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Teaching Individuals With Physical or Multiple Disabilities,9780131121225
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Teaching Individuals With Physical or Multiple Disabilities

by ; ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780131121225

ISBN10:
0131121227
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $122.66
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Summary

For undergraduate and graduate curriculum methods courses in Physical, Health and/or Multiple Disabilities, Disabilities courses or Severe Disabilities courses. Advocating "low tech" solutions to "high tech" problems, this unique text provides special educators and others with information, knowledge, and strategies for creating meaningful educational experiences for significantly challenged learners. This comprehensive text describes the implications of physical, health, and/or multiple disabilities. It illustrates ways to facilitate student participation in major life activities at home, in school, and within community environments. It addresses curriculum modifications and instructional strategies related both to core academic curriculum and to the specialized curriculum areas critical for these students. It also emphasizes physical access to the general curriculum, adaptations, and instructional strategies to help ensure students with disabilities the chance to reach their physical and multiple highest potential.

Table of Contents

PART I Impact and Implications of Physical, Health, and Multiple Disabilities
1(110)
Definitions, Supports, Issues, and Services in Schools and Communities
3(28)
Historical Perspectives
4(2)
Past and Present Perspectives
4(1)
The Disability Rights Movement
5(1)
Coming to Terms with Terminology
6(3)
Impairment, Disability, Handicap
6(1)
DisAbility
7(1)
Federal Categories and Definitions
8(1)
Legal Supports and Mandates
9(3)
PL 93-112: The Rehabilitation Act of 1973
10(1)
PL 94-142: The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975
10(1)
PL 100-407: Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988
10(1)
PL 101-336: Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
10(1)
PL 101-392: Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act of 1990
11(1)
PL 101-476: The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 1990
11(1)
PL 105-17: The IDEA Amendments of 1997
11(1)
Critical Issues for Individuals with Physical, Health, or Multiple Disabilities
12(4)
Alike and Different
12(1)
Visible and Invisible
12(1)
Acute and Chronic
13(1)
Appropriate Accommodation
13(2)
Service Intensity and Personal Independence Issues
15(1)
Educational Goals and Expected Outcomes
16(1)
Teaching and Learning Environments
16(4)
Education Service Delivery Systems
16(2)
Challenges to Effective Service Delivery
18(2)
Teacher Competencies and Evolving Roles
20(6)
Knowledge and Skills
20(1)
Professional Roles
21(5)
Summary and Conclusion
26(1)
Questions for Discussion
26(1)
Focus on the Net
27(1)
References
28(3)
Physical Disabilities
31(28)
Neuromotor Impairments
32(1)
Neural Tube Defects
32(6)
Descriptions and Characteristics
32(1)
Associated Medical Conditions
33(1)
Medical and Therapeutic Treatments
34(1)
Impact on Physical, Cognitive, and Psychosocial Development
34(1)
Implications for Education and Personal Autonomy
35(2)
Implications for Career and Adult Outcomes
37(1)
Traumatic Brain Injury
38(8)
Descriptions and Characteristics
38(1)
Associated Medical Conditions
39(1)
Medical and Therapeutic Treatments
39(1)
Impact on Physical, Cognitive, and Psychosocial Development
40(5)
Implications for Education and Personal Autonomy
45(1)
Implications for Career and Adult Outcomes
46(1)
Degenerative Diseases
46(1)
Muscular Dystrophy
46(5)
Definitions and Descriptions
46(2)
Associated Medical Conditions
48(1)
Medical and Therapeutic Treatments
48(1)
Impact on Physical, Cognitive, and Psychosocial Development
49(1)
Implications for Education and Personal Autonomy
50(1)
Implications for Career and Adult Outcomes
51(1)
Orthopedic and Musculoskeletal Conditions
51(1)
Limb Deficiencies
51(3)
Definitions and Descriptions
51(1)
Associated Medical Conditions
52(1)
