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Teaching in the Middle School,9780131132016
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Teaching in the Middle School

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780131132016

ISBN10:
0131132016
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2005
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

For general Middle School Methods courses.Based on the belief that effective middle school teaching practices must be developmentally responsive, this core text provides an insightful introduction to young adolescents ages 10 to 15, and to the middle school and middle school movement. Coverage balances the practical and the theoretical to provide all of the essential knowledge today's middle school teacher needs concerning the development and characteristics of adolescents; principles, goals, and attributes of the middle school movement; and, organization, curricula, strategies, and concepts of contemporary middle schools. The authors emphasize the diversity of adolescents - in development, culture, gender, and sexual orientation - and the importance that these differences portend for educational experiences and guidance efforts.

Table of Contents

Part I Understanding Middle Schools and Young Adolescents
1(60)
Middle Schools Today--Concepts and Teaching
3(25)
Scenario---The First Day of Student Teaching
4(1)
Overview
5(1)
Objectives
5(1)
A Brief History of the Junior High School and the Middle School
5(2)
Junior High Schools
5(1)
Middle Schools
6(1)
Middle Schools
7(2)
Definition
7(1)
Rationale
7(1)
Major Differences Between Middle Schools and Junior High Schools
8(1)
Middle School Students---Young Adolescents
9(1)
Middle Schools: Today and Tomorrow---Selected Concepts
9(10)
Developmentally Responsive
9(1)
Theory into Practice 1-1 Determining a Middle School's Developmental Responsiveness
10(1)
High Expectations and Success for All Students
11(1)
School Climate and Heterogeneous Learning Communities
11(1)
One Adult Advocate for Each Student
12(1)
Curriculum
13(2)
Instruction
15(1)
Assessment
15(1)
Diversity Perspectives 1-1 Differentiating Instruction for Diverse Learners
16(1)
Organization---Interdisciplinary Teams
17(1)
Guidance and Counseling
18(1)
Family and Community Partnerships
19(1)
Directions for Effective Middle Schools
19(4)
Keeping Current with Technology 1--1
22(1)
Case Study 1--1 Implementing Middle School Concepts
23(1)
Teaching in the Middle School: Questions to Consider
23(3)
What Are Young Adolescents Really Like?
24(1)
What Does Middle School Teaching Require?
24(2)
Closing Remarks
26(1)
Suggested Readings
26(1)
Developing Your Portfolio
27(1)
Young Adolescents--Development and Issues
28(33)
Scenario---Ms. Ortega Reflects
29(1)
Overview
29(1)
Objectives
30(1)
Generalizations About Development---The Need for Caution
30(1)
Young Adolescent Development
31(2)
Physical Development
33(8)
Selected Physical Developmental Characteristics
33(1)
Implications and Issues
34(4)
What Can Middle Level Teachers Do?
38(3)
Keeping Current with Technology 2--1
41(1)
Psychosocial Development
41(10)
Selected Psychosocial Developmental Characteristics
42(1)
Implications and Issues
43(1)
Diversity Perspectives 2--1 Emotional Intelligence and School Transition
44(3)
What Can Middle Level Teachers Do?
