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Teaching English Learners : Methods and Strategies,9780205355433
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Teaching English Learners : Methods and Strategies

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780205355433

ISBN10:
0205355439
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2004
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
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Summary

"Written in Lynne Diaz-Rico's passionate style, the second edition of Strategies for Teaching English Learners continues to be a one-stop introduction to teaching English to speakers of other languages. It includes an introduction to the fascinating challenges of teaching English learners and offers a comprehensive overview of learning theories and teaching strategies."--BOOK JACKET.

Author Biography

Lynne Diaz-Rico is Professor of Education and Coordinator of the Master of Arts in Education, Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages program at California State University, San Bernardino.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
Strategies for Teaching English Learners: A Summary xxv
Who Are English Learners and Their Teachers?
1(20)
The Profession of Teaching English Learners
1(9)
Educational Terminology
5(1)
Critical Perspectives
5(2)
Challenges for Teachers of English Learners
7(1)
Languages at Risk
7(3)
Who Are English Learners and What Are Their Needs?
10(7)
U.S. Demographics
10(1)
ESL Services for English Learners
11(1)
Career Preparation for ESL Teaching
12(1)
International Demographics of English
13(1)
Contexts for English Teaching Worldwide
14(2)
Teaching English around the World
16(1)
English as an International Language (EIL)
17(2)
Professional Organizations for Teachers of English Learners
19(2)
TESOL, Inc., as an Organization
19(1)
Finding a Job Teaching English Learners
20(1)
Critical Roles for Teachers
21(9)
Educators as Critical Pedagogists
21(3)
What Is Critical Pedagogy?
21(1)
Critical Pedagogy as a Method
22(1)
Contrasting Critical Pedagogy with Banking Models of Instruction
23(1)
Sample Topics Used for Problem Posing
23(1)
A Critical Sociological Look at Language and Power
24(1)
Tollefson: Power and Inequality in Language Education
25(1)
Foucault: The Power of Discursive Practices
25(1)
Bourdieu: Language as Social Capital
26(1)
Cummins: Language Policies as Emancipatory
26(1)
Fairclough: Critical Language Analysis
26(2)
Profession, Policy, and Power in the Education of English Learners
28(2)
Views of Teaching and Learning
30(36)
Philosophy, Psychology, Anthropology, Sociology, and Postmodern Pedagogy
30(1)
Teaching the Whole Person
31(1)
Philosophical Foundations of Education
31(1)
Progressivism
31(1)
Traditionalism
32(1)
Belief Systems and Teaching
32(1)
Educational Psychology: Behavioral Methods
32(4)
Grammar Translation
33(1)
The Rise of Experimental Behaviorism
33(1)
The Audiolingual Method
34(1)
Total Physical Response
34(1)
Direct Teaching and Mastery Learning
35(1)
Advantages of Behavioral Methods
36(1)
Disadvantages of Behavioral Methods
36(1)
Educational Psychology: Cognitive Methods
36(11)
Generative Grammar
37(1)
Krashen's Monitor Model
37(1)
Stages of Development
38(1)
Information-Processing Theories of Mental Functioning
39(2)
Alternative Theories of Mental Functioning
41(1)
Brain-Compatible Learning
42(2)
Neurolinguistic Research Based on Study of Brain Function
44(1)
Cognitive Teaching Means a Focus on Learning
45(1)
Comparing the Cognitive View with Behaviorism
45(1)
Learning Styles and Strategies
45(1)
Constructivist Learning
46(1)
Humanistic Education: Affective and Emotional Factors
47(8)
Integrating Cognitive and Affective Learning
47(1)
Self-Esteem
47(3)
Motivation
50(1)
Anxiety
51(1)
Attitudes of the Learner
52(1)
Other Affective Factors
53(1)
Motivating Students Humanistically
53(1)
The Teacher as Counselor
54(1)
Cultural Anthropology and Education
55(5)
Communicative Competence
56(2)
Social Contexts for Language Learning
58(1)
Activity Theory
59(1)
Communities of Practice
59(1)
Culture and Schooling
59(1)
The Study of Classroom Discourse
59(1)
Culturally Responsive Teaching
60(1)
Looking Forward: Postmodernism
60(4)
Modernism versus Postmodernism
60(1)
Modernism
60(1)
Postmodernism
61(1)
Implications of Postmodernism for Educators
62(2)
New Roles for English Educators
64(1)
The Future of Teaching English Learners
64(2)
Learner Strategies
65(1)
Strategies Influenced by the Institution
65(1)
Strategies Influenced by the Sociocultural Context
65(1)
Performance-Based Learning
66(35)
Why Performance-Based Learning?