Medical and Therapeutic Treatments
52(1)
Impact on Physical, Cognitive, and Psychosocial Development
53(1)
Implications for Education and Personal Autonomy
53(1)
Implications for Career and Adult Outcomes
54(1)
Summary and Conclusion
54(1)
Questions for Discussion
55(1)
Focus on the Net
55(1)
References
56(3)
Health Impairments and Infectious Diseases
59(28)
Health Impairments
60(1)
Asthma
61(4)
Definitions and Descriptions
61(1)
Associated Medical Conditions
62(1)
Medical and Therapeutic Treatments
62(1)
Impact on Physical, Cognitive, and Psychosocial Development
63(1)
Implications for Education and Personal Autonomy
63(1)
Implications for Career and Adult Outcomes
64(1)
Cystic Fibrosis
65(3)
Definitions and Descriptions
65(1)
Associated Medical Conditions
66(1)
Medical and Therapeutic Treatments
66(1)
Impact on Physical, Cognitive, and Psychosocial Development
66(1)
Implications for Education and Personal Autonomy
67(1)
Implications for Career and Adult Outcomes
67(1)
Cancer
68(2)
Definitions and Descriptions
68(1)
Associated Medical Conditions
68(1)
Medical and Therapeutic Treatments
68(1)
Impact on Physical, Cognitive, and Psychosocial Development
69(1)
Implications for Education and Personal Autonomy
70(1)
Implications for Career and Adult Outcomes
70(1)
Infectious Diseases
70(1)
Cytomegalovirus
71(1)
Definitions and Descriptions
71(1)
Associated Medical Conditions
71(1)
Medical and Therapeutic Treatments
71(1)
Impact on Physical, Cognitive, and Psychosocial Development
71(1)
Implications for Education and Personal Autonomy
72(1)
Implications for Career and Adult Outcomes
72(1)
HIV/AIDS
72(4)
Definitions and Descriptions
72(1)
Associated Medical Conditions
73(1)
Medical and Therapeutic Treatments
73(1)
Impact on Physical, Cognitive, and Psychosocial Development
74(1)
Implications for Education and Personal Autonomy
74(1)
Implications for Career and Adult Outcomes
75(1)
Special Topics in Health Care
76(5)
Meeting Specialized Health Care Needs
76(3)
Preventing Infectious Disease Transmission and Implementing Universal Precautions
79(2)
Summary and Conclusion
81(1)
Questions for Discussion
81(1)
Focus on the Net
82(1)
References
82(5)
Cerebral Palsy
87(24)
Cerebral Palsy
88(1)
Definitions and Descriptions
88(1)
Classification of Cerebral Palsy
89(1)
Location---Topography
89(1)
Movement---Motor Pattern
89(1)
Function---Level of Severity
90(1)
Conditions Associated with Cerebral Palsy
90(3)
Sensory Impairments
91(1)
Communication Impairments
91(1)
Orthopedic Deformities
92(1)
Nutrition and Feeding Needs
92(1)
Cognitive Deficits
92(1)
Learning Disabilities
92(1)
Seizures
93(1)
Therapeutic Management of Cerebral Palsy
93(4)
Physical Therapy
93(1)
Occupational Therapy
93(4)
Medical Treatment of Cerebral Palsy
97(1)
Orthotics
97(1)
Medication and Injections
97(1)
Surgery
98(1)
Developmental Issues in Cerebral Palsy
98(6)
Physical Development
98(1)
Physical Management Strategies
98(4)
Communication Development
102(1)
Social/Emotional Development
103(1)
Implications for Education
104(2)
Educational Segregation
104(1)
Learning Disabilities
104(1)
Personal Autonomy
105(1)
Career and Adult Function
106(1)
Summary and Conclusion
106(1)
Questions for Discussion
106(1)
Focus on the Net
107(1)
References
107(4)
PART II Accommodations for Curricular Access
111(164)
Curricular Options for Individuals with Physical or Multiple Disabilities
113(38)
Curricular Options and Fundamental Curricular Domains
115(28)
Option 1: General Education Curriculum with Accommodations
115(5)
Option 2: General Education Curriculum with Accommodations and Modifications
120(6)
Option 3: Life Skills Curriculum
126(3)
Option 4: Curriculum with Modified Means of Communication and Task Performance
129(7)
Fundamental Curricular Domain 1: Self-Determination
136(1)
Fundamental Curricular Domain 2: Transition Education
137(6)
Working Collaboratively to Determine Curriculum Needs for Individuals
143(2)
Developing Courses of Study and Crafting a Curricula Map
145(2)
Summary and Conclusion
147(1)
Questions for Discussion
148(1)
Focus on the Net
148(1)
References
149(2)
Task and Situation Analysis
151(28)
Purposes of Task and Situation Analysis
152(1)
Process and Product
152(1)
Task Analysis as an Assessment Tool