47(4)
Cognitive Development
51(8)
Theory into Practice 2--1 Multiple Intelligences
52(1)
Selected Cognitive Developmental Characteristics
53(1)
Implications and Suggestions for Educators
53(1)
Case Study 2--1 Jason---A Troubled 13-Year-Old
54(5)
Closing Remarks
59(1)
Suggested Readings
59(1)
Developing Your Portfolio
60(1)
Part II Developing the Curriculum and Organizing the School
61(56)
Middle School Curriculum--Core and Related Domains
63(29)
Scenario---The Williams Middle School Curriculum Committee
64(1)
Overview
65(1)
Objectives
65(1)
Curriculum Definitions
65(1)
Curriculum Frameworks
66(1)
Curriculum Standards
67(2)
Keeping Current with Technology 3--1
68(1)
Developmentally Responsive Middle School Curriculum
69(1)
Core Curriculum
70(10)
English/Language Arts/Communication Skills
70(2)
Social Studies
72(1)
Case Study 3--1 Developmentally Responsive Language Arts
73(2)
Science
75(2)
Mathematics
77(3)
Related Domains
80(10)
Diversity Perspectives 3--1 Promoting Equity in Mathematics Classrooms
81(1)
Developmental Responsiveness of the Related Domains
81(1)
Art Education
82(1)
Information Literacy
83(2)
Theory into Practice 3--1 A Middle School Curriculum
85(1)
Music
86(1)
Physical Education and Health
87(1)
Theory into Practice 3--2 Teaching Healthy Choices
88(1)
Vocational/Career Education
89(1)
Closing Remarks
90(1)
Suggested Readings
90(1)
Developing Your Portfolio
91(1)
Middle School Curriculum--Integrated and Exploratory
92(25)
Scenario---Mr. Costa Considers the Curriculum
93(1)
Overview
93(1)
Objectives
94(1)
Contemporary Curriculum Perspectives
94(1)
Integrated Curriculum
95(2)
Definitions
95(1)
Rationale
95(2)
Components of an Integrated Curriculum
97(1)
The Intersection of Personal Concerns and Social Issues
98(1)
Integrated Curriculum: Themes, Questions, and Concerns
99(1)
Role of Teacher
99(1)
Role of Learner
100(4)
Theory into Practice 4--1 Teaching the Theme of Relationships
101(1)
Role of School Library Media Specialist
102(1)
Use of Resources
102(1)
Methods of Assessment
103(1)
Theory into Practice 4--2 Integrated Curriculum and High-Stakes Testing
104(1)
Additional Information
104(4)
Keeping Current with Technology 4--1
105(1)
Other Perspectives on Integrated Curriculum
106(2)
Diversity Perspectives 4--1 Multiple Intelligences, Diverse Talents, and Musical Theater
108(1)
Exploratory Curriculum/Programs
108(4)
Definition and Description
108(1)
Case Study 4--1 A School Restructures the Curriculum
109(1)
Teachers' Roles
110(1)
Topics
110(2)
Functions
112(1)
Essentials of Exploratories
112(1)
Selected Considerations for Developing Middle School Curriculum
112(2)
Closing Remarks
114(1)
Suggested Readings
114(1)
Developing Your Portfolio
115(2)
Part III Planning, Implementing, and Assessing Instruction
117(118)
Planning Instruction---Appropriate and Interdisciplinary
119(24)
Scenario---Karyn Rothmer's Journal
120(1)
Overview
121(1)
Objectives
121(1)
Rationale for Detailed and Methodical Planning
122(1)
Factors Affecting Middle School Instructional Planning
122(3)
Young Adolescent Development, Needs, and Interests
122(1)
District Curriculum Guides and State and National Mandates
123(1)
Textbooks
124(1)
Individual Teachers
124(1)
Interdisciplinary Team Organization and Interdisciplinary Instruction
125(4)
Team Organization: Multiage Teams and Looping
128(1)
Interdisciplinary Instructional Planning
129(12)
Planning Instruction---An Overview
129(1)
Remaining Flexible When Planning
129(1)
Involving Young Adolescents in Planning
130(1)