66(1)
What Is Performance-Based Learning?
66(1)
Standards-Based Learning
67(6)
TESOL Standards
68(1)
Program Standards
69(1)
Instruction Aligned with TESOL Standards
69(1)
English-Language Development Standards
70(3)
Incorporating Standards into Lesson Plans
73(1)
What Is the Best Use of Assessment?
73(3)
The Changing Nature of Assessment
74(1)
The Role of Assessment in the Integrated Curriculum
75(1)
What Is Performance-Based Assessment?
76(1)
Methods of Assessment
77(7)
Assessment Terms
77(1)
Standardized and Less Standardized Assessment
77(1)
Standardized Proficiency Tests
78(1)
Teacher- and Student-Created Rubrics
79(2)
Teacher-Constructed Tests
81(1)
Portfolio Assessment
81(1)
Teacher Observation and Evaluation
82(1)
Grading
82(1)
Student Self-Assessment and Peer Assessment
82(1)
Other Types of Tests
82(2)
Identification, Assessment, and Placement of English Learners in the Schools
84(1)
Identification Procedures for English Learners
84(1)
Assessment for Placement
84(1)
Redesignation and Exit Procedures
85(1)
Limitations of Assessment
85(2)
Difficulties in the Testing Situation
86(1)
Cautions about Testing
86(1)
Academic Expectations
87(4)
How Teacher Expectations Are Formed and Communicated to Students and How Students Respond
87(3)
Student Control over Classroom Learning
90(1)
Intercultural Communication of Expectations
90(1)
Planning Instruction
91(2)
Constructivist Planning
91(1)
The Direct Teaching Model
92(1)
Modifying the Direct Teaching Model
92(1)
Matching Performance and Assessment
93(7)
Setting Objectives
93(1)
Tasks as Objectives
94(1)
Task Chains
94(1)
Assessing the Task Chain
95(1)
Formative Assessment
95(1)
Summative Assessment, Culminating Performance, and Metalearning
96(4)
Monitoring and Adjusting Instruction
100(1)
Learner Strategies and Learner-Focused Teaching
101(42)
Learner Control and Academic Competence
101(2)
Learner Autonomy: Self-Motivation and Self-Management
103(2)
Self-Management
104(1)
Self-Managed Instruction
104(1)
Self-Efficacy
104(1)
Student Responsibility for Learning
105(1)
What Are Learner Strategies?
105(2)
Indirect and Direct Strategies
106(1)
Strategy-Based Instruction
106(1)
Indirect Strategies: Second-Language Acquisition and Use
107(2)
What Are Second-Language Use Strategies?
107(2)
Indirect Strategies: Learning Style Preferences
109(5)
Typologies of Learning Styles
110(2)
Learning Styles Applied to the ESL/EFL Classroom
112(1)
Cultural Differences in Learning Styles
112(1)
Measuring Learning Styles
112(1)
Adapting Instruction to Learning Styles
113(1)
Direct Strategies: Cognitive
114(10)
Schema Building
114(1)
Scaffolding
115(1)
Alternative Information Representation and Graphic Organizers
115(7)
Critical Thinking
122(1)
Creative Thinking and Risk Taking
122(2)
Direct Strategies: Metacognitive
124(2)
Direct Strategies: Social-Affective
126(1)
Student Opportunities to Cooperate
126(1)
Maintaining the First Language as an Affective Strategy
127(1)
Direct Strategies: Academic Survival and Study Skills
127(5)
Academic Survival Skills
127(1)
Native-Language Cultural Skills and Experiences
128(1)
Target-Language Culture Skills
128(1)
Knowledge about the Culture of Academia in the Target Language
128(2)
Study Skills
130(1)
Text Processing and Time Management
131(1)
ESL and the Content Areas
132(6)
Content-Based Instruction in ESL
132(1)
Collaboration and Reciprocity
133(1)
CBI-ESL: Lesson Planning
134(1)
Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE)
134(4)
Computer-Assisted Language Learning/Computer-Mediated Communication
138(5)
CALL and Second-Language Acquisition
139(4)
Learning Processes That Build on the First Language
143(57)
Literacy and Power
143(1)
Reading Processes
144(21)
Purposes for Reading
144(1)
Standards-Based Reading Instruction
145(1)
Emergent Literacy
146(1)
Language Experience Approach
147(1)
Direct Teaching of Reading
148(1)
The Basics of Learning to Read
149(4)
The Three-Stage Reading Process
153(1)
Schemata for the Reading Process
153(7)
Focus on Acquisition Vocabulary
160(1)
Transition Reading
160(1)
Stages of Reading Development for English Learners
161(1)
Teaching Strategies for Comprehension
161(1)
Teaching Literature
162(3)
Writing Processes
165(12)
The Role of Writing in Academic Literacies
166(1)
Writing as a Social Construction
167(1)
What Do Writers Need?