152(1)
Order of Tasks
153(1)
Task Analysis Process
153(14)
Using Typical Sequences as Guides
155(2)
Defining Results of Unsuccessful Trials
157(1)
Differentiating Motor from Cognitive Difficulties
158(2)
Identifying Student Response Difficulties and Needs in Lessons
160(1)
Determining Kinds and Amounts of Assistance Needed
161(6)
Task Analysis as a Product
167(2)
Screening Performances
167(1)
Comparing Skills of Different Students
167(1)
Developing Specialized Curricula
167(2)
Situation Analysis
169(4)
Teacher Recollections
171(1)
Questionnaire for Similar-Age Peers
172(1)
Student Strategies
173(3)
Learning and Practicing Self-Care Routines
173(1)
Analyzing Bodies of Information
174(1)
Solving Personal Access Problems
174(2)
Summary and Conclusion
176(1)
Questions for Discussion
176(1)
Focus on the Net
177(1)
References
177(2)
Assistive Technology
179(48)
Definitions and Legal Basis for Assistive Technology
180(1)
Assistive Technology Devices and Services
181(3)
Determining the Need for Assistive Technology
184(2)
Considering the Need for Assistive Technology
184(2)
Assistive Technology and Assessment
186(1)
Assessing an Individual's Need for Assistive Technology
186(6)
Team Assessment Principles and Practices
186(4)
Extended Assessment or Trial Use
190(2)
Selecting and Acquiring Assistive Technology
192(4)
Determination of Desired Product Features
193(1)
Product Specifications and Demonstrations
193(1)
Product Searches and Ordering
193(1)
Writing Assistive Technology into the IEP
194(2)
Positioning and Seating
196(15)
Positioning
196(2)
Seating
198(3)
Assistive Devices for Positioning and Seating
201(2)
Safe Transfers
203(1)
Location
203(1)
Mobility
204(1)
Manual Wheelchairs
204(1)
Power Wheelchairs
205(2)
Travel Stroller Chairs
207(1)
Mobility Variations
207(4)
Architectural Access Modifications
211(1)
Environmental and Object Modification
211(6)
Location of Materials and Equipment
211(2)
Work Surface Modifications
213(1)
Object Modifications
214(3)
Environmental Control
217(3)
Assistive Technology for Sensory Impairments
220(1)
Assistive Technology and Hearing Loss
220(1)
Assistive Technology and Visual Impairments
221(1)
Summary and Conclusion
221(1)
Questions for Discussion
222(1)
Focus on the Net
223(1)
References
224(3)
Augmentative and Alternative Communication
227(48)
Nonsymbolic Communication
228(6)
Form, Function, and Content of Nonsymbolic Communication
228(1)
Recognizing Nonsymbolic Communication
229(2)
Moving from Noncommunicative Behaviors to Nonsymbolic Communication
231(1)
Utilizing Nonsymbolic Expressive Communication
232(1)
Utilizing Nonsymbolic Receptive Communication
232(2)
Moving to Symbolic Communication
234(1)
Symbolic Communication
234(4)
Unaided Symbolic Communication
234(1)
Aided Symbolic Communication
235(1)
Selecting the Communication System
236(2)
Aided Considerations: Symbol Type
238(2)
Aided Considerations: Means of Access
240(5)
Direct Selection
240(2)
Scanning
242(1)
Encoding
243(2)
Aided Considerations: Vocabulary and Retrieval
245(2)
Levels
245(1)
Picture-Based Acceleration Techniques
245(1)
Abbreviation Expansion
246(1)
Predictive Techniques
246(1)
Output Methods
247(1)
Voice Outputs
247(1)
Visual Outputs
247(1)
Hard Copy
248(1)
Content of Augmentative and Alternative Communication
248(5)
Ecological Inventory for Task-Specific Content
248(2)
School Topic Content
250(1)
Non-Task-Related (or Social) Communication
250(1)
Verifying Content
251(2)
Board Arrangement
253(6)
Symbol Placement
253(1)
Vocabulary Organization
253(5)
Vocabulary Arrangement for Receptive Communication
258(1)
Types of Displays
259(3)
Displays for Nonelectronic Communication Devices
259(3)
Displays on Dedicated Devices and Computers
262(1)
Instructional Strategies
262(8)
Establishing Want/No
263(1)
Response Prompt Strategies
264(1)
Milieu Teaching Procedures
265(1)
Environmental Arrangement Strategy
266(1)
Interrupted-Chain Strategy
267(1)
Conversational Skill Training
267(1)
Breakdown Strategies
267(3)
Summary and Conclusion
270(1)
Questions for Discussion
271(1)
Focus on the Net
271(1)
References
272(3)
PART III Specialized Curricula
275(124)
Feeding and Swallowing
277(32)
Why Are We Concerned with Feeding and Swallowing?
