Inquiry Training   
 Role Playing  
 Story Telling
 Simulation   
 Mastery Learning   
 Contracts for Independent Learning   
 Reflective Action Case Study: Establishing Learning Centers  
COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES   
 Learning Teams Enhance Achievement   
 Cooperative Learning of the Basic Skills   
 Cooperative Learning in Science  
 Creating Well-Balanced Cooperative Groups    
 The Effects of Cooperative Learning
ADDITIONAL FORMATS FOR COOPERATIVE GROUPS  
 Literature Circles   
 Peacemaking Groups   
INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM  
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY   
References   

 

Chapter Eight


 

Engaging Students in Classroom Discussions
 Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
  A View into the Classroom
 Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
ASKING QUESTIONS THAT STIMULATE HIGHER LEVEL THINKING   
STRATEGIES FOR INTERACTIVE DISCUSSIONS   
 Problem-Solving Discussions   
 Group Investigations   
 Discussions That Promote Critical Thinking   
 Discussions That Improve Observation Skills   
 Discussions That Enhance Comparing Skills   
 Discussions That Guide Classification Skills   
 Discussions That Identify Assumptions   
 Socratic Dialogues   
 Discussions That Enhance Creative Thinking   
 Discussions That Encourage Imagination and Inventiveness   
 Prewriting Discussions   
 Discussions That Address Multiple Intelligences   
ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN LEADING DISCUSSIONS   
 How to Encourage Participation in Class Discussion
INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM  
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY   
References   

 

Chapter Nine


 

Balancing Standards and Creative Activities   
 Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
  A View into the Classroom
 Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
THE IMPORTANCE OF IMAGINATIVE CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES
PROVIDIING MATERIALS FOR CREATIVE PROJECTS
 Materials from Homes   
 Materials from Merchants   
 Other Sources of Materials   
SETTING A CREATIVE TONE   
The Importance of a Creative Atmosphere in School
How to Encourage Creativity in Children   
The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy   
Stereotypes Stifle Creativity   
Ways to Demonstrate Valuing Creativity   
Core Attitudes in Creative Thought   
Creativity in the Language Arts   
E-mail Stories   
Creative Activities in Mathematics   
Creative Activities in Social Sciences   
Creative Activities in Science   
Creative Activities in the Visual and Performing Arts   
Humor and Creativity   
            Styles of Humor-Oriented Teaching   
Creative Training   
INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM  
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY   
References   


Chapter Ten


 

Assessing and Reporting Student Accomplishments   
 Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
  A View into the Classroom
 Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
HOW TEACHERS SELECT AND USE ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES   
 Informal Observations   
 Performance Tasks to Show Mastery of Objectives     
 Criterion-Referenced Quizzes and Tests   
 Mastery Learning Assessment   
 Essays Evaluated with Rubric Guidelines   
 Oral Reports and Examinations   
DESIGNING AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT TASKS   
 Rubrics, Checklists, and Rating Scales   
 Learning Contracts   
 Portfolios of Student Products   
 Reflective Action Case Study: Teacher’s Reflection on Portfolio Assessment  
 VideoRecords   
GRADING COOPERATIVE GROUP PROJECTS AND PRODUCTS   
REPORTING STUDENT ACCOMPLISHMENTS   
 Computation of Grades   
 Using  Anecdotal Records to Report Progress  
INVOLVING STUDENTS IN EVALUATION PROCEDURES   
INVOLVING THE LARGER EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY
GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM  
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY   
References   

 

Chapter Eleven


 

Involving the Larger Community: Collaboration to Support Continuous Im-provement
 Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
  A View into the Classroom
 Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
KEY PLAYERS IN EDUCATIONAL COLLABORATION

 Administrators and Their Role in Collaboration

 Parents as Team Members

 How to Encourage Parent Involvement

 Local Museums, Libraries, and Learning Sources

 How to Use Museums and Libraries in Planning Curriculum

 Expanding the Collaboration: Other Community Resources, Businesses, Individuals

 How to Tap into Community Resources for Support for Your School

AN EXAMPLE OF A SUCCESSFUL COLLABORATION: THE CONTINUOUS IMPROVE-MENT MODEL

 Key Tenants of CIM

 The “Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA) Cycle

 No Excuses

 Planning for Success: Tutorials and Enrichment

 The Rewards of Continuous Improvement

 Planning Tutorials

 How to Plan Enrichment Activities

 A Summary and Review of the Continuous Improvement Model

 Measures of Pupil Achievement as an Indicator of Program Success

CONSIDERING THE NEEDS OF THE COMMUNITY

HOW TO GET EVERYONE INVOLVED

GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM  
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY   
References   

 


Chapter Twelve


 

Improving the Effectiveness of Your Teaching

 Questions for reflection as you read the chapter
  A View into the Classroom
  Reflecting on the Classroom Experience
RESOURCES FOR PROFESSIONAL GROWTH

 Professional Organizations, Journals, and Conferences

 Personal Research

SELF REFLECTION AND IMPROVEMENT PLANS

 How to Improve the Effectiveness and Use of Your Voice and Body Language

 Symptoms

 Solutions

 Self-Reflection Rubric

 Clarity and Pace in Your Presentations

 Symptoms

 Solutions

 How to Improve Clarity and Pacing in Your Teaching

 Self-Reflection Rubric

 How to Improve Your Classroom Management

 Symptoms

 Solutions

 Some Common Classroom Management Situations
 Self-Reflection Rubric

GROUP FOCUS ACTIVITY
PREPARING FOR YOU LICENSURE EXAM  
PORTFOLIO OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES ACTIVITY   
References

 

Name Index  


Subject Index   

 



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