Selecting Topics and/or Themes
131(1)
Keeping Current with Technology 5--1
132(1)
Determining Goals and Objectives
133(1)
Tying the Interdisciplinary Unit Together
133(1)
Planning Instructional Strategies for Young Adolescents
134(1)
Allowing for Individual Differences
134(1)
Theory into Practice 5--1 Inquiry and Young Adolescent Minds
135(1)
Selecting Resources for Interdisciplinary Instruction
135(1)
Diversity Perspectives 5--1 Different Learning Styles
136(1)
Theory into Practice 5--2 A Checklist for Evaluation of Instructional Materials
137(1)
Scheduling for Interdisciplinary Instruction
138(1)
Planning for Students at Risk of Failure
138(1)
Case Study 5--1 The Osprey Team Plans a Unit
139(2)
Closing Remarks
141(1)
Suggested Readings
141(1)
Developing Your Portfolio
142(1)
Implementing Instruction--Methods and Materials
143(30)
Scenario---A First-Year Teacher Needs Help
144(1)
Overview
145(1)
Objectives
145(1)
Young Adolescents---Implementing Considerations
146(3)
Abilities and Achievement
146(1)
Interest and Relevance
147(1)
Culture and Gender
148(1)
Keeping Current with Technology 6--1
148(1)
Organizing for Instruction
149(2)
Flexible Scheduling
149(1)
Block Schedules
149(2)
Implementing Interdisciplinary Team Teaching
151(4)
Definitions
151(1)
Case Study 6--1 Brookside Adopts a Block Schedule
152(1)
Rationales
153(1)
Teachers' Roles in Interdisciplinary Team Teaching
154(1)
Benchmarks of Effective Teams
154(1)
Implementing Effective Instruction in Middle Schools
155(5)
Committing to Heterogeneous Grouping and Inclusive Classrooms
155(1)
Varying the Composition and Size of Instructional Groups
156(1)
Collaborating with the School Library Media Specialist and Other Teachers in the Related Domains
156(1)
Diversity Perspectives 6--1 Strategies for Inclusive Environments
157(1)
Focusing on Self-Exploration, Self-Directed Learning, and Student Selection of Activities Based on Personal Experiences
158(1)
Collaborating with Special Educators
159(1)
Using Effective Teaching Behaviors
160(3)
Research on Effective Teaching Behaviors
160(1)
Jere Brophy and ``Withitness''
160(2)
Herbert Walberg and Productive Time on Task
162(1)
Selecting Instructional Methods and Strategies
163(1)
Special Characteristics of Middle School Teachers
163(5)
Instruction for Special Learners
168(2)
Special Needs
168(1)
Gifted
169(1)
Theory into Practice 6--1 IEP Objectives and Curriculum and Instruction
170(1)
Closing Remarks
170(1)
Suggested Readings
171(1)
Developing Your Portfolio
172(1)
Assessment of Learning--Methods and Issues
173(26)
Scenario---Changes at Longview Middle School
174(1)
Overview
175(1)
Objectives
175(1)
Assessment Terminology---Definitions
176(2)
Assessment of Learning---Perceptions
178(2)
Assessment---Rationale and Purposes
180(1)
Assessment---Traditional Methods
181(4)
Assessment Measurement Techniques
181(1)
Assessment Instruments
182(1)
Types of Traditional Assessments
183(2)
Authentic/Alternative Assessments
185(3)
The Need for Authentic Assessments
185(1)
Characteristics of Effective Alternative Assessment
186(1)
Alternative Assessment Formats
186(2)
Assessment---Evaluation of Traditional and Authentic Assessments
188(3)
Effective Grading Methods
188(1)
Rubrics
189(1)
Observational Checklists
189(1)
Theory into Practice 7--1 Rubric for a Hypermedia Project
190(1)
Theory into Practice 7--2 Simple Rubric for a Presentation
191(1)
Assessment---Reporting
191(1)
Grade and Progress Reports
191(1)
Conferences with Parents
192(1)
Assessment---Developmentally Responsive in Middle Schools