279(2)
Typical Feeding and Swallowing Development
281(3)
Characteristics of Typical Oral-Motor Development
281(3)
Characteristics of Typical Respiratory Development
284(3)
Typical Respiratory Coordination with Oral and Pharyngeal Activities
285(2)
Feeding and Swallowing in Children with Neuromotor Involvement
287(6)
Atypical Oral-Motor Activity
287(3)
Atypical Respiratory Function
290(1)
The Comprehensive Evaluation Process
290(3)
Feeding and Swallowing Intervention
293(13)
Carryover Activities
293(1)
Positioning for Mealtime Feeding
293(5)
Selection of Feeding Utensils
298(1)
Choosing Appropriate Foods and Liquids
298(1)
Preparation of the Oral Mechanism
299(1)
Direct Help for the Jaw, Lips, and Tongue
300(2)
Cup Drinking
302(1)
Spoon-Feeding
303(1)
Solid Food
303(2)
Stimulating Respiratory Coordination with Oral and Pharyngeal Activities
305(1)
Summary and Conclusion
306(1)
Questions for Discussion
306(1)
Focus on the Net
306(1)
References
307(2)
Adaptations for Personal Independence
309(28)
Assessment and Instruction of Personal Management Skills
310(2)
Hygiene Skills
312(5)
Hand Washing
313(1)
Face and Body Washing
313(1)
Hair Brushing
314(1)
Oral Hygiene
314(2)
Tissue Use
316(1)
Feminine Hygiene
316(1)
Basic Self-Help Skills: Eating and Toileting
317(2)
Tube Feeding, Catheterization, and Colostomy Care
319(3)
Tube Feeding
320(1)
Catheterization
320(1)
Colostomy Care
321(1)
Students Performing Their Own Health Care Procedures
321(1)
Dressing
322(4)
Helping Individuals Learn Dressing Skills
322(1)
Adapted Clothing and Adapted Dressing Devices
323(3)
Home Care and Management
326(4)
Kitchen Tasks
327(2)
Housecleaning
329(1)
Technology and Environmental Control
330(1)
Community-Based Instruction
330(3)
Anticipating Architectural Barriers
330(2)
Shopping
332(1)
Summary and Conclusion
333(1)
Questions for Discussion
333(1)
Focus on the Net
334(1)
References
334(3)
Adaptations in Physical Education, Leisure Education, and Recreation
337(30)
Adapted Physical Education
338(5)
Collaboration with Adapted Physical Education Specialists
339(1)
Assessment
340(2)
Individualized Education Program Planning
342(1)
Adapting Physical Education Activities
343(5)
Planning for Adaptations
344(2)
Instructional Program
346(1)
Instructional Strategies
346(2)
Safety Issues
348(1)
From the Classroom to the Community
348(1)
Leisure Education and Recreation
348(12)
Leisure Education Program Development
349(1)
Leisure Education Program Areas
350(1)
Creative Domains
350(1)
Special Interests
351(2)
Science and Technology Domains
353(3)
Recreation Domains
356(3)
Travel
359(1)
Sports
360(2)
Wheelchair Racing
360(1)
Racquet and Arm Sports
361(1)
Winter or Summer
361(1)
Summary and Conclusion
362(1)
Questions for Discussion
362(1)
Focus on the Net
363(2)
References
365(2)
Transition and Self-Determination
367(32)
Surmounting Barriers to Employment
369(3)
Physical Self-Reliance
369(1)
Valid Self-Evaluation
370(1)
Enhanced Self-Adaptability and Self-Determination
370(2)
Teaching Career and Transition Education from Early Childhood
372(12)
Career Awareness
373(1)
Career Exploration
373(5)
Career Preparation
378(5)
Career Placement/Follow-up and Continuing Education
383(1)
Making the Transition from School to Employment
384(10)
Students with High Abilities
384(2)
Students with Severe Physical and/or Multiple Disabilities
386(1)
Assessment for Transition Planning
386(8)
Summary and Conclusion
394(1)
Questions for Discussion
395(1)
Focus on the Net
396(1)
References
397(2)
PART IV Core Curriculum Adaptations and Instructional Strategies
399(146)
Adaptations and Instruction in Literacy and Language Arts
401(40)
Literacy Barriers
401(2)
Restricted Language and Participation
401(1)
Lack of Motor Ability
402(1)
Individual Factors
402(1)
Lack of Experiences
402(1)
Learning Environment and Instruction
402(1)
Addressing Literacy Barriers
403(7)
Addressing Communication Barriers
403(2)
Addressing Physical Efficiency Areas
405(3)
Addressing Individual Considerations
408(1)
Addressing Experiential Deficits
409(1)
Addressing the Learning Environment and Instructional Barriers
409(1)
Emergent and Beginning Literacy
410(6)
Book and Print Awareness
410(2)
Storybook Reading with Adaptations