167(2)
Stages of Writing Development for Young English Learners
169(1)
The Writing Workshop
170(1)
The Writing Process: Prewriting
170(1)
The Writing Process: Drafting
171(1)
Self-Correction and Revision
171(1)
Feedback through Peer Response and Writing Conferences
172(1)
The Writing Process: Editing
173(1)
Error Correction
173(1)
Publishing
174(1)
Issues with ESL Writing
174(3)
Listening Processes
177(6)
Listening to Repeat: The Audiolingual Legacy
178(1)
Listening to Understand: The Task Approach
179(1)
Listening for Communication
180(1)
Before Listening
180(1)
While Listening
181(1)
After Listening
182(1)
Authentic Tasks in and out of the Real World
183(1)
Speaking Processes
183(17)
Difficulties with Spoken Discourse
184(1)
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
185(1)
Developing Oral Language
186(1)
Situations for Spoken Discourse
187(1)
Resources for Spoken Discourse
187(1)
Improving Pronunciation
188(1)
Before Speaking
189(1)
While Speaking
190(1)
After Speaking
191(1)
Speaking Games and Tasks
191(2)
Oral Discourse and Critical Communicative Competence
193(5)
Summary: The Conversant Student
198(2)
The Learning Process and the Imaginary
200(39)
The Importance of the Imaginary
200(1)
Exploring the Imagination
201(4)
Lozanov's Suggestopedia Revisited
201(1)
Lacan's Personality Theory and the Imaginary
202(1)
The Imaginary and English Learning
203(1)
The Imaginary and the Development of Personality
203(1)
The Imaginative Function of Language
204(1)
Stimulating the Imagination Directly
205(4)
Guided Imagery
205(2)
Creative Environments
207(1)
Comics
207(1)
Curriculum That Stimulates the Imagination
208(1)
Drama in the Classroom
209(15)
Classroom Dramatics
210(4)
Play Scripts as Literary Text
214(1)
Role Play
215(2)
Readers Theater
217(2)
Puppetry
219(1)
Storytelling
220(4)
Poetry and the Muse
224(9)
A Universal Language
224(1)
The Sound of Poetry
225(1)
Poetry as Vocabulary Development
226(1)
Types of Poems
227(2)
Writing Poetry
229(1)
Connecting Visual and Poetic
230(1)
Poetry Interpretation
231(2)
Music: Listening, Playing, Singing, Creating
233(4)
Popular Music
233(2)
Culturally Authentic Music
235(1)
Jazz Chants
236(1)
Singing Games
236(1)
The Virtues of the Imaginary
237(2)
Grammar through Integrated Language Skills and Wonderful English
239(27)
English Is Democratic and Creative
239(1)
Why Integrated Skills?
