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Ideal for introductory music education, philosophy and psychology of music education, and music education methods courses, Teaching for Musical Understanding explains current research-based theories of how students learn in order to show prospective and practicing music teachers how to teach effectively. Author Jackie Wiggins draws on her twenty-two years of experience teaching K-12 music and twenty years of teaching in higher education to demonstrate how theory applies to music education. The text is deeply grounded in the work of social constructivist theorists and researchers in both education and music education.
The third edition takes a cultural psychology perspective, giving more attention to sociocultural influences and to the roles of learner agency in learning process. It includes in-depth examples of assessment practices in music classrooms, stories "from the trenches," and more extensive use of endnotes and citations.
Jackie Wiggins is Professor of Music Education and Chair of the Department of Music, Theatre, and Dance at Oakland University.
Table of Contents
1. Learning: An Embodied, Constructive Process Contemporary Understandings About Learning Understanding as Schema Understanding as Metaphor Understanding as Image Understanding as Embodied Implications for Teaching Contexts for Learning Selected Resources
2. Learning: A Sociocultural, Constructive Process A Social Constructivist Vision of Learning Scaffolding Learning is a Holistic Process Learning is Experiential, Not Necessarily Sequential Learning Requires Learner Agency Learner Agency and Teacher Power A Social Constructivist Music Learning Community Selected Resources
3. Learning Music through Embodied, Constructive Process Conceptualizing Music Our Metaphorical Understanding of Music Concepts Elements or Dimensions of Music? Metadimensions of Music Dimensions as Points of Entry: A Doorway In How do we Construct our Concepts of Music? Constructing Concepts in Context Teaching for Musical Understanding Selected Resources
4. Learning Music through Sociocultural, Constructive Process Teacher Role: Scaffolding Learners Scaffolding Learners Establishing a Supportive Learning Environment Finding Out What Learners Know Encouraging Expression of Musical Ideas Focusing Learner Energy Monitoring Learner Understanding and Progress Providing a Model of Musicianship Learner Roles A Social Constructivist Music Learning Community Selected Resources
5. Music Learning as Musical Problem Solving Learning Through Problem Solving Learning and Teaching Music Through Problem Solving Planning Musical Problems What Will Learners Be Learning? The Musical Context Organizing the Experience Assessment Lesson Planning Planning the Problem Selected Resources
6. Performing, Listening and Creating Problems Performing Problems Listening Problems Creating Problems Composing and Arranging Media for Composing Musical Dimensions as Points of Entry for Composing Organizing Small-Group Composing Songwriting Improvising Dimensions as Points of Entry for Improvising Improvising Within Structures Music Learners as Creative Musicians Selected Resources
7. Thinking About Learners in Planning Musical Problems Entry-level Experiences for Young Learners Singing Moving Playing Creating Listening Notating Technology Nature of Problems for Young Learners Entry-level Experiences for Older Beginners Middle-Level Experiences More Complex Experiences Sample Lesson and Unit Plans
8. Entry-Level Musical Problems Lesson 8.1 Identifying and Representing Beat Lesson 8.2 Identifying and Representing Duration and Pitch Lesson 8.3 (For Older Beginners) Entry-Level Exploration of Pitch and Duration Lesson 8.4 Exploring Contour and Direction through Listening Lesson 8.5 Using a Song to Develop a Class Performance Lesson 8.6 Experiencing Style Lesson 8.7 A Musical Conversation Sample of Student Work
9. Middle-Level Musical Problems Lesson 9.1 Experiencing and Creating with Dynamics Sample of Student Work Lesson 9.2 Analyzing and Creating a Melody Samples of Student Work Lesson 9.3 Effects of Tempo Change Sample of Student Work Lesson 9.4 Timbre: Using Alternate Sound Sources Lesson 9.5 Tonal Center Lesson 9.6 What Do You Hear?
10. Planning Units of Study Planning a Unit on Texture Unit: Texture Lesson 10.1 Melody and Countermelody Lesson 10.2 Representing Texture (Score Reading) Lesson 10.3 Solo and Ensemble Sample Student Work Unit: Monothematic Works Lesson 10.5 Creating Interest through Expressive Qualities Qualities Samples of Student Work Unit: Meter (2-4 Class Sessions) Lesson 10.6 Identifying Meter (1 Session) Lesson 10.7 Compose a Piece That Changes Meter Unit: Arranging a Round Lesson 10.8 Learning the Round Lesson 10.9 Arranging the Round Sample of Student Work
11. Complex Musical Problems Unit: Bithematic Forms (Verse and Refrain, ABA Form, etc.) (3-6 Class Sessions) Lesson 11.1 Hearing Bithematic Form Lesson 11.2 Composing in Bithematic Form Samples of Student Work Lesson 11.3 A More Extended Bithematic Work Unit: Harmonic Structure (4 Sessions) Lesson 11.4 Introducing Tonic and Dominant Harmonies Lesson 11.5 Using Tonic and Dominant Harmonies Sample of Student Work Lesson 11.6 Hearing Tonic, Dominant, and Subdominant Harmonies Lesson 11.7 Singing Chordal Harmonies Unit: Theme and Variation (6-8 Sessions) Lesson 11.8 Introducing the Idea of Variation Lesson 11.9 Analyzing a Theme and Variation Lesson 11.10 Composing Variations on a Theme Samples of Student Work Unit: The Blues (4-6 Sessions) Lesson 11.11 Introducing the Blues Unit: Variations On A Ground Bass (6-8 Sessions) Extension Sample of Student Work
12. Connecting to Other Ways of Understanding Interdisciplinary Learning in K-12 Settings Interdisciplinary Learning through Process and Conceptual Connections Process Connections Conceptual Connections An Arts-infused Curriculum Pathway Characterization Point of View Stories and Illustrations Egyptian Art Role of the Individual within a Group Wood Sculptures Balance Daffodils Symmetry Some Closing Thoughts Selected Resources
Epilogue Appendix A: Music for Lessons Appendix B: Classroom Materials Appendix C: Directions for Games Endnotes References Index