412(1)
Repeated Reading and Promoting Choice
413(1)
Phonemic Awareness
414(1)
Letter--Sound Correspondence
415(1)
Software Programs Addressing Beginning Literacy Skills
416(1)
Conventional Literacy: Approaches and Assessment
416(2)
Assessment of Conventional Reading Skills
417(1)
Conventional Literacy: Phonics
418(6)
Adapting Phonic Instruction: The Nonverbal Reading Approach
419(5)
Teaching Multiple-Syllable Words
424(1)
Conventional Literacy: Vocabulary Instruction
424(2)
Promoting Vocabulary Development with Symbols
424(2)
Conventional Literacy: Fluency
426(1)
Conventional Literacy: Text Comprehension
426(4)
Teaching Comprehension
427(1)
Basic Comprehension Strategy
428(2)
Software and Specialized Curricula for Reading
430(1)
Functional Literacy: Reading
431(4)
Vocabulary Selection: Ecological Assessment
431(1)
Instructional Strategies
432(3)
Summary and Conclusion
435(1)
Questions for Discussion
435(1)
Focus on the Net
435(1)
References
436(5)
Adaptations and Instruction in Writing
441(30)
Identifying and Addressing Writing Barriers
441(2)
Literacy Skills: Accessing Writing Tools
443(14)
Handheld Writing Tools and Paper Adaptations
444(2)
Handwriting Skills
446(3)
Electronic Writing Tools: Computers
449(7)
Keyboarding Skills and Computer Tools
456(1)
Literacy Skills: Spelling
457(2)
Assessing Spelling
457(1)
Spelling Instruction
458(1)
Spelling Tools
459(1)
Computer Programs for Spelling
459(1)
Literacy Skills: Written Expression
459(5)
Assessing Written Expression
459(2)
Early Written Expression
461(1)
Written Expression Instruction
462(2)
Software Support for Written Expression
464(1)
Literacy Skills: Functional Writing
464(1)
Assessment of Functional Writing
464(1)
Functional Writing Strategies
465(1)
Summary and Conclusion
465(1)
Questions for Discussion
466(1)
Focus on the Net
466(1)
References
467(4)
Adaptations and Instruction in Science and Social Studies
471(30)
Lesson Preparation
471(8)
Determining Content
472(1)
Evaluating and Adapting Instructional Material
472(3)
Assessing Students' Background Knowledge
475(1)
Determining Modifications for Students with Physical or Multiple Disabilities
476(3)
Lesson Presentation
479(7)
Prelesson Activities
479(2)
Presenting New Materials and Guided Practice
481(5)
Independent Practice of Material
486(1)
Evaluating Content Knowledge
486(1)
Social Studies Curriculum Considerations
487(2)
Social Studies Defined
487(1)
Process Skills for Social Studies
487(1)
Social Studies Curriculum Design and Adaptations
488(1)
Social Studies Software
489(1)
Science Curriculum Considerations
489(7)
Science Defined
489(1)
Process Skills for Science
490(1)
Science Curriculum Design and Adaptations
490(6)
Science Software
496(1)
Summary and Conclusion
496(1)
Questions for Discussion
497(1)
Focus on the Net
497(1)
References
497(4)
Adaptations and Instruction in Mathematics
501(44)
Barriers in Mathematics
501(1)
Assessing Math Skills
502(5)
Standardized Achievement Tests for Mathematics
504(1)
Diagnostic Tests of Math Performance
504(1)
Curriculum-Based Measurement
505(1)
Informal Teacher-Constructed Tests
505(1)
Portfolio Assessment
505(1)
Error Analysis
505(2)
General Approaches and Principles of Math Instruction
507(3)
Building on Previous Learning
507(1)
Systematic and Explicit Instruction
507(1)
Active Involvement of Students
508(1)
Learning Strategies
508(1)
Computer-Assisted Instruction
509(1)
Adaptations and Attitudes
509(1)
Beginning Math Skills
510(8)
Prenumber Skills
510(1)
Counting
511(3)
Numerals and Place Values
514(4)
Software for Early Math Skills
518(1)
Computational Skills: Addition and Subtraction
518(7)
Math Rules for Addition and Subtraction
521(1)
Addition and Subtraction Algorithms
521(3)
Addition and Subtraction Sequences
524(1)
Computational Skills for Multiplication and Division
525(4)
Multiplication and Division Rules
525(1)
Heuristic Strategies
526(1)
Multiplication and Division Algorithms
526(3)
Multiplication and Division Sequences
529(1)
Software for Computational Skills
529(1)
Calculator Use
530(1)
Word Problems
530(1)
General and Advanced Math Skills
531(1)
Functional Math Skills
531(8)
Money
534(2)
Time
536(2)
Calendar Use
538(1)
Summary and Conclusion
539(1)
Questions for Discussion