240(1)
Integrated Instructional Activities
241(3)
Learner Output
241(1)
Content: Flexible, Thematic Curriculum
242(2)
The History of English
244(8)
From Old to Middle English
244(2)
Middle English
246(1)
The Dual Nature of English
246(3)
English: Innovative and Unregulated
249(3)
The Curiosity and Beauty of English
252(5)
Assets of English
253(1)
Complexities of English
254(1)
Beauty in Nuance and Sound
255(2)
Teaching Grammar
257(2)
Grammar as System
258(1)
Grammar and Emotion
258(1)
Grammar Games
259(1)
Correct Usage and Discourse Competence
259(7)
Prescriptive Language and Usage Wars
259(3)
A Schema for Literature, ESL, Grammar, and Usage
262(1)
Integrating Grammar into the Curriculum
263(3)
Culturally Based Language Teaching
266(26)
Culture and Language Teaching
266(1)
The Skills and Responsibilities of the Intercultural Educator
267(2)
Culturally Derived Learning Styles and Strategies
269(4)
Values, Beliefs, and Practices
270(1)
Social Customs
270(1)
Rites, Rituals, and Ceremonies
271(1)
Work and Leisure Systems
271(1)
Health and Medicine
271(1)
Institutional Influences: Economic, Legal, Political, and Religious
272(1)
Language-Related Behaviors and Beliefs
272(1)
Educational Systems
272(1)
Culturally Compatible Instruction
273(4)
Ethnographic Study
273(1)
Self-Study
274(1)
Cultural Observations
274(1)
Interviews
275(1)
Home Visits
275(1)
Sources for Learning about Cultures
275(1)
Culturally Responsive Pedagogy
276(1)
Teaching Styles (Cultural Orientation)
276(1)
Teacher-Student Interactions
277(1)
Classroom Organization and Curriculum
277(1)
Assuming a Bicultural Identity
277(3)
Culture as Content
280(7)
Why Teach Language Using Culture?
280(1)
Culture of the Target Language
280(3)
English Teaching Using the Native Culture
283(4)
Bias in Teaching about Culture
287(1)
Crosscultural Studies
287(3)
Achieving Ethnorelativism
288(1)
Deeper Crosscultural Comparison
288(2)
Teaching Crosscultural Content
290(1)
Using Intercultural Communication to Teach English
290(2)
Beyond Superficial Communication
290(1)
Intercultural Conflict
290(2)
Discourse in the Classrooms of English Learners
292(15)
What Is Classroom Discourse?
292(2)
Language Teachers at the Edge
292(1)
The Language and Culture of Schooling
293(1)
Linguistic Features of Classroom Discourse
294(1)
What Discourse Genres Are Common in U.S. Classrooms?
294(9)
The Recitation Pattern: A Typical Learning Encounter
295(1)
Sociohistorical Features of the Recitation Pattern
296(1)
Instructional Features of the Recitation Pattern
296(1)
Recitation Pattern: Critique
297(1)
Recitation Pattern: Questioning Strategies
297(3)
Cooperative Learning as an Alternative Pattern
300(1)
The Instructional Conversation (IC) as a Discourse Alternative
301(2)
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
303(2)
The Language of Thought
303(2)
The Teacher's Role in Promoting CALP
305(1)
Discourse That Affirms Students' Voices
305(2)
Dual-Language Proficiency
307(16)
Schooling in Two Languages
307(4)
Why Dual-Language Acquisition?
307(1)
Bilingual Education and the Teaching of English
308(1)
Submersion (Sink or Swim)
308(1)
Transitional Bilingual and Structured Immersion Programs
309(2)
Dual-Literacy Programs: An Introduction
311(4)
Developmental Bilingual Programs in the United States
311(1)
Second-and Foreign-Language Immersion Programs for Majority-Language Students
312(1)
Two-Way Immersion Programs for Majority-Language and Minority-Language Students
312(2)
Advocacy for Dual-Language Programs
314(1)
The Role of Monolingual English Instructors in a Dual-Language Program
315(1)
Biliteracy in a TWI Context
315(3)
Complexities of Biliteracy
315(1)
Questions about Biliteracy
316(1)
A Teaching Unit in Two Languages
316(2)
Principles of Language Transfer
318(5)
Metalinguistic Awareness and Common Underlying Proficiency
318(1)
Teaching for Transfer: Language Acquisition Processes
319(2)
Biliteracy and Biculturality
321(2)
Teaching English in Context
323(25)
Dialects in English
324(12)
Dialects and the Education of English Learners
324(2)
Common Features That Constitute Dialects
326(2)
How Dialects Exhibit Social and Ethnic Differences
328(1)
Attitudes Toward Dialects
329(2)
Dialects and Speaking Style
331(2)
Gender and Language Variation
333(3)
Vernacular Dialects and Language Teaching
336(1)
Teaching Standard English: Whose Standard?