192(2)
Keeping Current with Technology 7--1
193(1)
Assessment---Issues
194(3)
Criticisms and Negative Effects on Student Learning
194(1)
Culture, Gender, and Other Forms of Diversity
194(1)
Diversity Perspectives 7--1 Standards for Diverse Learners
195(1)
Case Study 7--1 Young Adolescent Differences and Assessment
196(1)
Multiple Grading Systems
197(1)
Closing Remarks
197(1)
Suggested Readings
197(1)
Developing Your Portfolio
198(1)
Managing Young Adolescents and Environments---Strategies and Techniques
199(36)
Scenario---Westview Middle School Educators Tackle the School Environment
200(1)
Overview
201(1)
Objectives
201(1)
Understanding Positive Middle School Learning Environments
202(4)
Definition and Characteristics
203(1)
The Need for Developmental Responsiveness
204(1)
A Sense of Community
205(1)
Rationale for Communities
205(1)
Designing Positive Middle School Learning Environments
206(2)
Theory into Practice 8--1 Building a Learning Community
206(1)
Case Study 8--1 Creating a Positive School Environment at Westview
207(1)
Classroom Management in the Middle School
208(3)
Understanding Young Adolescents' Misbehaviors
209(1)
Theory into Practice 8--2 Foundations of Middle School Classroom Management
210(1)
Understanding Selected Classroom Management Theorists
211(18)
Singular Models
214(2)
Democratic and Cooperative Classrooms
216(5)
Effective Teaching
221(2)
Positiveness and Dignity
223(6)
Developing a Personal Theory of Classroom Management
229(3)
Keeping Current with Technology 8--1
230(2)
Diversity Perspectives 8--1 Safety for Gay and Lesbian Students
232(1)
Closing Remarks
232(1)
Suggested Readings
233(1)
Developing Your Portfolio
234(1)
Part IV Guiding Students and Working with External Communities
235(50)
Guiding Young Adolescents--Teachers and Counselors
237(22)
Scenario---Kim Matusi and the Guidance Team
238(1)
Overview
238(1)
Objectives
239(1)
Guidance in Middle Schools
239(5)
Differences Between Elementary and Secondary Schools
240(1)
Functions of Middle School Guidance Programs
241(2)
Guidance for a Diverse Population
243(1)
Diversity Perspectives 9--1 Working with Native Youth
244(1)
Team and Collaborative Approaches to Guidance
244(3)
Advantages of Teachers and Counselors Working Collaboratively
244(1)
Coordinating Professionals' and Parents' Efforts
245(2)
Advisor--Advisee Programs
247(5)
Definition and Goals
247(3)
Theory into Practice 9--1 Advisories: What Works and Does Not Work
250(1)
Roles of Teachers, Counselors, and Administrators
250(2)
Guidelines for Effective Advisory Programs
252(1)
Advisory Plans
252(4)
Theory into Practice 9--2 Sample Advisory Plan
253(1)
Case Study 9--1 Lost Lake Develops an Advisor--Advisee Program
254(2)
Need for Specialized Services
256(1)
Keeping Current with Technology 9--1
256(1)
Closing Remarks
257(1)
Suggested Readings
257(1)
Developing Your Portfolio
258(1)
Parents, Families, and Community Members--Partners and Resources
259(26)
Scenario---Encouraging Community Involvement
260(1)
Overview
261(1)
Objectives
261(1)
Reengaging Parents and Families in Middle Schools
262(4)
Rationale for Including Parents, Families, and Community Members
262(1)
Disengagement and Reengagement
263(1)
Obstacles to Reengagement
264(1)
Cultural Considerations: Reengaging Parents and Families from Varying Cultural Backgrounds
264(1)
Suggestions for Reengagement
265(1)
Parents and Middle Schools
266(1)
Diversity Perspectives 10--1 Multicultural Aspects of Parent Involvement
267(1)
What Do Parents Want from Schools?