539(1)
Focus on the Net
540(1)
References
541(4)
Author Index 545(8)
Subject Index 553

Excerpts

This text was originally authored by June L. Bigge with invited contributors; Sherwood J. Best and Kathryn Wolff Heller joined her in the fourth edition. It has become the preeminent text for teachers of students who have physical, health, or multiple disabilities. This edition builds on the foundation of the previous editions, and June Bigge continues to guide and inspire our efforts. The book is designed for use by family members, educators, related-service providers, administrators, paraprofessionals, and others who provide services to individuals with physical, health, or multiple disabilities. It meets the needs of service providers in three ways. First, it describes specific physical and health impairments with attention to their educational and psychosocial implications. Second, it illustrates accommodations and modifications that promote access to the curriculum and participation in home and community environments. Third, it addresses curricular issues in a comprehensive manner, thereby serving as a resource for family members and service providers. This edition contains both similarities to and differences from the fourth edition. The focus on assistive technology has been retained, as have most chapters from the previous edition. Knowledge and skill statements, questions for discussion, and "Focus on the Net" remain to extend the reader's interaction with the subject matter. The differences are in the conceptual and structural improvements to this edition. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK This fifth edition contains 16 chapters organized within four major parts. Part I, "Impact and Implications of Physical, Health, and Multiple Disabilities," provides foundational knowledge and describes a variety of specific physical and health impairments and their implications. Chapter 1 provides definitions, explains current laws, and explores issues in the lives of individuals with physical, health, or multiple disabilities. This chapter orients educators and others to historical and current perspectives on disability that shape policy and practice in education. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 introduce specific physical and health disabilities, with definitions; descriptions of associated medical conditions; and discussions of the impact of disability on physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development. Readers are urged to explore these and other disabilities further through Internet resources. Part II, "Accommodations for Curricular Access," contains information that assists educators in individualizing curricula for individuals with physical or multiple disabilities, with an emphasis on improved academic access and quality of life. Chapter 5 introduces the theme of accommodation by providing a model for planning and designing courses of study for students with disabilities. It includes accommodations and modifications of the general education curriculum and curricula in modified means of communication and task performance. Chapter 6 adds explanatory power to the model presented in the previous chapter by providing strategies for developing task and situation analyses to individualize curricula. An important aspect of this chapter is differentiating task difficulties that arise from either motor or cognitive challenges. Chapter 7 incorporates materials from two chapters in the previous edition. The first half of the chapter is focused on assistive technology (AT) assessment, and the second half provides practical AT solutions. This chapter also addresses the critical need for appropriate positioning, seating, and mobility. Chapter 8 concludes this part of the book with a focused discussion of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), one of the fastest-growing knowledge areas in special education and related services. Part III, "Specialized Curricula," focuses on unique needs of individuals with physical, health, or multiple disabilities. Feeding and swallowing issues are addressed in Chapter 9. A dis


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