336(1)
Language Variety as a Goal of Instruction
337(2)
Some Sample Registers in Oracy
338(1)
Some Sample Registers in Literacy
338(1)
Gender-Typical Registers
339(1)
Teaching Oral Register Shifts
339(1)
Situated Literacy and Academic Registers
339(9)
The Individual World of Literacy
340(1)
Situated Literacy: Synthesis of Practices
340(1)
Teaching Academic Registers
341(3)
Academic Competence: Psychological Factors
344(1)
Academic Competence: Sociocultural Factors
344(1)
Academic Competence Demanded to Perform Undergraduate-Level Academic Writing
344(1)
Academic Competence Demanded to Perform Graduate-Level Academic Writing
345(1)
Task Demands of Academic Writing in an MATESOL Program
346(2)
Building a Community of Learners
348(30)
What Is a Community of Learners?
348(15)
The Classroom as a Community
349(2)
Forming a Learning Community
351(1)
Critical Perspectives on Community Involvement
351(1)
Listening to the Learner
352(2)
Not-So-Critical Perspectives on Community Involvement
354(1)
A Model for Community Involvement
355(8)
Why Involve Families?
363(7)
Changing Definitions of Family Involvement
364(1)
Recognizing Rights of Families
364(1)
Issues in Family Involvement
365(2)
Myths about Families and Other Communication Barriers
367(1)
Enhancing Home-School Communication
367(1)
Teacher-Family Conferences
367(2)
How Families Can Assist in a Child's Learning
369(1)
A Model of Home-School Relationships
370(1)
Community Funds of Knowledge
370(4)
Transformative School-Community Partnerships
374(2)
Empowerment as a Goal
374(1)
Getting to Know the Community
374(1)
School Partnerships with Community-Based Organizations
375(1)
Community Support for English Learners
375(1)
The Idea of Community
376(2)
Project-Based Learning
378(24)
Why Projects?
378(8)
Facing the Real World
378(1)
Characteristics of PBL
379(1)
Benefits of PBL
379(1)
Projects Are Collaborative
379(1)
The Teacher as Guide
380(1)
Skill Integration
381(1)
Design, Documentation, and Discourse
382(1)
Representation
382(2)
Thematic Units
384(1)
Projects at Urban High Schools
384(1)
Community-Based Projects
385(1)
Project-Based Learning in EFL
385(1)
Projects in Intensive English Programs
385(1)
Projects in Teacher Education
386(1)
Choosing a Project Topic
386(5)
Mapping the Project
389(1)
Topics across Disciplines
390(1)
Envisioning Success
390(1)
Project Focus and Development
391(6)
Project Development
391(1)
The Planning Cycle
392(1)
Task Representation
393(1)
Example of the Desired Product
394(1)
Guided Implementation
395(1)
Self-Checking (Quality Control)
396(1)
Recommendation for Improvement
397(1)
Project Documentation and Evaluation
397(5)
Process Counts
397(1)
Student Presentation of Product
397(1)
Feedback and Reflection
398(1)
Planning for Assessment
398(1)
Conducting Project Assessment
399(1)
Criteria for Project Assessment
400(2)
Learning English through Service to the Community
402(15)
Why Service Learning?
402(4)
Definitions
402(1)
Extent of Participation
403(1)
Components of Service Learning
404(1)
Benefits of Service Learning
405(1)
What Constitutes Good Service-Learning Pedagogy?
406(1)
Students Serving Others: Some Examples
406(1)
Building Relationships with Service Agencies
406(2)
Reciprocity
407(1)
Types of Service-Learning Opportunities
407(1)
Identification of Community Partners
407(1)
Designing a Service-Learning Project
408(3)
Determining the Learning Goal(s)
409(1)
Proposing Performance-Based Results
410(1)
Monitoring and Evaluating Service Learning
411(5)
The Reflective Component
411(2)
Assessing Performance-Based Results
413(2)
The Critical Component
415(1)
Finding Out More about Service Learning
416(1)
Appendix A Influencing Language Policies to Benefit English Learners
417(6)
Policy at the Classroom Level
417(1)
Policy at the School Level
418(1)
Involving Parents in Policy Making
419(1)
Policy Decisions in Local School Districts
419(1)
Professional Organizations and Service
420(1)
Influencing Community Public Opinion
420(1)
Influencing Legislation and Public Opinion
421(1)
Influencing Federal Policies
421(1)
The National Spirit
421(2)
Appendix B Bibliography of Works Used for Visual Imaginary Dramatic Arts
423(2)
Bibliography 425(32)
Author Index 457(7)
Subject Index 464


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