267(1)
Parents' Concerns About Middle Schools
268(1)
Parent--Teacher Conferences
269(1)
Effective and Ongoing Communication
270(7)
Widening the Scope of Parental Involvement
271(1)
Essential Elements of Effective Programs
272(1)
Theory into Practice 10--1 Involving Parents and Community in School Improvement
273(1)
Involving Special Groups: Limited-English-Speaking Skills; Single Parents and Nontraditional Families; and Fathers
274(2)
Keeping Current with Technology 10--1
276(1)
Parent Education Programs for Parents of Young Adolescents
277(4)
Publicity
277(1)
Case Study 10--1 Seldon Way Implements Parent Education
278(2)
Topics
280(1)
Communities and Young Adolescents
281(1)
Young Adolescents and Service Learning
281(1)
Communities Serving Young Adolescents
282(1)
Closing Remarks
282(1)
Suggested Readings
283(1)
Developing Your Portfolio
283(2)
Epilogue Middle Schools of the Future
285(10)
Middle Schools: The Beginning and Rationale
286(1)
Documents, Position Papers, and Reports
286(1)
Directions
287(1)
Present Status
287(1)
Young Adolescents
287(3)
Recognition of the Developmental Period
287(1)
Increasing Research Base
288(1)
Contemporary Perspectives
288(1)
Challenges to Middle Schools and Young Adolescents
289(1)
Teaching in the Middle Schools---Challenges
290(3)
Seeking Professional Preparation: Young Adolescents and Middle School Education
291(1)
Committing to Teach Middle Schoolers
291(1)
Serving as Advocates for Young Adolescents
292(1)
Providing Developmentally Responsive Educational Experiences
292(1)
Engaging in Research to Determine What Works
292(1)
The Future
293(2)
Push for Excellence
293(1)
Collaborative Efforts---Administrators, Teachers, Teacher Educators, Parents, State Departments of Education, and the Community
293(1)
A Time for Responsive Action
294(1)
Glossary 295(7)
References 302(15)
Name Index 317(6)
Subject Index 323

Excerpts

There is more support for change in education now than at any other time in my memory . . . . A number of trends . . . will indeed bring about the kind of fundamental change that has long been needed. If we do not assume the initiative, however, the gains we have made and the supportive climate are likely to fade, and several more decades would pass before another time as ripe for reform would come along (John H. Lounsbury).This statement was made, during an interview, by John H. Lounsbury (Manning, 1997), one of the founding fathers of the middle school movement. As Lounsbury indicated, the events of the past 10 to 15 years have placed major emphasis on understanding young adolescents and implementing effective middle school practices. Several state departments of education, the Children's Defense Fund (CDF), the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, the National Middle School Association (NMSA), the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP), and the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) have led the way. The result has been the increasing acceptance of middle schools, the increasing knowledge about young adolescents and their developmental period, and the increasing recognition that middle school teaching methods need to be developmentally responsive. This does not mean that the battle for acceptance of the middle school concept is over; rather, it means that middle school educators need to take advantage of the momentum and to continue to implement genuine reforms in middle school education.Our challenge in writing this book was to find a way to take all of the information about young adolescents and middle schools and translate it into a 10chapter book. We also wanted to balance the practical and the theoretical, for it is our belief that a mixture of the two is necessary. Thus, in this book, we wanted to provide both preservice and in-service teachers with basic information about young adolescents, ages 10 to 15. We also wanted to provide a solid core of essential knowledge about middle schools, including information about young adolescent development, middle school organization, core and exploratory curricula, middle school instructional strategies, and essential middle school concepts. Our aim was to emphasize young adolescents' diversity (developmental, cultural, gender, and sexual orientation) and the importance of these differences reflected in educational experiences and guidance efforts. In determining "what effective middle schools and teachers do," we used respected documents such asThis We Believe(the official position paper of the National Middle School Association, 2003),This We Believe . . . And Now We Must Act(National Middle School Association, 2001),Great Transitions: Preparing Adolescents for a New Century(Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, 1996), andTurning Points: Preparing American Youth for the 21st Century(Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, 1989). Last, we wanted a strong research base, and a focus on teaching methods, strategies, materials, resources, and technology.This book is the result of our work. It is our hope that through our scenarios, case studies, and anecdotes we have captured the practical essence of young adolescents and middle schools. We also hope that our narrative, explanations of research, references, and recommended readings present both the philosophical and the pedagogical foundations of middle school education. RATIONALE FORTEACHING IN THE MIDDLE SCHOOLAs we wroteTeaching in the Middle School,our overarching goal (albeit lofty, we admit) was to improve the lives and educational experiences of young adolescents. Reflecting this, our specific objectives were to (a) tell readers about middle schools today--what they are and what they can become; (b) describe young adolescents and their developmental perio


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